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Mining -at. Press 


JANUARY to JUNE, 1916 



;"'' /', I'"'. • i 


\ m :. 


Edltoi lul. 

Wll i i ■ 

Ri bert 1 B 

r.i ..f Pennsylvania railroad 

Ami miners at t »> «- Copper Queen mine 

Artlfl :,, i 

At mines, Inw r.-uiinlmK 641 

in Artaona In 1915 

aa "f 

s. Adler and F. L. Hoffmai 

. arlou* parta of the body 

P. B. McDonald, 

■ ins for small mines. .. .James E. Chapman.... 400 

a lug Job with 160 

lotatlon process tT l 

Making at Braden, Chile 

Plant .it Anaconda 

Porphyry, copper in 666 

luctton of Tennee r Co 

Sludare In flotation 

bases form suits 

iplne. Ontario 982 

Lrea <>r 173 

a. I j H st m.- nt ->t Are losses. 933 

Adler, s . and Hoffman, l-\ I. Mine accidents. . . . 291 

Adsorption, definition of 228, 3 

Aerial tramways, new 74 

After All Mines Co., Tonopuh 839 

Aftei the Wat I II Editorial 

Ion, definition of 228 

or -niter, Bunker Hill 781 

Agitators, notes on 518 

k Mining Co., company report 923 

Editorial .... 785 

Ditto P. B, McDonald 779 

Air-blasts on the Kami 394 

Compression •>( <i- \ clops heat 173 

i,lfi in leaching, the Clarke Sullivan.... ii7 

Lift submergence 564 

- -'ii ::m), r.iu 

Lifts oil 679 

AJo, ilvarl. Old Hat, Patagonia, and Twin 

Buttes districts "f Arizona 449 

Alaska, cooper production of 638 

In 1915. Inspector's report 487 

In 1915, mining in Alfred H. Brooks.... 51 

Metal production to date 912 

Mlnei tlon in 1915 756 

Railroad, progress of 876 

Requisite! i location in 964 

Surveys In 1916 453 

Trade in 1 9 1 "» 352 

Wireless In 722 

Alaska Gastineau Mining Co., company report r>7>~- 

* Concentrate, metal contents of 506 

< fold nonth. 

Mine developments 4 20 

Alaska Gold-Belt and Alaska Taku suit 6 1 7 

Alaska Gold Mines Co 4 

Ditto John Worden.... 39 

pan report 655 

Issues new stock 179 

Starts monthly reports in 

Juneau Gold Mining Co.. company report 7:'.l 

Court decision in favor of 96 1 

Progress 2?. 

Alaska Mexican Gold Mining Co.. company report 963 

Alaska Treadwell Gold Mining Co.. company report 963 

Alaska Treadwell. Mexican, and United mines to be con- 
solidated 577 

Alaska United Gold Mining Co.. company report 963 

Alcohol, use In war 221 

Alkalinity, effect on flotation 50 

Of cyanide solutions Alfred Merritt Smith. . . . 828 

Allen. A. W Clay: Its effect in ore-dressing and 

cyanidation 310 

Allen, Glenn L.. and Ralston, o. C Testing ores for the 

notation process I, IT. ...8. 44 

Allingham, John Estimating slim.-. . . . 504 

Allouez Mining Co., company report 923 

Alloys 136 

Alluvial ground in Alaska, testing 627 

Alta-Cottnnwonds district, Utah 27 

Alta Tunnel & Transportation Co 767 

Alternators, betted 59 

Altitude, gas-engine power at 312 

Aluminum, notes and prices of Every Week, 

And copper 172, 641 

Dust G. H. Clevenger 118 

Dust, cost of 602 

Dust manufacture in Oakland, California 190 

Effect of acid on 173 

Imports in 1915 ' 428 

Notes on 33 

Production of U. S. in 1915 962 

Alnnite in Utah L. O. Howard.... 468 



i .... , 


Dltl |. m 

tol on the Rand 

Industry in foreign < iti li 

Metal, foi . ik il domlnu 

1 I laws 

Rock I : ily 

^ oui !■ ..,: mil Ini i 

■ ans ami world vi. u 

^■merli Editorial! * 

Amei h Gold . tny's 

pi ivl II 

American tnstltuti ■ •■> En gin 

ADSI Hull. (ins 

Nevada section Editorial 

American Intern itl na I i oi poratlon, objects • •(... 

American Mining Congress 

^merlt an Rand §3 ndh at< In I h< 1 ■ 

American Smeltln ■- 1 '.. Edlto 

And Bunker 1 1 in & Sullivan contract 

Companj report 

New tin smelter at Perth Am hoy ....'. 152 

Smelter at Tac a complete S64 

W01 k In Mi kIi ; " ]\: t 

American Telephone & Telegraph Co., com par . »;i 1 

American Tungsten Consolidated Co 89 

lean Zinc, Lead & Smelting Co Edlto I 

Company report 

Purchases • tranbj properties Edltoi I 

Am na 1 

< Composition of '..'.'. 118 

Amparo Mining Co 7^7 

\ 111 1 gdalold, banket, conglomerate 96 

Copper deposits 

Anaconda Copper .Mining Co Editorial. .. .295, 698 

Accidents at 450 

Company report , ,, , 

Electrolytic zinc production. 139 

Progressivonoss nf 

Washoe reduction works — l. II. in 

L S, Austin. . . . 195, 304, 547 

Water concentration before flotation at 

Frederick Lalst and Albert E. Wiggin.... 446 
Analysis for tungsten, quantitative 592 

Of Ores at Inl.-rnaUonal smelter, Miami 322 

( il" Selliy slag 508 

Of Sudbury ore 58S 

1 If water of I twen's Lake. California 166 

Andes Copper Co 

Andes CoppSr Mining Co is;,, 286 

Andesites at Oatman sir. 

Andrada Mines. Ltd., dredging by 13 

Ankylostoma duodena le r. 1 1 

Another Mexican outrage Editorial. . . .76, 100 

Anthracite production of l*. S. In 1915 671 

Antimony Editorial. .. . 34 

Notes a nd prices of Every Week. 

'Crude' and 'regulus' 

Demand and prices 191 

Gold ore. treatment of 59 

Ditto * Win. Si ■ward Mann. ... 133 

Ditto I'', il. Mason.... 542 

Ditto I'\ II. Ma si m. a eorree) .... 624 

Dittc T. W. Gruetter 583 

Imports in 1915 

In Alaska 52 

In California 231 

Tn China F. L. Cole 369 

In Nevada 143 

In 1915 1S7 

Meaning of terms applied to metal 369, 371, 372 

Metallurgy of 36 

Mining in Hunan. China 337 

Ore, price of Every Week. 

Sale of in Alaska 101 

Smelters in V. S 187 

Smelting 35 

Smelting in London 123 

Veins at Bernice, Nevada Willard Mallery.,.. 556 

Antimonial lead 508 

Apex dispute, settlement of 225 

Law in Rhodesia 809 

Law of, history, of, etc 593 

Rights, waiver of Editorial. ... 774 

Suit between North Star and Empire, Grass Valley 331 

A pp. Dutch, and Sweeney mines development 723 

Apparatus for testing ores by dotation S 

Appraisal of mining stock B. Read. . . . 466 

For insurance 98 1 

Argall, Philip, and metallurgical progress — An Interview... 

T. A. Rlekard 119 

Argo mill. Colo., refining at 270 

Argonaut mine, California, notes on S76 

Arizona leads in copper production 461 

Metal output in 1915 31 

Mining in Charles P. Willis 171, 299. 947 

Mining in southern Charles F. Willis.... 149 

Notes on • 556 

Recent mine transactions in 947 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 112 

ona < con tin u< P 

School of Mines, flotation at 

Tungsten mining In Charles P. Willis.... 825 

Arizona Commercial Mining Co 

< '"i 

Arkansas Vall.\ Otorado, Strike at 

Arkansas sin* pro* 1916 m 

Zinc smelters In '<-- 

is native, In New Zealand. i- 1 

in concentrate, treatmenl "f 

Production of U. S. In 1916 

Arseno-pyrlte, teal roi 417 

Prod ' S. in 1916 US 

itl Goldfleldi on, company report 149 

Ashci nits Of trials 4 Hi 

■ I, rapid Gregory Torosslan B64 

logical Survej cannot make 

Value of Are Editorial. . 

Smelters In Australia 887 

Atlanta 248 

Mining & Ml ent bj 953 

Atlin mines, gold from E. Jacobs..., 849 

Atolla, Cal nla 

Tungsten mines of I '■■■ rles T. H . 797 

Atolla Mining ( '■■ 797 

Tungsten mill burned 

New Mill 488 

Aurora Consolidated Mines Co.. company report 6SG 

Austin, U B Bag-house al the Mldva r, the new 746 

Electrolytic zinc 434 

. . . w Lshoe reduction works. Anaconda — 

M : 

Ditto, and Parsons, A. T Prohibition In the "W 

140, 248 

Auetre ilyttc zinc production In 4i'> 

d production In L91S 447 

Itfng in 92 

Treatmenl «>f molybdenite ore In 60 

Zinc Industry Editorial 886 

Automatic <\- ■■ lc< b to pr< \ enl Interruptions in pipe-line 485 

noblles in United States 

Avery, Paul W Cyanldatlon of Flotation concentrate.... B61 

Ditto Precipitating action of carbonaceous shale in 

cyanide solutions 

Aztec gold mine, New Mexico, notes on 


m In Peru 

definition of 


at Mldvate new U s. Austin. .. . 746 

At Selby s Iter 506 

: i: Mining law. ... 649 

iur, A. M 8 ir deposit 

i N. S. Keith .... 157 

imps and fine grinding.. Henry Hanson.. 701 

John work In 

i Mining In Colorado.... 603, 831 

company report ... 7,7 I 

. Bret dividend 143 

n of IT. S. In 1915 946 

lined copper converter 

Baume and ivljy 

Baylies, R. T Opinions on Mexico, and accident to.... 686 

T. Walter, and the old Eureka mine 

tt, P. G....1 sharpening at the old Dominion 


Belt-conveyor costs 447, 

Belts, notes on 679 

Bengui d Mining Co., Philippines 88, 65 

district Nei ada 

lytic zinc process 

district. Alaska 320 

Blbllographj on n tlon 393 

Utah, In 1916 27 

i " 

s on. 




Brayton, C ) edging on Sen 

. 627 

Brazil, mane ing In 482 

Notes on 167 

. Co : 

British Columbia, mineral production of 1916 211 

New mining law 839 

Notes "ii » 720 

Britisl H>pper Co.. progress by \\o 

Brochantite, notes on 897 

Brodle, W. M. . .Metallurgy of native sliver In Chihuahua.... ::i7 

Broken Hill. Australia, differential dotation at 236 

Zinc Industry Editorial.... B87 

Broken Hill Associated Smelters Proprietary Co., plant of. . . 92 

Broken Mill Proprietary Co., corns I 963 

Broken Hill South Silver Mining Co., company report sn:i 

Brokers' clr prices Editorial.... 925 

Bromfnatlon of Cripple Creek ore 127 

, Alfred H Mining in Alaska In 1915.... 51 

Brown, ]■'. C Pachuca tanks.... 116 

1 'iti" Sunday work at the mines. .. . 889 

Brunner, Mond & Co., and electrolytic sine 4 40 

wick Consolidated Sold Mining Co., company report.. 12s 

BU bbli 333 37(J 

What Is a? 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mining and Concentre C agl 

tator-fllter 781 

And A. s, .*;■ K. 1 lo.'s contract 609 

Company report 730 

Notes on §28 

,, *"<■><■<■ the Editorial.... 199 

Bunker Hill Mines Co., company report 534 

It-house, heard in the— I. II. Ill, I V 

W. H. Storms. . . .677, 867 

tlon of 404 

Albert American boy and the mine.!!. 697 

ette, 1: S Mexican silver dollar 932 

ss, J, A Nevada Wondei pipe-line.... 134 

Ditto AVho owns a report'.'. . . . :; 7 

Burlap-table for saving tine gold 404 

Burma Mines Co., and zinc ss7 

Drilling .;, 700 

Burro Mountain Copper Co., company report 534 

Developments 177 

New min ;;;;; 530 

Business and engineers p. B. McDonald 699 

Stages In 59 

Butcharl run.- at Flat River, Missouri , 4'v' 

On Willi. ■> tables ' 4 4 5 

Butte, .Momana 174, 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Railway Co., company report 767 
4 Superloi Copper Co., and Elm Orlu Mining Co., 

suit decision ]-, 1 171 

C my report ....!. !!!828! 691 

Metal output In 1915 526 

Mill, comparison of results .!.! ggg 


Buying, first cost of 13 j 


one. Nevada 480 

1 awk ■ 1 1 ball-mill at la 7 

at Selby works 508 

lie 642 


li: tlci modern P. B. McDonald .... 788 

Bleacl of 

■ A Electric theory of dotation ... 849 

to Why is notation? 

- iti mines 268 

ii 1 3 

Notes on 562 

Tin I Ited in I". S 172 

on,.. Alaska 53 

364, 670 

platinum at tie- 

Frank A. Crampton. . . 179 

Ditto Adolph Knopf.... 623 

New York res for ml pltal 

I re Ill 

tdo, tungsten district of 

Kirk.... 791 

• Frequent I - 

9 1 r. 

Editorial. . «> 

impany report 109 

i making at 

Notes on 

mcentrate at 249 

' Selenide of silver. . . 7n 


F \v Sperr 750 

Brass exports 1 1 , 886 

Cahlll, .1, K An unusual head- frame . . . 

Calaveras Copper Co., finances 

a. w. A., and cyanldatlon 

[dent compensation in 

counties described 

(iol.l milling In Amador Edward B. Durham! 

Occident Commission Editorial 

Ditt.. decisions 

Mho- rescue-stations in ........!!!!!' 

Mineral production in 1915 

Oilfields, drilling in 

■ 1 - Btorme In 

Quicksilver nun ing in w. ii. Landers! 

siat,- Mining Bureau reports 

Mining Bureau, work on quicksilver ore . 
Calaveras Copper Co., reserve of 

.1 M.. work In notation . 

ell and test-si 1 to 

■ ' Co., company report 

Calumet & Hi r i io '. , Edl 1 

And Nevada Console I, ore mined by Editorial. 

And Tamarack 

1 ' pans report 

'i ' ited, pa it , . , 

with EditOl ml 

\i new development at 

Cam-shafts, welding broken 

ss Edl ai . .362, 

Mineral production in 1915 

• Mi " ' ■ no. 1 no. E . position! ' 

Mining representatives for parliament 

Nlcl In 1 :>i ;, 

hi K londyke Co 

Dredging in mid-winter 

& Exploration ' ',, Editorial' ' 

. Finance Co.. ami Hollli 1 I Mines. . 

Cannon, notes on 

ii. in cyanide solution 

In drill-steel .!.......! 

v. tungsten sle.-l ! ! !!! 

IS shale in cyanide solution, precipitating 

' Paul w. Avery 

Carbonated water 

ion !!!!!!!!!!' 

hi. 11. 1.. Worl iduYent'schemes!!!! 

In 1916..... 
us at the Calumel & Heels 

Notes on 

a cam omia ........!!!..!!.!!!!!!!!! 

per money, ralue on .< 


ioi 1 1 1 1 hint 

1 1: l: 

2 79 

21 I 










7 7a; 





II 1 2 







\'i»i ir_' 

MINING and Sacntih, PRESS 


From furl 

: llll. ill uf I 


K. n lllll. II" 

llput -'f 111.' 
pumps, an. I .Hit 

■ mines, California, progress al 

Rotation ..f Editorial.... 

Hon Editorial ... . 

Id Mining Co. of India, company report. 


lug the mining law Bdltoi 

n. Jam. s !■: . nc it systems t-.i small mines 

Chapman. Q. A . dotation patent 

i a Sin, -m UK' Co., San Francisco 

Chappie, A. J Treal in, in ,.f slime-residue. . . . 

Chart I - .amine horse-power 

ng fraud Editorial.... 

il equations in leaching and enrichment "i copp r 


Chemistry of cyanldatlon, notes ->n 

i ir electrolytic sine 

. oxidised zone, surflcial indications of copper — III 

Prank 11. Prober! .... 

... Milwaukee ,s St Paul ralln tion of... 

Consolidated Mining Co. company report 

Chihuahua, Mexico, treatment of silver ore in 

Chile, mineral Industry of Lester W. Strauss. . . 


Physical conditions of 


orel gn enterprises In F. L. Cnl". 

Imports .if 

Metalliferous mines oi Hunan Province 

New mining laws t«. be drafted 

Chlnesi Iting ol for sale of metal Editorial.... 

Methods of mining 

Mining regulations Editorial. . . . 

k. c. LI — 

Ditto M. It- Yung. . . . 

Chlno Copper Co., npany report $28, 

Mine, "i.i methods at 

Chlsana gold output 

Chlorldi Arizona 

i "h I. .rin. Editorial. . . . 

Chlorinniion of complex ores, the dry s. A. [onideB.... 

Chrome-iron developments In California 

CI ."ii i"- ir-.n ore notes 

Chuqulcamata mine, Chile, the Pope Yeatman.... 

i blast at 

Churn-drilling in Alaska 

Chutes in Miami mine 

a t."\ "I" Editorial.... 

Cinnabar, amenable to notation 

Flotation for E. M. Hamilton. . . . 

Occurrence of 

field of mercury from 

Cinoo Mlnas Co Its. 

Cisco Mining Co.'s 1,000-ton mill, Joplin 

Claims, aces of 

Concentration Of work on a new one, neglecting old ones 

Classification and fine grinding A. E. Drucker. . . . 

Classifiers, notes on 

And pulp moisture 

Clay: Its effect in ore-dressing and cyanldatlon 

A. W. Allen. . . . 

Clayton, Cbas. v.. and Peterson, C. E..Oiis for flotation.... 

Clennell, .1. E Influence of flotation oils on cyan i de ... . 

Clevenger, G. H Aluminum dust ... . 

Ditto, and Coe, H. S Slime-settling.... 

Ollfton-Morenci-Metealf district, Arizona, lahor agreement. 

Editorial .... 

Climate and topography 

Coagulation, definition of 

Coal-dust tired reverberatories at Anaconda 

Coal in Arizona 

i ml put of the world 

Coal-pulverizing plant at Anaconda 

Coal-tar, notes on 

Cobalt, Ontario, geological investigations at 

Notes on 

Silver production in 1915 

in,., mercury In 

Oohait: Its DOSSfble uses F. H. Mason.... 

Electro-plating with 

Coe, ii. S„ and Clevenger, G. H Slime-settling 

Coeur d'Alene. Idaho, geology Editorial.... 

Metal production in 1915 67, 

Coeur d'Alene Antimony Mining Co., Idaho, notes on mine. . 
Coghlll, Will H Research problems.... 

Ditto On the science of a froth .... 

"Cold short.' meaning of term 

Cold weather, effect of on pipe-lines 

Cole, David Electrical theory of flotation.... 

Ditto Washoe reduction works. . . . 

Cole, F. L Antimony in China.... 

Collins, Joseph Henry, death of in Cornwall 

Collins, William F., on Chinese mining legislation 

I I . 






.,., j 






6 I 'J 
:: II 





r. il 







4 6S 

In II. 

Colloidal ■ 1 • 
1 '-.1 i.i... platinum output ol 

Mining In 


S.-ii" .1 in* In 


i.. Conaolldati ,1 Mining Co . Til 

Colorado Gilpin Gold .s 

Colorado Scientific Society und dotation, 

i '..I.. i a. I. nt" ..lid 1. 



emu, ai an mine, Salvador, cyanldatlon at tho, 

Combustion of coal, 

» ', niiin- rclal ore, use of term Edl ; 

i iompa i" report, thmeck Minlj 
kilning Ci 
1 1 ini 

Alaska Juneau Gold Ml n 

Gold Mtnlni i o.. 

II Gold .Minn. Ci 

Alaska United Gold Mining Co 

All, "i i Co 

Uner lean Smel tin g A i : . hi I - 

American Zinc, Lead & Smelting < '., 

American Telcpl & Telegraph Co 

Inaconda Copper Mining Co 

Arizona ( ' irclal Mining Co 

Ashantl Golddelda Corporation 

Aurora Consolidated Mines Co 

Barnes-King Development Co 

I :i nuiia in Mines I '" 

Broken i nil Proprii tai i i 

Broken inn South SUvei Mining Co 

Brunswick Consolidated Gold Mining i '<> 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mining & Concentrating Co 

Bunker mil Mines <'" 

Burrow Mountain Copper Co 

Hill 1". Ana, la & I'm ill" II." " S I '.. 

Butte & Superloi i ' ioi i !o 

Calumet ,S7- Ariz Mining Co 

Ca In met i: I I ... l;i Mining Co 

Centennial Copper Mining Co 

Chief Consolidated Mining Co 

* Ihino Copper Co. . 828, 

roniugas Mini's, 1,1,1 

Consolidated Arizona Smelting Co 

Consolidated Mining * Smelting Co. of Canada 

Caliper Queen Consolidated Mining Co 

Copper Range Co 

Crown Reserve Mining Co 

I laly-Judge Mining Co 

I letroit i tapper Co 

Dragon Consolidated Mining Co 

Eagle .v.- llliii- Hell Mining Co 

East Butte Copper Mining Co 

Ill Paso Consolidated Mining Co 

Federal Mining Co. 

i;,il,l"ii Center of Grass Valley Mines Co 

Goldti'l.l Consolidated Mines i '" 

Government Gold Mining Areas (Modderfonte Ion 


Hecla Mining Co 

Hedlev Gold Mining Co 

Holling, r Gold Mines 

Homestak" Mining Co 

Inspiration Consolidated Copper Co 

I ni"i national Lead Rednlng Co 

International Nickel Co 

International Smelting Co 

Iron Blossom Mining Co 

Tsle Royale Copper Co 

Ivan] Gold corporation 

Kill- Hake Mining Co 

Jim Butler Ton opali Mining Co 

Lakeview Mining C 

Lower Mammoth Mining Co 

Magma Copper Co 

Mary Murphy Gold Mining Co 

Mass Consolidated Copper Co 

Miami Copper Co 

Moctezuma Copper Co 

Mt. Morgan Gold Mining Co 

Mountain King Gold Mining Co 

M /sore Gold Mining Co. 

National Copper Mining Co 

Natomas Co. "f California 

Nevada-California Power Co 

Nevada Consolidated Copper Co 128, 

Nevada Hills Mining Co 

New York & Honduras Rosario Mining Co 

Nipissing Minis Co 

North Butte Mining Co 

North Star Mines Co 

Neman Consolidated Mines Cn 

ill,] Dominion Copper Mining & Smelting Co 

Onondaga Copper Co 

Osceola Consolidated Copper Co 

Phelps, Dodge & Co 

Phelps. Dodge Mercantile I'll 

Ply nn, u 1. 1 1 Consolidated Gold Mines 

Porcupine-Crown Mines 

Portland Gold Mining Co 

Premier (Transvaal) Diamond Mines Co 

Prince Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co 

Quincv Mining Co 

Ram bier- Cariboo Mining Co 

Rand Mines. Limited 

Raritan Copper Works 


7.7 1 





1 II' 

58 i 



7 US 




I li 7, 
76 7 
7 67 





111 I 





7,7 1 

7,7 1 
7,3 1 
7.3 1 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. L12 

Compan Page. 



Sem 01 Silver Mines 

■ toalltlon Mini: 

i rlsona I topper Co 367 


St. Jo I Co 

Stag Canon Fuel Co. 


2 ] 

. i rack Mining Co 843 

nlskaming Mining Co 

Tennessee I 'opp< Co 

Tone 149 

T >no| t 1 tevelopn 

Tonopati Mldwa 

Tonopah Mining Co, ••! Nevada 922 

United States Sr. • :o 

United Verde Extent 

Utah Consolidated Mining *'•> 768 

Utah Copper Co. 828 691 

h Metal A Tunnel Co ii't 

Consolli kilning *'<•..... 

Win, Co 609 

Wllbert Mining <"■> :*17 


valuing \ m. ri unii' ... . 5 

il ■( 348 


tits from 

Pros n 104, 72b 

titrate, cyanldatloo >>( flotation. . B. M. Hamilton. 

Ditto . Paul \v. .w 

Ditto mi; Lai ng . B13 

Ditto M. ■ ; P. Sohnleln 

Machinery for cyanldlng flotation v !•;. Drucker. . . . 617 

Produced by the Alaska Gastlneau 506 

Smelting flotation 

Concentrating at Anaconda 196 

Molybdenum 82 

n t rat i< mi at Central Mine, Broken Hill, recovery by. . . . ill 

By water before flotation al Anaconda 

Frederick Lai si and Albert B. Wlggln..., 146 


Of lead -silver ore al Kellogg 758 

Of mercury ores 

q ilcksllver ores 796 

iif tungsten ore 166 

<»f . Butte 626 

* -f aii up. Wherrj .. . 



1 i ■ 103 


Conglonn ■ 



..... 768, 836 

p la n 1 12 

• !onsol idated Coppermln- i ■ ume b I Ely, Nei 

Ing Co., »an j pon 

■ Ion Co B77 

c ;onsoi Ida ted Mining .*.- Smelting: Co a 


I rol vi |c sine prod it" 

Consumption of cyanide In United States 190 

I >i 1 1 •>. >>n the Hand 

Contractile force, notes on 

Contracts and metallurgists, Mlnei ition 193 

Between Anaconda and M paratton 211 

Control <•( W8 ter power Gilford Plncl ol 

Converter, baatc-Hned copper 

Practice at Miami. All/. 822 

Converters at Ana< ondfl 654 

: Individualism Editorial . . . . 7 7 

Copper, notes and prices of Every Week. 

After the war 

And aluminum 17:' 

An.! decline In metals 

At the New Cornelia, Arlxona, leaching 522 

Big transaction r.77 

of 719 

i !< imps nies arei r.7* 925 

Ing in United Stati 

Demand for 84 

posits, pyrltlc Editorial. 


i id's supply of t. t. Read 

Exports Editorial, . . 885 

Ditto 75 

In 1 9 ! :. 

Half-year's outpul sold in 

In Alaska in 1916 52 

In Chile 176 

In Ireland, early history of 1 1 :i 

In steel and iron to co 7 1 :. 

John l >. Ryan's forecast 293 

Old quotations 

Ore, enrichment <>( 

In the West, grade of Bditoi 

quatlons in tneli and enrich- 

Ipitatlon on ■ 120 

Prices, effect <>f Mexl e on 129 

lea 172 

Production In 1916 Editorial.... 693 

i 'roduct Ion of l rlzona 250 

Production of Japan 

Prod ■ ■■ ■ 80S 

i >utpu1 ol Wtchl In 1915 68 7:,: 

iduci Ion of Peru In 1915 841 

Coppi edf). I ' ■ i ■ 

: ■ Li the [nternational smelter, Ml am J 

Editorial, ... 885 

'Red i 

R. lining In the Uniti d Sti l f70 

Rest i 94 


Shares in 1916 and 1907 821 


• Frank U. Prober! • 

i o tat ions 

Coppei ■ lolldated Mines < 

Mine, electric haulage at 

company report 

in dlamond-drlllii 

il, developments h 198 

Some history of metallurgy in 

Notes on 

Ion 719 

III | ..;. of 602 

Reduced ; steel and Iron :\~< 

p. -st at Alaska Tread well mines 

At Holllnger mine 

At strait ndence 128 

Early at Cripple Creek 127 

In the -Mi Ion , l ' 

aerial transport 173 

Ol aluminum dust 

of buying, first 

Of i ie Tamarack, Michigan 

01 Mozambique 48 

mining- J. I>. Hubbard.... 780 

Of drill-steel 118 

Of dl und in Alaska 

trifugal pumps i 17 

ore haulage 117 

Of erecting a dry-house : 

Of erecting flotation plant 

Of erecting steel head-frame 564 

dd production at the Government (Modd< 

rty on the Rand 

tlon at the Ivanhoe mine, ECalgoorlie. . 

heating a mill 148 

Of hoisting ore at Co] a mine 881 

J neau 

Of lead production at Kellogg, Idaho 

< >f lining basic converters 61^ 

or living iv, higher 

m 911 

mining and milling in Honduras '.'-'J 

and milling a1 old Bureka mine, California 936 

at the Portland 

Oi mining mang s< In Brazil 182 

<ii ml - copper 602 

Of obtaining a patent 643 

peratin g '■■- irs 1 1 "• 

Oi preparing and equipping inspiration mine 642 

Of pro* lie Calu mel & Heels 883 

copper In United States 269 

Of producing Ni pissing silver 767 

01 producing I'nw.-r at Copper Quern s llor f.f.I 

01 prospecting and sampling along the Mother i . ■ i 


Ol i sting at East Helena 

Of shaft-sinking at Butte 848 

Of silver production at the Tonopah Beln t, Nevada 

i ■ I 768 

* >( surveyi 679 

Of test ftc mine 663 

i m i lie Tonopah Mining Co 

Of transport by belt-conveyors 

ng . oncentrate at Goldfteld C I Idated 602 

Of treating Cripple Creek ores 137 

Costa R 158 

Cottonw 1 district, Utah 1 33 

Geology "f the L. O. Howard.. 557 

Map of 561 

Coulomb, definition of 849 

Coupllng~hook for electric locomotive 1 7* 

<"<>\. a. D., valuing tungsten ore u 

■ii' definition of 7:. i 

pton, Frank A Platinum at the Boss mine, <;,..,,i 

Springs, Nevada 17S» 

P. H. .Working data on electrolytic precipitation 684 

notes on 869 

Crlmora i nganese Corporation 538 

i rlppli Creek Colorado 137, 247, 118. 567. 606, 760, 968 

In 1916 i" ' 

Mines, gas in 7 1^ 

Crown mine, Karangahake. New Zealand, early cyan lega- 
tion at B62 

Crown Mines, Rand Editorial .... 77:: 

Crown-Reserve Mining Co., company report 

antimony, meaning of term 3fi:> 

('rushers, types suitable for flat rock 136 

Crushing gold ore In cyanide solution 912 

Mechanh al efficiency <>f a, O Gates. . 

H. Stadler . . . 899 

System at Anaconda 44 6 

Cuba Copper Co., work of 136 

flotation in Benjamin B. Lawrence.... 135 

roua precipitate, refining Fackson A. Pearce.... 370 

Gushing pool, effect ■■!" decline on gasoline ■'■'■'■ 

li C, Stamps and competitive machinery 304 

Cyanide and flotation plants, cost of erecting..." 359 

Consumption in United states 190 

i n pi! n the Rand 57 

sumption on the Rand, causes of B82 

i nf on copper plates j;>7 

Influence of notation oils on T. E. Clennell .... 700 

Regeneration of 63a 

Sodium, new- designation of 7 1 

Sodium and potassium, Increase in use of former 348 

Solution, carbon In 160 

Solution, crushing gold ore in 912 

Solution, heating Alfred Merrttt Smith..,. 889 


MINING and Scicnlilk l'KI •» 



\i Hamilton ... 366 
Paul u \. 
ii | 
M Q I-' Sohnleln. 
\ i: Drui h 

port . 


ill in Joplln 

■ ikota 

'>,.iiiii'iiii mi • or 

irlenay Origin of l 

i a In Missouri . . . 

■. Rotation patent 

Flotation machine 


Noli - 

■ Leadvllle, work of 

Gold Dredging Co.'s results.* 

1 1. si- it sign-posts 

ii f screen slsea, (lie Ernest A. Hcrsuin. .. 

ng lead 

Deaulphurlxatlon and dotation 

I tetonatora, notes on 


Detroit Copper Co., company report 

Rand banket 

Dia nd-drllllng at Juneau, long horizontal hole 

ntlal flotation at Broken Hill 

is lit thf porphyry copper companies 

ery "f cyanldatlon, tin- John s. M acArthur . . . , 

and thought 

mated mpper il.-posits 

mis in 1916 

.-is from Idaho mines 

Ml III. S 

Lmerlcan mining companies in 1916.... 

1 s the Rag follow the trader? Editorial.... 

Domi lod< at No. T level 


personnel of 

IS nn 

sting process at East Helena 

Down Town Mines. Leadvllle, Colorado, pumping at 

lolldated Mining Co., company report 

In Miami mine 

Drawings for publication, suggestions for 

Dredge arranged for re-soiling at Natoma 

■ types in Alaska 

in Russia, free importation 

ng anil drilling, comparison of results 

At Bodaibo, Siberia 

in Alaska In 1915 

In California, map of districts 

in Colorado 

In Klondike, late 

in Mozambique 

In Russia in 1914 

In Trinity county, California 

In tin- United States H. D. McCaskcy. . . . 

Near Leadvllle, Colorado 

Near Redding, California 

i in Seward peninsula, Alaska, prospecting before 

Corey C. Brayton . . . . 
Drift-mining at Magalia, California 

Cosl "f J. D. Hubbard 

In California 

Drill-bits Improved by hammering 

Drill-holes, sizes of steel for deep holes 

Drill-inspector, work of 

Drill-shanks and bits p. B. McDonald.... 

Drill-steel, carbon in 

Cosl "T 

Fatigue of 

Heating furnace 

Sharpening Lucius Eaton. . . . 

Sharpening at the Old Dominion mine.. P. G. Beckett.... 


Testing efficiency of 

Water-hammer William Kltto.... 

Tn narrow stopes p. B. McDonald 

Drilling in nfort 

Drucker, A. E.. classification and fine grinding 

Ditto. .Machinery for oyaniding flotation concentrate.... 

Dry chlorinatlon of complex ores s. A. Tonides.... 

Dry-house, a new R. E. Tremoureux 

'Dry' mining Editorial. . . , 

bn Pent Powder Co. to build plant in Montana 

Durell. C. Terry Flotation principles.... 

Durham. E. B Extra-lateral right . . . . 

Ditto Gold mining in Amador. California.... 

Dwight-Lloyd sintering process 

Dwyer. C. Eustace Tonnage formulas. . . . 

Dynamite-thawer, Simple 

Dynamite, wood-flour used in making 

'.1 I 
i, in 







;,:: i 
7 52 

13 1 
Si 5 
39 7 
61 S 








i >i i 

Mining In .i « m 

the Influence .,i i il 


luii" Frank 11 Pro] 

Icing as an. . Editor! 

ildatloi i i Isi 

- m i .iiki stop-watches 

1 H crushing, i itanlcal \ .... 

Ditto H. Stadl. 


centrifugal v. . ip 1 1 7 

Bled rli t loss In 

i from 


n Rand 

i coupling i k, . or 

Ori osl 4 17 

Power in Joplln 26 

Power isumed in electrolytic zinc process 

v. steam mine pumps 

Theory of Rotation lames a. Bloi - 

I 'ill" I)n\ Hi COle. ... 79 

Electricity in Rotation, advocates "f 

No tea "ii ? 

Elecl 1 "ii ii. cell 

Precipitation, working data nn 1'. II. Crawford.. 

v. retort zinc 

Zinc Editorial. . 

Ditto I.. S. Austin.. 

I'itto W. R. [ngalls.. 

Ditto Harry A. B. Motherwell.. 

Electro-hydraulic shovel, us,- of 

Metallurgy "f /.no- 440 

Electro-plating Willi cobalt 9111 

Electro-statics, definition -'117 

ill' Rotation, Ihc .'. ..!•'. A. l-'ahr.-nwnbl. . . . 275 

Electro Zinc C".. electrolytic zinc production tin 

Elevators, notes on 518 

Ellis, C. J., and cyanldatlon 

Elmore. Francis Edward, Rotation patent 170 

Brothers, work in flotation 23! 

Flotation machine • 44 

Elm Orlu v. Butte &• Superior Editorial.... 192 

I'llt,,, suit decision 151. 171 

iiitt.i. ;<i>str:n-is r i , ,iu (in- -iinig-'s remarks 209 

El I"". Mexico, conditions at 145 

il Paso Consolidated Mining Co.. company report 654 

El Paso, Texas, notes on 678 

Elsehner. Carl. American potasli 155 

Eisner's cyanide equation 855 

Ely, X.-va, la 186, 762, 95 1 

Emeralds in Colombia 19 

Emergency repairs for rock-drills. .. .W, II. Washburn.... 521 

Empire-North star compromise Editorial.... 331 

Empire Zinc Co. at Leadvllle ' ; I : ' 

Operations of in New Mexico 681 

Employer and employee Editorial.... 92, 

Ditto, relations lohn P. Irish.... in 

Ditto A Union Man.... 298 

Emulsion, definition of 22S 

Engelder, O. G Mining in Sardinia.... S62 

Engelhardt, Victor, work on electrolytic zinc 411 

Engine-house at North Star mine, details of 345 






Engineer, qualities of an Editorial. 

Standard of professional conduct 

Engineer-corps, volunteer I. W. Swaren. 

Engineers and business P. B, McDonald. 

And the War. mining Editorial. 

And preparedness 

Preparedness for Editorial. 

Training of mining E. P. Mathewson. 

'Engineering and Mining Journal.' 50th anniversary 

Enrichment of copper ore Editorial . 

Of upper parts of veins 


In arid and cold climates 

l ill 

5 7 7 


Notes on 815 

Erzerum, Armenia, notes on ^6o 

Eucalyptus oil. source of [| 

Eureka mine sold 25 

Mine. California, notes on 251 

Mine celebration 330 

Eureka, Hayward's. Hetty Green, or Amador mine 935 

Everson, Carrie J., and flotation 

Further notes on 

.Myth, the Editorial 

Flotation patent 

Value of work in flotation Editorial 

Exchange in Mexico, rate of 

In South America 

Exploration Co.. operations curtailed in Mexico 

Explosives in inflammable hags, danger of 

Into Mexico, permission necessary 

Safety in using 

Storage in mines ■ • • - 348 

Extraction bv flotation at Braden and Butte & Superior.... 189 

Extra-lateral right E. B. Inn-ham 

Eye. C. M Gold mining in the Philippines 






6 si; 




2 25 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. L12 

Fairbanks, Alaska 22, 

wald F. A I dotation . . . . 


i Mining i 'i ort 

■ > product li 


Film, definition >>r 

■ i i ■Mil) .... 

and ball-mills. . . . Henry Han 

Flnlay, J. R M. , 

Editoi ial. . . . 

iranci on mining property 

rlea T. Hutchinson .... 
a Is in 

■ ' : ■ ' -"Mi , , . . 
Flat Rlv< i i:,j, 

FloU I 

Fleck, i 

11.. t;i tioi i 

And i on 



Apparatus for testing 

Ai Ana* on 

k Lalst and Albert E. Wlggin.... 

At Argo mill. * 

At Arizona 8cl 

At Broken Mill, differential 

At < i 

At i Joba It, i Ontario 

At G plant 

At Humboldt, Arizona • 

a t [da ii" Spi Ing .' 

At I 

At meeting ol A. i M. E, In Sepi Editorial. .. . 

At Spasskj 


ilia and acids 

Conci anldatlon of E. M. Hamilton.... 

' »itto 


'"ii" M. G. i\ Sohnlein. . . . 

Concentrate, de watering and drying 

iter. . . . 

• . smelting 

Ilan Mining 

■■ "f i »., 

i »itto laroea 

Elei : ■ ] 

Extraction by i I : te & Superior 

E M, Hamilton 

Heal or 

in Nevada 

In Cubs Benjamin l: Lawrenc* 

atlon Editorial, 

Machine, a 

makers <>r 

Molecular forces in, 

Dudley ll. Norrla. . . . 

Of Editorial. . . . 

O. C. R&lat 

Chaa v. Claj ton and - 

rantde, influence of i, e. Clennell... 


ocentrator at Anaconda 

Plant at Anaemia 

Missouri !. a Delano 

Principles C i ell. . . . 

Ditto Oli i Ralston.. . . 


T. A. Rlckard. . . . 

T. a Rlckard 

>k review 194 

'J. D, Van Arsdale. . . . 

Process, I for the 

O. C. Ralsti 1.. Allen. . . . 

Ditto I 

Physics of Editorial 

"f Editorial 

':■ sldu< W. Motherwell. . . . 

Simple problems In T, A. Rlckard. . . . 

- 1. gent m. 11, Thornberry. .. . 


Testa ..n M - ipper ores 

Testing for Editorial 

why Is? 

fa Slock. . . . 

Work by 1 .'ll 

Flow-sheet of int smelter nt Miami 

1 if sine mill in Wisconsin $, 

Flue-dust at ( tapper Queen smelter 

Flue repairs :tt Anaconda 

Flume- dredi on 

Fluorspar production of U, S. in 1916 


Folsom, 1 •. m America! boy and 

irsea in 

s, mill-site in 

Formulas, tonnage C. E vyer. . . . 






:• 2 5 








I . 5 




















5 6 i 

;,t 1 
i 12 


it, Robert W. and W„ and cyanldatlon 

:.tli -' . 

s I r oni 254 

Prospects ol 

' ning bill 

kin Qdltoi 

■ ■ . O w Gold mining In the Judith mountu 


PVei porl Su Iphui . : 1 40 

In I'll" -lines 

■ I on lead, ates 

1 .". 7 

Mlm .541 

flotation patent 1 7 1 

notes on 

flnitlon of 

I llspi is 

On tl wnii Cog-hill ::n 

Frothing agent in flota 


Mechanical U 


2 B :» 


Furnac Herbert Lang 143 

Furnaces for quicksilver, classification of 71:: 


Gal lal . . ' '". Montana 

nltlon ol 

islness forecast 

power, chart tor computing 


1 1. Alaska 

Gas in * _ 1 

b.1 mine 120 

in a metal mine, unusual E. Steid 

Ditto W. J. Bharwood 

Natural, conserving 17:: 

Production of California In 1915 682 

Editorial. . 

1 ■ 148 


Gates, O ! ■ 1 

drill eel 7 1 \ 

"li of 

speed of 




Features, quick method ol iting 

Char li \ 1 1 e 1 

Ditto 1 .eon J. Peppe 

Map of the C Utah 

- Editorial. . 

ii 1 

1 ij antimony deposits of Bernfce, Nevada 


Of Oatman, Arizona 

Ditto John B. Platts. . 

Lta mine 

Coeur d Alene, Idaho 

Cotton w 1 districts 1.. O. Howard. . 

the Judith mountains, Montana 

Of ■ deposits "I Brazil »m 

Of P nal 

ipah Editorial.... 498 

Ol tungsten deposits 1. J. Runner.... 105 

■ 1 . tu ■ tei 80 dei ■■ 1 Coli irado 792 

■ 11 1 1 1 t i on In 140 


Pa ten 1 office system 545 

tion in 1915 584 

Getting a job Editorial 191 

Gilpin county, < Colorado, geology of 154 

Ion S51 

j of 896 

prod uci ion In 1916 250 

ed ■ 1 Colorado, notes on 

ry of flotation, a : : 

1 . description of 827 

Gold and scheelite 11 

And silver production "i United states 194 

As a factor in fll 7'"; 

Ave] . ! 1,000,000 tons of ore 

Ic in New Zealand 124 

From ai ii n mines E. Jacobs 

In amalgam, at Brunswick mine. California 523 

In i'Im!. (77 

In Eiunan, China 340 

In Russia 948 

Milling in Amadi C nla Edward B. Durha 

Mining in Ecuador 

Mining In the Judith mountains, Montana 

1 '. W. i- ial 

Mining In \\\~- Philippines C. M. Bj 

l lutpul tor 1915. Edward Wall 

Output Of Transvaal in 1915 

melting A. .t. Wernlg 142 

ilia in 1916 447 


Production of West Africa 

Rei s old mills 166 

v.. 1 ton 173 

lia mines 1 

field of Yukon In 1915 L89 

Production of India in 1915 2S3 

ing tine int 

Weight of 

Vol 112 

MINING ud Scientifii PRESS 


lean Zinc 


> : 

r K M< Uonnld. . S43 



I Eureka mine 

P -i. nts and the Patent OBIci 


:■! tin.- v. K. I trucker. 

* "ii TIT 

ll-mllls H "ii .... i"i 

: i ml, being developed b ■ 617 

I in proved Btamp-shoi 

w \titiiiintiiiil gold ■ 

Id S46, I 

■■ii 7 

ind suns 162 

pui has,- ore \ ■ 809 

posts In deserts 393 


li-i. it. plan of 

Halcomb patent r->r lybdenum steel 

Haldane. -I. S.. Investigations Into mine air 

Hal!. Bagar, small machinery 

Hamilton. E. M. .. .Cyanidation of flotation concentrate.... 

I Mitu Flotation for cinnabar. . . . 

mer-drllls, first 


Band ingsten ore 

Hanover, New Mexico 

Han s. -ii. Henry. . . Fine-grinding: stamps and ball-mills. ... 
Harb Q ...Precipitation of gold and silver in steel 


Harding, \V. K Manitoba mining law.... 

mills, ni.Ies on 

Hartmann, M. L Rapid method for tungsten.... 

Ditto Qualttatlvi tesl fur tungsten.... 

Haynes, William. Dotation patent 

Hayward. Alvlnza 

Hayward's, Amador, Eureka, or Hetty Green mine 

Head-frame, an unusual J. R. Cahill.... 

North Star mine, steel 

: v. wood 

Head-lights for mfne-locos 

Heard In the bunk-housi — I and II W. H. Storms. . . . 

Ditto— ?ni and IV 

wast,- from furnaces 

Heated cyanide solutions 

Heating a mill, cost of 


Cyanide solution Alfred Merritt Smith.... 

Pulp for notation 

Heels Mining Co., company report 

Hedley Gold Mining Co., company report 

.iii., notes on 

rrenschmldt antimony furnace, notes on • 

Hersam, Ernest A Designation of screen sizes.... 

Hershey. Oscar H„ and the Coeur d'Alene of Idaho 

Rush M Hookworm disease among miners.... 

Hlggins. Edwin Safety in mining.... 

Hill, .lames .1 Editorial.... 

Hill. John A., death of 

Hiring, handling, and firing men E. F. Irwin.... 

Hoffman. F. L. and Adler S Mine accidents. . . . 

Hoists, compressed-air. use of 

Hoisting ore at Copper Queen mine, cost of 

Hollinger Consolidated Gold Mines, Limited, amalgamation 

ai Porcupine 7G3, 

Hollinger ' Sold Mines, company report 

Cosl of supplies at 

Mine Editorial. . . . 

Homestake Mining Co., company report 

Mine, deep development 

Honduras, new mining law 

Hookworm in California, miners Editorial.... 

Disease among miners Rush M. Hess. . . . 

Hoover. T. J., flotation patent 

Ditto, work in flotation 

Flotation apparatus 

Hope district of British Columbia 

Horse Mountain Copper Co 

Horse-power of internal combustion engine in U. S 

Houghton, Michigan 

Howard. L. O Alunite in Utah.... 

Ditto Geologv of the Cottonwood district.... 

Ditto Mining in Utah 132. 280, 415. 717. 

Ditto ■ -Ozokerite in Utah .... 

Hubbard, J. D Cost of drift-mining.... 

Hudson Bay zinc mine. British Columbia 

Hunan. China, antimony in 

Metalliferous mines of A. S. Wheler. . . . 


:. ii 

11 !IS 


-i in 



9 15 

:: 13 









3 69 


propi i tj 
llydi > ... M 

i nil,,, woi k in Hot,, i, 

all, king in Alio. 

Illll, I, I., 


l,ia ho. capital for central 
Central, dovelopm 

1 'l\ I, I, -n, Is III 191. , 
M. till put In 191.. 

I I 

I lll].lM, . .[ BIS lllp shoes 

III. I ■ 

India, g,,i,l production of in i:h:. ... 

Mell in 

Indies i 'pper, Burflclal i. 1 1. 1 1 1 

Frank if P 

(ndlvldua Usm and leratlon 

Indus! i utiles in Siberia . . . ,C, VV. Pui 

Condi buying BMltoriul. . . . 

totatlon oils on cyanide I. 1 . i 

'»! (.'in 1 Journalls n mlnlnfj education 

'I'. A 

. \v. I: Electrolytic zlm 

Inspl ration Consolidated Coppei Ci i 

M .hi at tin 

Mill in tun operation 

M no coal "i it. 'p. it iii- .mil et tping 

Insurance, i e accldenl ■. win .1 Frei 

Ditto Robert .1. I- 

||" mining property, fire Charles T. Hutchlnsoi 

Internationa] Lead Refining Co., c pany reporl 

International Nickel Co., company reporl 


Interna mi Smelting Co., company reporl 

Miami plant 

Intervention in Mexico, is it? 1 d 

Inventors and their reward lohn M. Nlcol. . . 

Inventory of a property 

Inyo Development Co., potash manufacture by 

Ionldes, s. A Dry chlorination ol comph 

Irish, John 1' Relations of employer ami employi 

Iron ore movement 

Production of United states 

Iron Blossom Mining Co., company report 

Irvin, Donald F Precipitation with zinc... 

Irwin, E. F Hiring, handling, and tiring mi 

Is it intervention? Editorial 


isi, Royale Copper Co., company reporl 

isi,. Royale (island) in Lake Superior, mining mi 

Italy, mineral production of 

Mining in warfare in 

Ivanhoe Gold Corporation, rompaliy report 








9 jr. 
1 ir. 



i, ■ 


.Gold from Atlin mines 

Jacobs, E 

James, Alfred, and cyanidation 

.Tanin. Jr.. Louis, anil cyanidation 

Janney, Frank G., death of 

Janney flotation apparatus 

Japan ami Korea Editorial.... 

As a copper producer Editorial. . . . 

Foreign trade of 

Metal mining in 

Jennings. Hennen. and cyanidation 

Jim Butler Tonopah Mining Co., company report 

.Tot,, getting a Editorial.... 

Johannesburg, Transvaal 680, 

Johnson, Arizona, activity at ■ 

Jones, W., and cyanidation 

Joplin. Missouri 97. 2 17. 383, 566. 680. 

Electric power at 

I leport on 

Journalism on mining education, the Innueni t technical 

T. A. Rickard 

Judge Mining & Smelting Co. (Daly-Judge Mining Co. I 

.Titililti mountains. Montana, gold mining in the 

O. W. Freeman. . . . 

Jumbo Extension, gold output in 1915 

Juneau, mining at Editorial.... 


Kahn, Otto H.. on finance 

Kalgoorlie. Western Australia 

Kalgoorllte and coloradoite .• 

In Ontario • - 

Kansas City-Nevada Consolidated Mines Co., new companj 

Kansas, zinc production in 1915 

Kapsan Mining Concession, Korea 

Sale of ,•."• V •,',"'.',','' " 

Keith. N. S Another, and earlier, ball-mill.... 

Kemp'. James F.. medal awarded to 

Kennecott Copper Co., boom Editorial.... 


Kerosene acid-sludge, use of 

Kerr, Robert I Mine accident insurance.... 

Kerr' Lake Mining Co.. company report 

Ketchikan. Alaska, notes from 

Progress at 

Keystone drill in Alaska 

Keystone Mining Co. report 

8 19 



91 1 


19 1 
ST, I 


6 7 





69 1 
13 9 




.; ii 





MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 112 


Kl. k ushlng, not< s on 

K I 1 ! - ■ 
Kirk. ' 

Klttlmac Ml : ;,;• • ■ ■ 

Kin... Wlllla Water-hamm 

Editorial. . . 


J 00 

ti lei ■■! Missouri 

I I., aili lll> I 

tlC ZITK- 


i :. 2 


new *■' 



'• vTmSrd S . 0t Am r i 

Man. in. .Ill C > '« " "■ k ,?5 

Who sits back btiltuiiai 

. cry week. 

i .. i ■ * •' s 

.in I Wiggln. Albert E. 

ii..i, i.. fore flota i at Anai onds . 

Lake Sui 

p. ii McDonald. 


Lakevlew Mining Co., company report 

dining Co., 

. Water concentra- 

l.i,,,. i. . , . .Quicksilver mining In i allfornia. . . 

Lana II Patent nam.-, the.... 

iflot" auHEksllvit i Hie, 

Ditto Uses of furnace slag 

S Editorial. .. . 

■ prei Ipitatlon ol In »}« el ; , 

A. G. Harbaugh. . . . 

a mining .W. K. Harding.... 

, ,, ,,. I ranklln w heaton Smith 

ditorlal. ... 


■ Iding n. nail.. i. • oncenti 


i he New i Bona 

i ■ 

Anaconda • ■,■ ■ 

The air-lift In. . Clarke Sullivan. .. 

Lead, noti • and pi week. 

And sine in Hunan, China 


7 I J 



I 18 


i relght rates 

Mining in Miss. .nil 

. in notation treal m of In Missouri 

Prod States In 1816 . • ■ •!"'>. 

Rapid assa; of ' : -■ ■ ' '■ °™ ,a 5 

s ,„. , T. A. Kl. kill,!.. . . 

! 524, I.I-. ■ 

1 1 1 m i ■ 

In 1915 

.;:.•• ••••■■■ 

illurglst Edit. 

in the C ir d'Alene, Idaho 

Notes .-ii 

a mine pumps 

Oi avi d ai 

Lenzlte , --■• 

b mine. Minnesota, a et shaft at the 

ii M . and ■; 

i Small machln 

Levllatl lion "f ■••• 

lat( < 


pre-heatlng feature 

mining towns Leroy A. Palmer 

n as a primer 

lolldated mines, Suttei Ci i ek, California 

. ;. G s. i 

I.lnlni; llnge mills 

lotatlon Editorial. . . . 

l.ituva Gold MiiiinK & Droda ■.;•', 

i.iv. i in.-].-. Robert Mining districts of No 

- ta 

Llano, Texas - 

lima in railroad grants 

otes ..ii .... 


burg, New Mexlcc iii. 

Lowei Mammoth Mining Co., company report 

tesl of 

otes on ■ ■ ,;•••■ 


Lystei itus 


i Inn. John S 

■ - proci gold ore 

ustlc-soda process for antimony gold ore. a 


M:i. Vrthur-Forresl Editorial.... 

\ E. Drucker. . . . 

hase of ditorlal. . . . 


Ditto R. '•'■ Letts 

-ml cyanidation 

Macqu s - 

Madaa Ilium In 

Magall ■ nla 139, 

mpany report 

:. is 






1 I 

7 17 
!i 1 .". 






Mln i r j In Brazil 

in 1915 

ku-.-i : s mills 

Han. Nevada, developments at 

award ramite mil outh 

xv - K - ii-" ;!'"« 

enl ol antimonj -gold ore.... 

tin. of plne-ol! 

placers ■ c 

.... company report 

I. Montana, work In - • »»« 

ii An ■ • ■ oii 

Ditto ' .. Intlmony gold oi tion.... 624 

i :obalt: i i - poi loli uses. . . . 94U 

J;|" .M.f.,1 Ct til 

Mass Consbiidati d i ' " ' 


. us Instltul Editorial 

• pi ■ <" odm tipi 

Math, P T ' ■ 

McCaskei II i ' Di 

Mel I' 'ree E Mining I 

M, -i :um . Raymond, work in Peru 

''"'' ■ ■ ii; 




5 I 2 






lids i" success 

',,,,„ ...... mg In narrow slopes 

1 irlll slia nka and bll - 

i business 

Mine-mechanic, the 

Ditto! '.'.'.'.'.'. Mining ut the Nevada Consolidated 

Ditto Modern blasting practice 

Notes from Grass Vallej 

Ditti view from Lake S 

... 11 
. . . 312 

. . 343 

374, 892 

"'.".■."...' prohibition 'in the West.... 117 

Queer nun.- accidents . 

Ditto . Scheellte mining and grading.... 1 1 

Ditto Tungsten mining in the West.... .■■. 

Ditto Whal 

11. N. Thomson ... 624 

Mears-Wllfl. ailverton. Colorado ........... Hi 

Measurement, new system of ..Editorial... 

H. Stadler. 


Men employed In I ' al mines . ... 6*2 

aim - and Bring E. F. Irwin. . , 905 

, J, \v Mining m Eucador.... 161 

of [ ft ° 

S, Co.. Henry It "' 

Metal floors, danger "f x '•' 

Market East. , , ,.,, 

Markets In i Edltoi 

Mini d States, men employed in <■'- 

Out] i vntrai States s -\ 

,v, : / , • ' •..',„ *,', 

Editorial. . . .619, 694 

'■ R- Flnlay.... 467 

Production of Peru • •"' 

Produ ol I £ rain in 20 years 

ioseph Ralph. ■■■ *gS 

Editorial.. . . Tio 

Contl In pi Icea : ', 

i topper and decline In "': 

in ,,, posslbli saving a 

Mining in Japan 'J; 

' '- 

I'li, s of, every week. _ 

Produced at Selby Bmelter 

Prod i by a S. & R. Co 

Production In 1916 .'J 

for 1 9 1 .". - 

Specific gravity of some JJ 

:, works at Florence, notes on i-!; 

Metalliferous mil I H in \. S. ^ heler. ... 33. 

Metallurgical progress, Philip Argall an.) ........... . 

An Interview by T. A. Rlckard.... lis 

Metallu a Editorial. ... 113 

Metallurgists, Mm, mis Separation contracts and 


1 10 









,- works, .Montana 

i it" i IrTppli Cri ek ore 

old, new book by T. K. Hose 

Of Mother Lode, California ■••• 

i ii , CMhuahua W. M. Brod 

Ol quicksilver - ' 

Metamorphlc copper deposits ';"'' 

i oi »« 

m, the W. ii. Shpckley.... 662 

i .M.-xi, 1 ••'. 625, I.H.. 878 


Ditto Editorial.. 

Another raid on the United sins J94 

Bettei fdltlons ''J-' 

Conditions at El Oro ■, '' 

Editorial 112 

Details "f new taxation 80J 

Metal products exported to United States in 1916 356 

Mining taxes - ,: ' 

V.. I n: 

MINING and Scirntih. l'KI SS 








.1. s Austin .... 


u ii W ishburn. . . . 

. uiihoilll.-ul nf 


.n. .n ..f 

■ iklahoma region 

Milling, definition ..f 

3 i Idltorlal .... 

will J. French. . . . 

Dluo Robt. I. Kerr. . . . 

S A.n.-r and P. I-. Hoffman.... 

iv i: Ml lonald. . . . 

capacity of 

Depth <>f some 

Explosions, roi k~dual and 

LOCO head-lights 

P. B. McDonald. .. . 

Modi la, i ■ llulold no good for 

Present value of a P. Sommer . . . . 


in Missouri 

! urn on 

les. Increase in coal >■< 

Timber deterioration, cans.- of 

Transfers In California 

Unusual was in a metal E. Steldle. . . . 

account systems for small lames 10. Chapman.... 

Laws of Franklin Wheaton Smith.... 

• »f Hunan, metalliferous A. s. wtoi.-r. . . . 

Pumps for 

Sunday work at F. C. Brown .... 

Wet Editorial... . 

i ikworm disease among Rush M, Hess.... 

Injuries, treatment of T. C. Witherspoon . . . . 

I hi Clifton. Arizona 1 5 1 , 

sink.- .a Clifton, Arizona, progress of 65, . 5, 

Mineral, definition of 

Industry Of Chile Lester W. Strauss.... 

Land leasing bill passes the House 

Lands in railroad Grants 

Production ->f Alaska In 1915 

imbla in 1IU5 

Production Of Canada in 1915 

ictlon of Eastern or Appalachian states 

Production of Italy 

Production of Rhodesia 

Resources of certain California counties 

Mineral Products Co.. Utah, potash production 1.12. 

Minerals of Bolivia 

In Ecuador 

in i Iregon, list of 

Minerals Separation American Syndicate (10131 Limited. 
Some notes on 

Contracts and metallurgists 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 

Flotation patent 

X.'ti s on annual meeting 

Process ill Missouri 

Process, tonnage treated by 

Work mi notation 

MINIM; ami SCIENTIFIC PRESS and 'Engineering and 
Mining Journal,' educative factors in mining: education 

Ditto, discussion in Editorial ... . 

Mining. American youth and Editorial.... 

And metal yield of u. S. Steel Corporation 

A In I si i;i lis 

Antimony in China 

A t .1 iimaii Editorial .... 

A i i he Nevada Consolidated P. B. McDonald. . . . 

Claim, area of 

claims in railroad grants, locating 

Claims, re-locating by shareholders 

Claims, titles to 

Companies in America, dividends paid in 1915 

Costs at the Portland 

Sions 119. 359. 42S. 536. 615. 

Districts of Northern Ontario Robert Llvermore. . . . 

Dry Editorial. . . . 

Education Editorial ... . 

Ditto Frank H. Probert.... 

Education, influence of technical journalism on 

T. A. Rickard. . . . 

Engineers and the War Editorial ... . 

Engineers, training of E. P. Matbewson .... 

Engineering on the wane, is? Editorial..,. 

I 'it t, Frank A. Ross.... 

Geologist Editori'i 1 . . . . 

Tn Alaska in 1915 Alfred H. P.rooks.... 

Tn Arizona. .Charles F. Willis 171. 299. 419. 625. 834. 

Tn Colorado George J. Bancroft .... 'In::, 

Tn Ecuador J. W. Mercer. . - 

Tn Japan, metal 

Tn Nevada R. L. Richie.... 

Tn the Rockv Mountains in winter 





2 17 

:. ii 

29 7 
2 1 I 
I 111 
■ 112 

6 1 1; 




::i 7 






4 75 

5 2:: 

3 63 
63 2 



4 62 

67 S 





52 3 

5 211 








In n 

I II v. 

Iii n 


In. 1. 1.- I- % ot |, | S 

I. ,1,1 


Law v K - 

Law ..I M, >ii, tin ns. n. ,-. 
.[ United - 
i. in.. 
Mnnganesi in Braxll isi 

Men P. B. MclJ 

Mel .... 

Mel I... 

Methods, i ncy of 

1 irdlna >, Korean Editorial 

Prop' T. Hutchln 

Ion Editorial . . 

I'm M. c. rung. 

iresentatlves In Canadian 

Safely In Edwin Hlggtj 

Stock, appraisal of i: i; 

Stock, w ii v p. .... 

Taxation In Mexli 801 

Tow us libraries in Leroy A. Pah. 

'Mining Magazine,' crltlcie Editorial. ... 259 

Mi ii i. s.i n Francisco, receipts in 19 15 i :; i 

Wink in inC. .mil I., dale 

irl, dotation practice In L. A. Delano. . 

/.mi. 1 luctlon in 1915 1 | :: 

Mlssourl-Kansas-Oklal n zinc-lead region in 1915 148 

Record output of 

Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy, work on llotati 

Mi/.pah trachyte, Tonopah, Nevada 482 

Moilezilina Copp.-r Co.. e.uiipaiiN report .",::! 

Models, celluloid for mine 60S 

Modern blasting practice I', B. Mel aid.... 788 

Mogul ho i. New Mexico, notei From it 18 

Mohave county, Arizona. Frequent Issues 

Mohave -Oatman r7ater Co 120 

Mojave Tungsten Co 101 

Molecule, definition of 22s 

Molecular forces in flotation — Surface compression 

i" y 11. Norrls. . 

Molybdenite ore in Australia, treatment of 511 

Molybdenum ami tungsten steel Editorial.... 812 

Concentrating 82 

in Peru : 7'i,"i 

Notes on 519 

Price of me. ssi ami other Issues. 

Qualitative test for 

Mond Nickel Co 

Monell. Anil, rose 577 

Monel metal !■". II. Mason. .. , 586 

Money, value of in Mexico 646 

Montagu & Co., Samuel, ■annua 1 letter on silver 220 

Montana, metal output in 1915 31 

Notes on 39 

Zinc production 52 

Monzonite and copper deposits 666 

Morse, E. C Mining in Western Oregon.... 169 

Morton. George, and eyanidation 854 

Mosquitoes and oil 759 

Mother Lode, Cal.. ore treatment on the 7 13 

Prospecting on the 912 

Reopening old mines along the T. A. Rickard. . . . 935 

Motherwell. Harry A. B Electrolytic zinc... 101 

Motherwell. W Flotation residue.... 7 

Motor burns out at North Butte mine 174 

Mt. Morgan Gold Mining Co.. company report 328 

Mountain King Gold Mining Co., company report 723 

New power plant 

Mozambique, dredging in 12 

Mucking as an educator Editorial. . . . 776 

Mysore Gold Mining Co., company report 923 


Nahnsen electrolytic zinc process 

Narrow stopes, drilling in 

Nascent, definition of 

Gas in flotation ••■■■:■ 

National City Bank of New York, aid to expana I Ameri- 
can trade 

National Copper Mining Co.. company report 

National Tungsten Co., Arivaea. Arizona 

Nation's life, the. . .Secretary of the Interior F. K. Lane..-. 
Natomas Co. of California, company report 

And re-soiling Howard D. Smith 

Needle, floating a 

Greased, why does it float? 

Nelhart district of Montana 

Nevada, antimony in 

Insurance of employees 

Metal output in 1915 U'V-^'.'tVi 

Mining in R- L. Richie.... 

Notes on * ' - -• 

Section of A. T. M. E Editorial 

Nevada-California Power Co.. company reporl 

Nevada Consolidated Copper Co.. company report. .... ..328, 

And Calumet & Hecla. ore mined by Editorial.... 

Mining at the P. B. McDonald 

Nevada Douglas Copper Co., company report 

Nevada Hills Mining Co., company report,. i-.'ii'ii 

Nevada Metal Extraction Co.'s flotation results at Goldnela 


. 5 

.P. R. McDonald. 


1 I 

22 s 

6 I 9 



22 2 
1 13 
12 5 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 112 

Nevada Packard Mines Co., work of 

Wonder pipe-line I. a. Burgess. .. . 435 


New Almaden quicksilver mine, m al 

New Cornelia « !opper * 


New d f :. !■; Tremoureux. . . . 908 

New Mini Quicksilver Co.'s nmiUs 189 

New Jersey Zinc Co - dh Id* ndi - 

- of in Wisconsin 491 


New M al output In 1916 

New mine tax law 118 

Notet i'.'" 

New fork and Bo lining capital 197 

Mel j "ii 


New York ft Horn ort 92- 

New Zealand law 

Niagara Falls, %<• 769 


Nickel, Investigatl 213 

Output <»r the world 748 


Situation In Canada 


Nickel da In 1916 


Nlcol, John M tn iti .77' 

Nlptssing Ml ort 7«;7 

Nitrate Industry of Chile 173, 175 

Courtenay De ECalb., 

Nitre in sulphuric of 

tent >>( a Ml in. i;.is 

W. .t Sharw i ... 777 

Norrls, Dudley H Molecular fo 

compn aalon 

lit. .n patent 


1 !■■; it 174 

Norl hport smelter, Washington 324 

Co., company reporl 574 

And Empire Mines t \ Im i .Editorial.. 

Drilling practice H 

Northv ■ • lopmenl <'■■.. W 

Notes r. b. McDonald... 

Nugget drift mln Is at 

Edward M . work on notation <•( chalcoclte 01 
. i Consolidated Mines 

i i.i i ma n, A i [zona , A pro p. . Frank 1 1 ... 17 

i lei p work neci 

< leologj ot Ji it B Platte : ... B14 

Water at 

100 compai ting 

i it ean Igh ESdltoi . . 926 

■ katlver ml ne, < !a ii Corn la 164 

ills II" 

Oil and 




Pine '".a. l.nnii 

of California 

i uctton of < 

Production of United States In 1916 73 

Rank of producing States 168 

Used for dotation In New Mexico 129 

Wells, new, drilled In California in 1915 

What is Included aa 

Clayton and C. IE. Peterson 

tatlon o. c. Ralston. ... B69 

In flotation 7 

on cyanide, Influence «-r flotation I. E. Clennell.... 700 

Oilfields of C in 214 

Oklahoma zinc production In 1916 143 

Old Dominion Copper Mining A Smelting Co., company reporl 61 1 
Mine, drill-steel sharpening al the.., P, *'■ Beckett.... 581 

Mine, pumping equipment al 562 

Aim--, water In ^^ 

wli] Eureka Mining Co., Incorporated 188 


i in the science of a Will H. Coghlll :t 1 4 

. : i * 

< Intai ■! Editorial 

Meta i produd ion In I : r 913 

1916 182 

Minln g dial rlcl ■ rn. ..... , Robei I Llvermoi 


311 Edltorla I. . . . - '.'■'■ 

I •• i "kin 

Depo A. M. Balfour.. 

i u posl tlon al Tonopa h 

Mined per man-day In various centres . . . 148 

Recovery In Miami mine ;iifi 

Ptorage bins, notes on 373 

Ing tin- persisten 

T. A. Ril k 

ated by Rotation In United Stsjes 

Treated by Minerals Separation process 211 

Treat men 1 In the Philippines 

Vessels, i 

"What constitutes !■■: 

What is a free-milling 448 

the dry chlorlnatlon of S. A tonldes.... 78J 

For the flotation process, testing 

O. C. Ralsl I A lien .... s 

Notes and prices of Every Week 

Valuing complex A. M. Plumb. . 


m metal production In 1915 

Minerals, list of ■ ■ ■ - • • ■ 

Mining In western ■ - r- ' Morse 

1 i,u. H. S. 1 • 366 

Some notes on ; [59 

lated Mining Co., work of 191 

Origin of nitrate. ' '■ K M 

nsolldated Coppwi 

Ouraj . Colorado, notes on s • > ■ 963 

notes on • ■ 819 

Editorial I 

inltion of -- s 

Owen flotation machine • • ■ - .' 

John T. 1- 

At batman, Ariz 

< >r py rilic concentrate 

,1 zone, chemistry of the. Surneial Indicatli 

ill Frank II. Probert.... 

b with 

of a mine gas 

process ■ ■ •■■ ' ■ : " 

l - " 1J " 



I 60 

Hi op ent 

Tanks F. C. Brown.-.. 

Palmer, Leroy A Libraries in mining towns.... 

Panama, manganese In 

Canal Editoi I 

Ditto conditions of Editor! 

i 'in ■ i conditions at the 

I >iit... Mosquitoes tn water-holding lives 

Panama-California Exposition, Canadian mineral p 


Pan-American Financial Congress 

Pan-American Scientific Congress 

Paper-maklni I by war 

Park < 'itv. Utah, map of 

r L. S. Austin Prohibition In the W< 

Partisanship in mining litigation 

game, the Herbert Lang.... 

Language Editorial. . . . 

I he Fames M. Hyd 

Office and Inventions 

Office, proposed changes In methods ror 

i iffii i H5 

s> opi of ■' N. - . 


Ditto H, G. Pro 

And the Patent * • 1 1 1< - •_ - W. E. Greenawalt . . . . 


In England, taxing royalties 

fn th< process 

in 1916, number issued 

On cyanidation, MacArthur -Forrest 

!.■ enl 61, 246, 183, 643, B71, 

i tester 


Edltorla i . . . 

Jackson A Refining euprifero Itate 

Idation at the i '■ imi b n mine, 


Pennsylvania mine, Butte. Are 

Ivania railroad, accident record 

Pentlandlte, composition of 

rberg, Leon J Quirk method of locating geologii 


of ore. theoretica l considerations governing 

the T. A. Rlckard 

i production of in 1915 

ksllver in 

vistas del H. i: Wi 

on, C. E., and Clayton, Chas. v.. .oils for flotation. . . . 

Petrogi -I Russia 


Phelps, Dodge & Co report 

Mercantile Co., company report 

Railroads operated b] 

gold mining in the C. M. Eye.... 

: g 1 1 Won tan; 

lUCtlon of United States in 1916 

1 1 g for 

Eon Editorial.... 

T. A. Rlckard .... 

i igraphy and ore deposits 

ii H F. K.. work In flotation 

; Lead Co. mill at PIcher, Oklahoma 

Pillar mining In Miami mine 

Plnchot, Glfford Control of watei powi 

■ reek district, Idaho, map and notes 

i i C. A. Lunn. . . . 

Source of 

Pipe-line Nevada Wondei J. A. Burg 

In California for oil 

Placer location In Alaska, requisites for 

Machines In Arizona 

in Arizona 

I'l-i. .-,■ Gold « B C, work of 

Platinum at the Boss mine. Good Sorlngs, Nevada 

Frank A. Crarnpt 

1 'ii'" Adolph Knnpf . . . . 

in copper ore Alaska 

EeCtriC lamps 

In Ontario 

No monopoly by Russian government 

Output of C 

Prices, weekly from February 12 

file, Wisconsin OS. 2S7. 452, 606, 7fi 

Plaits, John B. Geology of Oatman , 

Play a. definition <-f 

Plumb, A. M Valuing complex- ores. . 

.--7 7 





7 5 6 



8 1 5 




; n 

: ' 





70 1 





!M I 





5 •; i 
i :-. 

Vol. 112 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



,r» of 

... «54 

Quli k-ou . ■ (contll 

ami UWI 

li> l*lfi 

Qulm v Ml I ' ■■ 


.. •>• 

Rehfuaa. . 


... . 

in hununa »ialk« 

ftaT^atior. , 

ition machine 

1 " 

,i Elschner. 





. 470 

. Ill 

. 964 
. 103 
. 7 1 ■-• 
. 14! 

Radium end uranium orea ■ • 
hipment in Coloi 
In ■lug 
ids in South America 
...w vein at Butte 

Ralph. Joseph Flotatloi 

,; " ' .'.".Fldl 

"". 14 


procees '. ' ' 


Rambler Copper A Platl 

air-blasts on tne 

American capital on I 

Cyanide conaumptlon on 

. . Edit 

Dlaappolntln n8 °!V!*V.?Bdi1 


into, reimiya »■■■ — "...Jackson A Pe 

„, ng cupriferous . . . . -^^ |n , >all „,,. , lu- 
eclpltatlng action or caroonan |..,„i \\ Avery ' 


,;;: t y,.;„„f... -isiw ■ in«-ni»»'; ; i„ B ,; 

. 698 


. 401 

. 116 

. 63 I 
. jr. 7 

. 134 

. 927 

. 695 

. 207 

. 962 

. . . 820 

... 894 

;; ; :ss 

ny report '; s: 

Of gold, notes "" ■ ■ • • 

Of *lnc from electron te Donald r trvln.. 

With ilnc ■ ■.';:,...;,: .'.p. R. Crawford.. 

Working data on elect /'> '„,„,„ ; Co., company report 

Premier (Tranavaal) Diamond Mining 

Preparation ot tungatle metala ■ • Bdltqrlal.. 

Preparedneaa Editorial. . 

engineers ...... • • • • • • • • ; ; ' B ; sommer Schmidt . . 

Present value ■ •( a mine, tne 

,.f scrap metals ■ ■ • ■ • 

Prlmarj and secondary ores 

Copper ores, notes on 

s , .",". "i "\n'ninc'& Smelting Co., company report °ou 
Prince Coneolldated Mining _S M«e ? si „ t r ah iurnia 618 

Probert, Frank H., appointment io c Mlning education 5S1 

Ditto A^.^^i," \r\7onk— A prohibition camp.... 

1 ;;»;: ;;;;;;';^X^.'"no'i:'uion S r of copp,,^^... 

Ditto ,„ ist ,'yof'ihe-o,i,.i^,-n. t . J^.IU. 

problems, research ....Editorial.. 

&££fi8J5t% MinVng CaVieadVlhe, work of ... ... 

Prohibition In mining camps p" p.. McDonald. . 

In the West ■ ■ -jj "s. - Austin, A. T. Parsons 

Ditto '.'"V.'.'.V.i iViti 

Promontory sine district, man .. John R S | mm ons... how to. • L' J*i'" *T mils A RellftlSS.... 

milieu, portable J? 6 u Jgr n e B nt on f °Iiward Penmsul" Alaska. 
Prospecting before dredging on Ben,1 Corey c Brayton.... 

For phosphate rock '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'■'.'■'■ 

For tungsten, hints on 

In forest reserves 
Prost. H. G 

gold outputs .""i shlpnv nl 

Labor problems 

Mines, soui [dents In 1: ., ; 

Moving broken oi i •<• topes 

Raid m s. Limited, company report ■• 

Rand, Nevada, rich mines at Editorial 7"8 




ril-in l'.>1>I"T \\ in KS. c i-.w... ■ -,- - o.,^ 

' Consol'daf .1 Copper - •■... "■'rl'.nerV V ' '. \ ". '. '. '. "• '. '■ ■ '■ '■ '• •" 

v Hercules Copper Co., plan oi property .... 488 

Mine, Arizona, progress at ■••■•■• 7:. 

Jmond, Robert M.. W^JSgKStf 0, " mining "atock ... . Ijjfl 

i" 1 ■ T-TV.E^.non.iesof the woHd's suppl; ol copper _ 

ReSl'del Monte silver mine, Pachuca, M;-":,',- ,„:, ,.,. ,,. ,., 
It "t i"iii;'"s Mining Yn western Oregon.... 366 

'" ■ : , ! ,^a , ndm..,.r. Bhi :.dp.-.,i...t.,'.. ^ ..« . ";«■ • 

•,!!::;rtne s w;^V^e':::::::::- , . uU :.....Kii,t 


Reformer, the way 

Regeneration "1 cyanide 

Relations of employer and employ. ...... Ca) 


'.1 1 9 

1 V. i ; mga miuiiils for 

" ' Patents. 

Scope of a patent, the. 

'.'.'.'. . .Editorial . 


Pavchology of flotation 

PuWcltyfan aid to Arizona mining • ■ ■ 

Pulp, definition of 

Pumps tor mines 

Tn Chinese mines y 

Pumpml "uipm. nt at Old Dominion mint ^ ,. : , 
[ ■ P V hinS Indu D tMal DFpartunltics in Siberia 

pvrite. gas from "decomposing 
PvritiC COppeT deposits ••;*•■'' 

pjrrhotlte at Sudbury, Ontario 

Qualities of an engineer .. • ■ • • 

,';,,!,,.,, i. test tor molybdenum . for tungsten ■ ■ ■ 

Quantitative -"^TuZ.HS? 
Determination of tungsten .... 

Ouartzlte, Arizona ■■■.-■. 

SSebec. mining law revision 

. .Editorial . 

. .Editorial. 






..2, 17 

... 117 

.. 226 

132. BSG 

. . 501 

9 III 

4 01 

Relations ot employer a,.oe.,.,.... e ;■• Lcm1 „ ,. :1 , 

Re-opening gold mines along tne moto ^ ^ Rickard. 


. .w. 

R l p |lrs n for P V P otk-dr1lls. emergency 

ISpubUcT Wa°sh. nS S o a mV orW deposits- at 

Research problems . . ■■•■;■■■ • ", 

Reservation, Nevada., mining at 

Residue, flotation 

^esin" and 'rosin,' notes on ■ • ; ; 

Reselling *' *^ m ^ 'i„ united Sm,s . 

work at Miami. Arizona 

H. Washburn. 
J. A. Burgess. 

Wi'li H.'Coghili. 

,\V. Motherwell. 

Retorts, nural 

!i::;::;:i: l :!:a;orLJ l ar^na™nda:coardustflred. 

Rhodesia, apex disputes in 

Mineral production of 
Richest stopes . 
Richie, R. L. ■ • ■ 
Rickard. Forbes 
Rickard, T. A. . . 





1 II 


. 658 

. -.J^ 

. 19S 

. Mill 

. 562 

. 771 

. 829 

. 39 

. 333 

. 407 

. 469 

.'.' Editorial 

Mining In Nevada 

Colorado!™ ipi'n Gold & 'f ''j'''"^ 
Flotation Process, I-Physlcs 

Ill, Patents 

.■influence 'of ■technical •journalism on mining ^ 

Arg'alY and ' me'taliurglcai ' progress— An ^ j f 

:.K,:-opening oV old' mines along' the' Mother ; . 

Lode, Cal '. ; Seibr' lead smelter .... 506 

Ditto simple problems in flotation .... 2t>3 

■■•-'-•-■-Vtlcai'conslleratlons governing the pel- 83 

education . - 

Ditto Philip 


rjitto Theore 

sistence of ore ■•■•;■*,■••:' V '-m't?' ' 2!t3 

Ricketts, L.D.. president of the A. I. ^..^^^ „ 

'' -' ■;;;'„';•„',; 'i^n -company report ■■ :... 

p! B. McDonald. . 

; j;;;;^r,o::r,i,;:; ' ivr^ting- geologic- ieatures s . a . . ponei , . . 

. ..Leon J. Pepperherg.. 
Ditto ..Editorial.. 

ttu, £«-Dtta in Cilifornia nvtp of. 

! 'r,',m alluvial deposits. Oregon ■■■■■;; 

m Cobalt ore " 

In California, notes on 

In Hunan. China ' 

1 n Nevada - - 

In pan-amalgamation • • ■ ■ 

Sffl*?jJHa™ii r-.T S nl« of c.d ^^ 

Mining in California ".......Editorial.; 

Notes on ■ ■ 

Ore. concentration ot 

Ore. flotation for 







. 523 

. 353 

. 340 

. 253 

. 151 

. 438 

. 283 



. 538 

. 796 

. 511 

Rico Wellington Mining Co. com 
Rifled cores in diamond-drilling , 
R g for prospecting gravel, light 
S!rJ,,„ fnnner Co.. company i el 

mo Tinto Copper Co., compa 
Rise in sliver 

eport. . . ■ 


Renting -d acid^makingatBraaen, Chile. 
*« An ^'^^^sonieiiistory;or- 


Robert Emmet mine. I.eadville 
ir.'l.son. George, flotation patent 
Roc^-driU stamp-mil^, •■-•;■; 

. w. 

C. V. Weeks. 
H. Washburn. 

R 00 E k m d e u r ft en an y d r mfne"explosions 

tension on Wj 1 / 8 ,,,-,.-,'^^ "engineering on the wane 


Ross. Frank « 

Round tables at Anaconda ...^. - ortof ; ::".".:"".: 
R val Sold Mines Co.. Ca'ilm o^ ^ q£ tungaten de 

J. J 

posits . 



results of 

industrial opportunities in^Siberia M j o j ng - corporation, 

. . 768 

. . 694 

' ... 366 

7r I 


. . 827 

196, 549 

.... 126 

. ... 072 

. . 64 5 
. ... 170 

9 IS 


1 12 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 112 

it u tii mine, Ely, method* ;it (he 

KuiiJ. States 264 

And litij. i! : i 311 

Ryan, John D„ foi 




of i 

in mining Edwin Eilgglns. . . . 

in uc 


v\ ork al Tn adwell 

impanj n port 

Flotation ; 

Salt i-tk. City, notes on 

netala In Tonopah dumps 

Salvador, cyanldatlon at the Comacaran mine 

A. B. Peckham. . . . 

Percy Williams. . . . 

Sampling at the Selby smelter 

San I'i ' 


Mint in 1 :• 1 :. and t«. date 

Mint, receipts In 1915 

o the 

Output "t 

Santa b"e. New Mexico 

Santa I- ■ Gold «v- Copper Mir... ■ its of 

.Santa Gertrudls *'".. Ltd., company report 

Santa Rita, New Mexico 

Saponification, definition «>f 

Sardinia, mining in <>, q, Bngelder.... 

Saving fine gold 

Scheellte and bismuth 

Mining and grading i". B. McDonald.... 

Schmidt, F. Sommer Pn 

on the Will H. Coghlll.... 

Scoop f"i- Hardlnge mills, feed , . 

Scop< ii i ; i 

Scott, i .Stoplng 

Robert, quicksilver furnace 

Scrap mets i . . . 

Monta ii •■■ il as on 

Screen sixes, I 

1 ube-ml il cii cults 

Stai I of .... I Mir ■ ■ 

la k.-. Calif* m 


The Nation's life 


! ''" 

Editorial. . . . 

Iter t a Ki< kard. . . . 

■■ ! e of silver Wa It* Brad ley .... 


ga n. gale "f 

Mines, com] 

■ 145, . 

dotation testa In 


Settling zones in slime t 

Troughs Coalition Mining Co r( 

; Peninsula, Alaska, prospecting b< ■ edging on. 


Shaft, a wet 

Shaft-sinking at Butte, coal "f 

At Tread well, note on 

In Lake Sup n 

Record In 1 

I Ion of cai lide solution. 

Paul W. A. 

Shan ^ i 

Shanno port 

Shareholders ore' rights In locating claims 


■ eel, notes on 


j Niti 

■ : 

Shipping and freights 

a on world's Editorial. . . . 

Ship?. ' 

Shockley, W. II Metric system, 


Shoveling, ecoi ,, 

Improvements in , 

in Missouri " 

Shrinkage stoplng 

piMfi W. h. Storms.... 

In Miami nun.- 

In Editorial. ! ! '. 

In-i lortunlttes In c. W. Purlngton. . . 

Slderlti and market f"r 

electrolytic zinc production "f 

Silicate of copper, notes on 









7 ii 1 




:;i t 




•;i i 


4 1 


:.l 1 




nd gold production of United states. 
■ a nf sharp rises 

Coins, Intrinsic and nominal i 

Coinage of the world 

i ireat rise In 

In Chihuahua, m ol native. 

fn < 'hi le 

in i 9ib , ; 

Market i;. 

Notes on Editorial, . . . 

I »re fron ■ '. uk<>n 

■ ■ 





6 5 1 




Silver I Page. 


Inlng at Selby smelter 

ng March 161 

■ In Edltoi lal . . . 694 

S< Ii n de of Walter w. 741 

■ 'ins 7 '.if. 

Veins In trachyte at Tonopah, Nevada 182 

Sliver City, New Mexico ITS 

Silver King Consolidated Mln ort... 886 

Silver Lake, California 

Stlverton, Colorado 

Simmons, .John l: How t.i prospect . . . . 50] 

dynamlte-thawer, s 281 

In flotation T. a. Rlckard.... ^«J3 

I !■•! nickel 


in, Dwight-Lloyd macnines at Selby smelter 

Slag from Selbj smelter 

bnapper-u] d trifles fn furnace work. . . , 1 15 

i i-l-s hi furnace Herbert Lang. . . , \\\\ 

-Wool, how made 4 1;: 

Slake and slack T 1 '.» 

• n. effect of black n. Fischer..., T4:; 

the United States In 1916 7;>s 

lOtatlon apparatus \% 

Can al 

- John Alllngham . . 504 

- i' i "i t at Anaconda 547 

In dotation sii 

-Residue, treatment of \. .1. I 

-Settling <J. H. Clevenger, and 11. s. I :oe .... 111 

Small machinery Ed 


Smelter at Keller, Wash., to be started 968 

4 7T 

Hunker Hill Editorial.. 


by lead t. a. Rlckard... 

Smelters in Dale 

Smelting antimony in China 

Flotation concentrate 

In Australia 

in 1 ii. history of 124 

Smith. Alfred Merritt ... Alkalinity of cyanide solutions.... 828 

Ditto Heating cyanide solution. .. . S89 

smith. Franklin Wheaton Law 692 

smith. Howard i> Natomas and 1 ... 397 

Snake range tungsten < la 

Snake River, Idaho, map of 122 

Placet i ■ ■ " 

a in flotation. .M. H. Thornberry. .. ! 715 


Ion, heating Ufred Met rltl Smith , . . 889 

in zone ol oxidation 

■ deposits A. .M 1 1 our!..! 73s 

I .; ■ ; ■ 

Sons of G wall a mill. Western Australia .*.' 272 

oads In Ta't 

11 In m.m k R, Lamb 80 

n 1916 32 

Wolframite mining In Edward Manloi 

! eka Mining Co., company report 

Hecla Mining Co., comp report 

- on 932 

iiium in IT* 

ky, Russia, notation at , . ', 

Specific gravity and Baume 912 

1 oil and water 

Gravity -if some metals 96 

1 lion in mining stock 

Notes on 

Sperr. F. W Stoplng met! 

Ditto Stoplng by bran, hed raises. . . 750 

Spltzkasten, meaning of term 

Spokane, notes , ! 

Springfield Tunne] attons..... 

J. E.. views on - e Tonopah 

Square-sets In mines 

Stadler, H Mechanical efficient 

Stag ' 'a nyon Fu< I O report ... . 3 : | 

Stamps and ball-mills and tn ry Hanson.!!" 701 

An. 1 : hfnery II 1 

I'I. " 

B rock-drill 1 \ \\ \\ , 

s, improved G-rothe & Cai 

1 er-Lead Mining 1 !o„ compa n re] 

la rd Tungsten 1 !o 7gs 

eens Editorial ISO 

"Star" antimony 

Ditto, Meaning of term !.!.*! 

Statistics, reliability of 1 , , , 1 

\ alue ol 

1 first use of .....!!!.!.!!!! 41s 

For moving snow !!!!!!!!' :: i B 

Notes "ii 564 

Raising "ii tracks 136 

Steam v. electric mine pumps .....! 

Stebblns concentrator 

Steel, carbon v. tungsten !!!!!!!!!!!!! 

Head-frame, details of .!!!!!!! 343 

Molybdenum and tungsten Editorial! !! ! B12 

Stainless for instruments g02 

Tubing for sampling ground in Alaska ! . . . 

Steldle. E Unusual gas in a metal mine. . . . rifis 

Stemming, notes on fgg 

Stewart A. P., and cyanldatlon ...!..!!!! B54 

W. ( on pyrltic coppei 

Stones, drilling in narrow p. B. McDonald.... 14 

l; " hesl Editorial ... 77 1 

Stoning hard ore at Miami, Arizona David B Scott.... !>I3 

By branched raises p w Sperr 760 

M' tl ods Editorial. . . . 263 

o F. W. Sperr, . 26S 

Shrinkage \v. n. storms 2!>s 




\,.l 112 

MINING and Scientific PRKSS 

II I I..1 II 

I 1,11.. Ilmrtl III I nil IV. 


in, n i . »..ik in notation 


Broki ti iiiii i - suits ■! 


\l riptlon of 

In. II. .11 111 1915 

editorial . 

I Bi own 

definition "( 

en o n 

ii» ..1 coppi r, I Frank H Pi 

dui Pan 1 1 . 

Diti mlatry of tl lone. 

Sutter Creek, notes on 

- 1 - aire, smelting at 

sw -ii • ,. i \v r englneei 
Syndlente mine, Philippines, notes on 


. (Ml 

. «) 


. v I 
.. 122 
. . 900 

Till II n iJ for lulu,' tilling in Mi. higaii 

lumet A n. , in 

Treatment .,t JopUn 

k Milling Co., company report 

Mm. . Michigan, notes on 

T&jnplng, notes on 

Tanberg ml Co 

roflts in Canada 3&1, 

Taxes in Michigan raised 

Technical Journalism on mining education, the Influence of. 

T. A. Kickard. . . . 

Telephone, a portable 

Flow -Indicator f"i pipe-lines 

Telephonic ticker-signal for pipe-lines 

Tellurldes in Ontario 

Temlskamlng Mini art 

Tempering drill-steel, notes on .".^ j, 

Coppei ' <• . • pans report 

: mple 

Testing ■ 

For il.. i.i i ion Editorial. .. . 

lotatlon process 

ii. '' Ralston and Glenn L. Allen. ...s, 

Texas copper deposits 

I output in 1915 

Tharsla Sulphur ,t Copper Co. laboratory, Glasgow 

Thawer, a simple dynamite 

al considerations governing the persistence of ore. 

T. A. Rickard. . . . 

Tin sis. its value in mining schools 

Thickeners at some large mills, notes on 414, 

Thomas Cruse .Mining & Development Co 

ion, II X Me Don gall roaster. . . . 

Thornberry, M. H... Soap ass frothing agent in Mutation.... 

Three R. copper mine sold in Arizona 

Timbering at th.- ltuth mine at Ely 

Tin In Hunan. China 

In San Diego county, California 

Notes ami prices Every \Y 

Output of th,- World 

Plati ire, earl y troubles with 

i inic Started in the United States 

Test for 

rock-drill pistons 

'I'., those in th.. trenches Editorial.... 

TolOVana, Alaska 

Tongkah Harbour Tin Dredging Co., company report 

Tonnage formulas C. Eustace Dwyer.... 

ih, geology of Editorial.... 


Prices or sheet-zinc and silver, effect of on 

Tonopah Belmont Development Co.. company report 

T pall Midway Mining Co.. company report 

Tonopah Mining Co. of Nevada, company report 

Tonopah Placers Co. profits 

1 iredging results 

T.'ol-sl.-.l, price of 


Toronto, Ontario 188, 213, 319, 351. 419, 4S6, 606. 6S1. 7G3, 

Torossian Gregory... .....Assay of lead, rapid.... 

Towers. .John T Oxidation. . . . 

Towing sailing-vessels 

Trachyte at Tonopah. Nevada 

Trail.' in South Am. .lira Mark R. Lamb.... 

Trailer, does the Hag follow the? Editorial. .. . 

Trail smelter of Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co., im- 
portance of in British Columbia 

Training of mining engineers E. P. Mathewson .... 

Transportation troubles in Peru 

Transvaal gold output in 1915 

Treatment at the Sons of Gwalia mill, Western Australia. . . 

Charges on Cripple Creek ores 

For hookworm 

Of antimony-gold ore YVm. Seward Mann.... 

Of mica 

nf miners" injuries T. C. Witherspoon . . . . 

Of molybdenite ore in Australia 

Of slime residue A. J. Chappie. . . . 

Of Sudbury ores 

Of wolframite 













S 1 :• 






r, l 8 



15 2 
14 9 





1 18 




92 5 





Tube-mill liners, ma ..i worn 

la i 


Alia l> Sis ol . ..In t 

areas "t White Pine counl 

A I I 


' t I.-' IV ol PI •■ oil 

t minatlon, i usloi i hod 

inn. ..lion, quantitative 

Develoi ins hi Boulder, Colorado 

I levelopmonta in California 

i Usui, i ol Boulder counl \ . I loloi i da 

1 I I grading 

1 1 1 g i 01 

in Colorado, ... on . , 

In Inyo 

in Nevada 

In Pima ci ...i.i ......! 

In South liakota ■ 

Ill 1!'!.. 


Melting point of 

Metals, preparation of 

Mini s .a Uolla Chas. T. Hutchln 

Minerals at Leadvllle. Colorado 684 

Minerals, na s of 

Minerals, occurrenci ol 7 1 '.• 

Mining In Arizona I 

Mining in ih,- Wesl I'. B. McDonald. 

Near Cripple Creek 

Notes on 33 

i ires, concentration of 

Ore, treatment of al Atolla 488 

Ores in San Juan 21 

Prices Edltoi 

Prices Evi i -. Week 

Prices and ih.- Wolf Tongue pany 916 

Producers of Colorado BUggesI tariff on Imported .... 

Qualitative test for M. I.. Hartmann.... nil 

Quantitative analysis for 592 

Rapid method for M. I.. Hartmann... 

Special uses of 186 

Steel v. carbon steel 136 

Tungsten Mines Co.. [nyo county, California ,..". 

Tim I... -Mower, llrlV type 884 

Turbo-generator driven by exhaust from steam stamps 252 


Union Hill mine, gold and scheelite 41 

United Gold Mining (_'•>. in Oregon 650 

United States Assay Office at New York overflows 50 

Capita) invested In Mexico 131 

Dredging in the ir. I>. McCaskey.,.. 346 

Exports of products Cor warlike purposes 

Editorial 936 

Gold and silver production of 194 

[nternal trade 151, 189 

Outlook Cor 1915 

Water power in 365 

United States Bureau of Mim-s investigations 1 

Safety department, Legislation affecting 259 

United States Geological Survey, 1915, statistics 36 

I tltto, cannot make assays 313 

I 'ittO, number of queries answered 642 

Ditto, Francisco branch, information available from, i s '.< 

United states Manganese Corporation 532 

United states Reduction X- Refining Co., Colorado, property 

sale 648 

United States Smelting, Refining & Mining Co., company 

report t:;i> 

Ditto, new wink in Colorado ; 

Ditto, work at its Midvale smelter * 746 

Smelting Editorial 736 

United States Steel Corporation's operations in 1915 678 

United States Zinc Smelting Corporation 680 

United Verde in hie. gen logy nf 671 

United Verde Extension Mining Co., company report 384 

Mine, recent developments in 625 

'Uprise,' use of word 429 

Uranium and radium ores 448 

In Madagascar 882 

Uses of furnace slag Herbert Lang.... 443 

Utah, metal output in 1915 27, , :i. 342 

Mining in L. O. Howard 132. 280, 717, 826 

" tzokerlte in L. O. Howard. . . . 907 

Smelters and samplers congested with ore 958 

Utah Consolidated Mining Co.. company report 768 

Utah Copper Co.. company report 328, 691 

Utah Metal & Tunnel Co., company report 421 

Utica Mining Co.. Cal., work of 454 

Valdez Creek Placer Mines Co.. progress of 250 

Value of a mine, the present F. Sommer Schmidt 20* 

Valuing complex ores A. M. Plumb. ... 5 

Van Arsdale, G. D Flotation process.... 930 

Vanadium in Arizona jj07 

Metallic, first prepared 642 

Minerals, test for 417 

Mining in Colorado ;•*]* 

Ore in Montana ȣ* 

Ore. occurrence of • • • ,l(1 - 

Price of ■""- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 112 

Van Bameveld. C E i 

Verde district, Arizona B76 

Vermilion 448 

definition <.f . 

tiah Columbia 211, 720 

Consolidated Gold Mining <'<>.. company n 

Ity, definition •>{ ... 228 

del Peru H. E. West.... 7"t 

lam in formation o( ore depoafts 

Volunteer engtneei corps . \\\ Sws 


ise Editorial. 

At Bartlesvllle 

..... .Same old game. 

Willis. Charles F Mining in Arizona 

99, :n7 

i 'iii". At Butte 

Ditto, At HI.. I..- 

Ditto At Leadville 


Ititt... in the Coeur d'Alene, Idaho 

Will, Chang Mining & Smelting ''•' 

Walker, Arthur |... views on mining engineering 

Walker, Bdward Gold -.input for 1916.... 

Walker copper mine, California, notes on 

Wallace, i. R. .International Smelting Co. 'a Miami plant. .. . 
War an. i trade 

After the Editorial 395. 

Financial result of 

Mining .i: id the Editorial.... 

Taj li i :: :. I . 

Warlike purposes, exports >>t products for 

Washburn, W. El*. ...En epalra for rock-drills.... 

Ditto Mill-m.n's mistakes.... 

i . i ' 111 

Washington siat.- metal output In 1916 

Note, on ins 

Northern, roads in mining district 

Wash...- reduction works. Ana. ..tola. I I. E 

I 'lit... [I. .The coarse concentrator and dotation plant. .. . 


ictlon works David ' ' 

Works at Anaconda, plan of 

Wasp No 2 mine, wolframlti a 

..t . 'attnan. Arizona 

Concentration before flotation at Anaconda 

Frederick l-iist and Albert 10. Wlggin..., 

In mines Editorial. .. 

In Old 1 '..million nun. 

In or., deposition 


Power, control of ' '.irr.'r.i Plnchot. . . . 

Water-hammer drills William Kitto.... 

Water-holding trees at Panama breed mosquitoes 

"vVaiiKli drills 

. . . 

Weeks, C F. . . . ..A rock-drill stamp-mill 

Welding broken cam-shafts 


Well-drillers, use of 

Work of 

r, A. J. . .Refining a nd mi Itlng 

West, n E Vista- I 

West Africa, gold production of 

1 1 alia, shrinkage stoping in 

ii Zinc Oxide Co., Leadville, enlarging plant 

Wei shaft. A 

r B. Mel lonald . . 

Metalliferous mines of Hiinan.... 

ii P. . .Concentration of zinc ores in Wisconsin.... 

White I'll.- Copper Co., company report 

wi «ns a report? gess . . . . 

Ditto James A. Block.... 

Wlggin, All., it B. ami l-aist. Frederick Water concentra- 

before dotation al 

Wllberl M;r to pan y report 

i 88 

6 1 5 






i •...'. 






i'. i :■ 





11. > 

4 16 


lilt to Mining in nor t hern A rl 

hill Mining in southern Ari 

1 .HI.. mining In Arizona . 

i in 

Willow Cr.-.-k. Alaska il 

Winchell, Horace V., tears with chalcoclte 887 

Wind- rmi 4 69 

Wire-rope, causes of weai 679 

Wireless in Alaska - 

Wisconsin, concentration of zinc ore in....H. p. Wherry 

Wltherlte, carbonate of barium 683 

Wltherspoon, T. C Treatment of miners* injuries.... 168 

WoiMin. ii. M . appointment 

ram in Burma 269 

Output of Wasp No. 2 mine. South Dakota 140 


. Bdward Manion . 

Wol m i lakota . 

Wolf tone shall drainage at Leadville 

Wolf Tongue Mining s Milling Co. and tungsten prices.... 916 

[on machine 9. 409 

Worden, John Alaska Gold Mines.... ":< 

Work ..f San Francisco Mint 

Working data on electrolytic precipitation 

P. H. Crawford 

World view, a Editorial. 

Wright, C. Irving, advice as to peculiar contract 194 

Willi.. on 6l9 

Wyomli output "f 958 

Leu. it.-, potash in 

New map 958 

I'n.i sources of 217 

Yeatnian. Pope The ch u.j uicamata mine.... 1 :: I 

Y.lh.w Aster Mining & Milling Co 837 

New officials 180 

Yukon gold yield in 1916 1 89 

Y'uk.u. company report 654 

n 1915 445 

M. 1* Chinese mining regulations.... 890 

Zapatista coins, composition of 

Zaruma district of Ecuador, work in 1 6 1 

/in.- Editorial. . . . 886 

And . v. .nidation 854 

And comparison is7. 

As precipitant for gold in i ti -lutions 

At I !..n of 

Blende, metal content of pure 

Deposit in Tulare county, California 608 

IHlst. some notes on 11" 

Electrolytic) Editorial 

Ditto Harry A. B. Motherwell.... 401 

1'itto L S. Austin.... 434 

Ditto W. R. Ingalls.... 139 

Exports in 1915 363 

From Australia 140 

In Arizona 836 

Large increase in California 33 

Mining al Joplln, high prices lead to carelessness 348 

in Wlsconsii ration of....H. P. Wherry.... 581 

market at Joplln, dissatisfied 

'in treatment at Anaconda r. 17 

Imports from 934 

vith Donald F. Irvin.... nr. 

ery week. 

Pro tatesi largest Editorial.... 88S 

Produ tlon of Montana 752 

Production "f United States in 1915 626 

Production In 1916 108 

Reduction In Miss. .oil 161 

Smelting in Arkansas 722 

Smelting In England <:i7 

Statistics Editorial. . . . 658 

Violet 381 

Zin. Corporation t" erect smelters in England 887 



Edited by 


Volume 112 
Number 1 

Oliver Filters Replace 35 Other Systems 

NO other metallurgical device has ever achieved the quick popularity of the OLIVER 
CONTINUOUS FILTER. It has replaced 35 other filtering or dewatering systems. 
Sixty filter units have been sold on re-orders. Why ? Below are eleven of the 
twenty-three Oliver Filters now at Anaconda Copper Mining Co. Booklet, describing Oliver 
filtration, flotation, and cyanidation, sent if you will address us at 501 Market St., San Francisco. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1, 1916 

! €MBmmiMM WMfT 

Excellent performance and new features 
of two latest Union Dredges — 

The Union Construction Company, by reason of its situation and the 
experience of its engineers, is enabled to build gold dredges that have shown 
the highest extraction and lowest operating cost. Two examples of this are the 
two latest Union Dredges shown below. 


"The B0R7 Dredge' "i i ■:: ■ in Ma-todon 
< i' ek, aeari [relet tty, \iaska 

This dredge has 3' 2 cu. ft. buckets, close 
connected, and digs 14 feet below the surface 
of the water. 

It is manned by a crew of one winchman, 
one oiler, and one engineer, with one extra 
man working on the day shift. 

Power is supplied by two 75 H.P. Wolf 
Locomobiles, consuming an average of only 
3.4 cords of wood per day. 

The average yardage for this dredge is 
1900 cubic yards per day. 


"The Bangor Dredge" operating on Bangor 
t'lvrk, Dear Nome. Alaska 

This dredge also has 5% cu. ft. buckets, 
close connected, and digs from 30 to 35 feet 
below the surface of the water. 

It is manned by a crew similar to the 
"Berry Dredge" crew. 

Power is supplied by two Bolinder Oil 
Engines, with a total of 140 H.P., and using 
fuel oil four parts crude, 16°, and one part 
distillate, 48°. The average consumption of 
oil is 180 gal. Average yardage for this dredge 
is 1800 cubic yards per day. 

Data on Union Dredges, Machinery, and Prospecting Drills cheerfully furnished. 

Union Construction Company 


604 Mission Street, San Francisco 



Agents for the BUCYRUS DREDGES on the Pacific Coast 

The Neill Jig, as applied to fine gold saving in placer 
mining operations, is giving wonderful results. You will be 
interested in par iculars. Ask for mem. 

The Union Prospecting Drills are built in two types, A 
mill B, gasoline engine driven, tight in weight, and an' par- 
ticularly adapted to placer prospecting. 

Bolinder semi-Diesel Engines operate- on any fuel oil at 

practically Diesel economy oi fuel, without high pressure or 

high temperature. 

All of the foregoing accessories contribute their part to 
the economy of operation that characterizes Union Construc- 
tion Company dredges. They may be installed upon dredges 
at present in operation. Ask us for details. 

Jiunmn 1. 1916 

Ml\l\i. ud ScienliB. l'KI SS 

ALDRICH/ Accessible 

MINE \ Compact 

PUMPS XSectionalized 



Motor can be placed out of reach of the men — No danger from shock. 

Pump can be three-fourths submerged before motor is reached by 
water. Not necessary to remove motor soon as water rises. 

All working parts are very accessible and are easily removed in 
case of accident or repairs. 

Aldrich Pumps are sectionalized, which reduces repairs, facilitates 
handling and allows a large pump to be taken into a mine through a 
small shaft. 

Write for 

Let Us 





MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1, 191t» 



Reduce Your Milling Costs — 

Increase Your Mill Output 


Modern practice has proven conclusively that the Cylindrical Ball 
Mill is the most economical device of recent development for the mill- 
ing of ores for preliminary or intermediate stage of reduction for fine 
grinding. We have many units in operation to prove that the Hendy 
Ball MUl is an advancement in mechanical construction of these mills. 




Januan I 1916 

MINIM, .,„J Scirnlifi. l'KI SS 


Record of 

A General Contractor in British 
Columbia drove a 7'-6" x lu'-O" 
tunnel a distance of 2601 feet in 
3 months averaging S69 feet per 
month. This established a new 
record for American tunnel driving. 

A mine in Montana has within 
the past year installed a great 
many Leyner-lngersoll Drills. 
Reports show that they have not 
only been very successful but 
have greatly improved working 

In a large Lime Quarry six 
Leyner-lngersoll Drills average 
82.9 ft. of hole, per drill, per 

Are you doing as well? If 
not, Leyner-lngersoll Drills 
can help you— Bulletin 4020 


New York Offices The World Over London 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1. 1916 



Built to Withstand the 
Hardest Kind of Work] 


JAWtCRUSHERS are strongly recommended as initial ma- 
chines where economy and large capacities are desired. 

In fact, considering power, wear and tear and repairs, there'is 
no machine built that can be compared with the Traylor Jaw 
Crushers from a standpoint of economy. 

Alllcrushers are fitted with Water Cooled Pitman and Bear- 
ings, Manganese or Chrome Steel Wearing Parts, and many 
other improvements which it will pay you well to find out. 

CRUSHING ROLLS that stand in a class all their own and 
are fitted with improvements worked out in the field, which 
have been demonstrated in actual practice to reduce the cost 
of i operation to almost nothing. 

many points of special merit, among 
which: the main shaft suspended at 
point of least gyration, large high- 
arch spider, countershaft bearing 
detachable from lower shell, and 
other features of great importance. 
TUBE MILLS that are noted for the 
small amount of power consumed 
and the elimination of the breakage 
of the heads, because of the perfect 
alignment of all our mills. 


Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. | 

Main Office and Works : 
Allentown, Pa. 

New York Office: 36 CHURCH ST. 
We.tern Office: SALT LAKE CITY 

Builders of Stamp Milling, Concentrating, Rock j 
Crushing, Cyanide and Smelting Machinery 

Januan I 1916 

MINING .nd Sirniil.. 1'KI SS 


s» i.i.m \\ STOP BBS 
Bulletin LSI 


although busy, to give you prompt delivery on 
nearly all classes of 



that will provide efficient service and rapid 
production. Many mine managers have had 
the foresight to order additional Sullivan Drills, 
Hoists and Compressors, and are prepared to 
handle their share of the constantly growing 
demand for metals. 


Ask for the Bulletins 

. I i.l. I\ IN \l TOM VI II SLIDE-* Vl.\ I 


Bulletin 1356-B 



Bulletin 1370-C 


Bulletin 1365-A 


Bulletin 1366-L 


122 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago 

461 Market Street, San Francisco 

Birmingham Cobalt, Ont. El Paso 

Boston Christiania Joplin 

Butte Denver Juneau 




New York 




Salt Lake Sydney. N. S. W. 

Spokane Vancouver 

St. Louis Turin. Italy 


MINING and Scientific PRESS January 1. 1916 

Eleven Car Loads 

of ore treatment machinery leaving our works at one time is a 
forceful demonstration of the widespread appreciation of 

Colorado Iron Works Products 

Over fifty years' continuous and uninterrupted specializing in this field has given 
us a very wide experience. A proficient technical staff and business organization, 
coupled with a sustained endeavor to make our productions a little better than 
actually necessary, has placed us in the very front rank. 







Write us, if contemplating the erection of an Ore Treatment Plant of any kind. 
We design and erect complete mills and smelters, turning them over to the pur- 
chasers in running order, and have many such successful installations to our credit. 

Colorado Iron Works Company 

Established 1860 Denver, Colo., U. S. A. 

.tiuiiiary 1. 1916 

MINING and Scieotifii l*KI SS 

Air Compressors 

wv have the following air compressors in Denver ready tor immediate shipment 
Thesi- compressors are In practically ns good condition as when new. Most of 
them have not been in use six months. You can save f>o . over the cos! ol new 


II .Mr. :i sunk.', i apaolt] UN 
Corllu valva on low praasura iteam. 
Mxltil mpotind An, simple itAam, capacity 668. 

10xl2x6\\12 Compound Mr, almpla itaanii 

W9 lui\ <• tin M Ot thin si.-f 


8x10x12 Kami I'luim (". capacity 153 ft. 

14x14x11 Rand Claai C capacity St] ft. 

Mxlfxll Rand Claai C capacity 512 tt. 

14x18x14 Rand I'lnn C, capacity 671 ft. 

9h% and 12x8Vt and llxll Hnnd Class It::, oompreaied air 
and steam, capacity 2VL' ft. 

11 and 18xl814xl0'.,>cl0 Ingcrsoll Class OS, compressed 
air ami steam, capacity -139 ft. 

34 and 14x24 and 13x16 Rand Imperial Type 10. com- 
pressed air and steam, capacity 1250 ft. 


6x8x6 Simple steam nnd air comp., 

ft. capacity. 

xl4>Ax8xS Duplex steam, comp. uir. capacity 345 ft. 

2 ana 20x11x12 Duplex steam, comp. afr, capacity 520 ft. 

0x18x10x10 Duplex steam, comp. air. capacity 5SS ft. 


8x9x12 Simple steam and air. capacity 130 ft. 

12^x13 and 8MiXl6 Comp. air, simple steam, capacity 

314 ft 
16x18 and 11x22 Comp. air. simple steam, capacity 648 ft. 


n x 1 1 x 1 1 Simple 
10x11x11 Blmpli 

iteam and mi oi 
in! air 


13x14x10 Simple strum and air. oapaolty 342 ft 


6x6 Curtis vertical Duplex, capacity IX fl 
10x13 Hand Imperial, Type 11. capaolt] lit fi 
16 and 10x18 Leyner Comp. air, capacity 481 ft. 
10 and 10x12 I-aldlaw ('.imp. air. :, ft. 

18 and 10x111 Clayton Comp. air, capacity 688 ft. 
24(4 and 1414x14 Ingersoll, class J2. capacity 1007 ft. 


2 — 4Sxl0. 6-Inch opening, weight 2360 lbs. 
V — 42x10. 6-inch opening, w.-irjit IT'io lh.v 
1 — 42x12, 6-inch opening, weight 2000 lbs. 
1 — 30x10. 4-inch opening, weight 960 lbs. 
2 — 24x6. 2*i-inch opening, weight, 950 lbs. 


Every size and make of Piston Drills, $75.00 each. 
40 New Murphy Stoping Drills. $50.00 each. 
5 New Murphy Sinking Drills. $40.00 each. 
Columns. Arms. Clamps, Tripods, etc. 

Tlie IVIorse Bros. IVIacl-iinery &. Supply Co. 





l.i-Foot Placer Dredw. — Nat'.mas Consolidated of California 

We have built more placer dredge machinery than 
any other manufacturer in the world. 
Our designs are backed up with an experience as 
old as the industry. 

New York Chicago San Francisco 

Portland, 0r«. Lot Aofele* New Orleani 
Union Construction Co., ffti Mission 
St., San Francisco, Agents for Placer 
Dred^s for Western Uniterl Slates. 
Western Canada and Alaska. 


P. O. BOX O 


We ulso build <Jold Dr*?dffing Machin- 
ery, Steam and Electric Shovels and 
Drufrlino Excavators of all types and 
sizes, Dredges for harbor, river or 
ditch work. N-'25-2 

in MININC and Scientific PRESS January 1, 1916 




The Wedge Mechanical Furnace 


Regarding Your Roasters — 

Could you reduce costs and increase your 
percentage of recovery of values, provided you 
could secure a better or more uniform roast? 

Advise us regarding your problem. It is pos- 
sible we may be of profitable service to you. 

Wedge Furnaces with different detail in con- 
struction are successfully used today for 
Sweet-Roasting Gold Ores, Chloridizing and 
Sulphatizing Copper and Silver Ores, Dead- 
Roasting Iron Ores, Roasting Lead Matte and 
Lead Ores, etc. 

It may pay you to ascertain what could be 
done with your problem. 

Please write fully | 

: I 

Wedge Mechanical Furnace Company | 

Greenwich Point, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Januarj I 1916 

MINING .,nd Scienlih. I'KI SS 


Underground Timber Costs 

tirltAT is your exponas when thi- timber 
"' las of drifts and other openings through 
s«>rt or swelling ground mnsl be renewed or 
ill.- ground caves through tallare of de< 
Umbers! The cosl of timber is usually the 
small. st item. 

if timber decaj can !»■ prevented by proper 
treatment, much <>f the delay, annoyance 
and expense of nunc repairs and renewals 
Is eliminated. 


Stnndnnl Ketort. 

THK experience of the rail- 
roads with ties and of 
municipalities with paving 

blocks is conclusive that the 
service from treated timber 
Is double or triple that from 

The most satisfactory method 
of treatment is the impregna- 
tion of the wood cells with 
antiseptics in closed cylin- 

Timber Preserving Plant of the Pennsylvania Railway Co. 
at Mt. Union. Penn. 

T N a properly constructed treating plant 
•*■ the delay in the use of timber due to 
treatment is negligible, the cost of treat- 
ment is low, and the investment in the plant 
Is reasonable. A mining company with sev- 
eral years ore reserve will increase its profits 
by preserving all mine timbers. 

AUis-Chalmers Mfg. Company has built 
many large and small Timber Preserving 
Plants; its engineering experience with this 
class of equipment is at your service. We 
suggest that you write us advising the kind 
of timber you use and the quantity required 
per year. 

Improved Timber Car. 

Allis - Chalmers Manufacturing Company 

Mining Machinery Department 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

For all Canadian business refer to Canadian Allis-Chalmers, Ltd., Toronto, Ont., Canada. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1, 1!>16 

Consider the Four 



1. < 'mailing force i:\- 
I.RTKU pruporl ioti- 
ed to force IIE- 

iH iiu:i>. 
The cones automatic- 
ally classify the par- 
ticles so that each is 
subjected to a break- 
ing' force of such 
magnitude as Is pro- 
portional to that re- 
quired for Its further 

2. Minimum potit-r per 
ton output. 
The Hardlnge requires 
from two- thirds to 
one- third the power 
per ton output as com- 
pared to other mills. 

;i. I nobBtrurted rtl«- 
Free passage for 
crushed product, and. 
further, no screen re- 

-I. MronKeat. simplest, 
nnd IlKhlcftt cimj. 
The Hardlnge Conical 
Mill, with Its double 
cone. constitutes a 
perfect (ru**. 

The Cones are essential. 

The Hardinge is the 

ONLY conical mill 

A SERIES OF ADVERTISEMENTS, of which this is No. 3 

EVERYBODY who has had any experience at all with grinding machinery 
knows that the real problem lies not merely with grinding but in dis- 
charging the ground product the instant it has reached the required 
fineness. On the degree of perfection thus accomplished depends- crushing 
efficiency, consumption of wearing parts, tonnage output, and many other 
equally important factors. Consider then 

Cone Fact No. 3 — 




The screen Is the great obstructor of 
egress in nearly all grinding ma- 
i :hlne& No one yet has devised a screen 
that is nil hole*. Every partlcl 
metal between holes in any screen In- 
terposes a wall against the dlschai 
the ground product. 

The Hardlnge Conical Mill needs no 
and yet delivers an al m oa r 
prfectly ground product. Why? It 
Is the Cones. 

Get out that little glass model of 
yours. If you have neglected to ash 
US for one, do it now. 

Sha k e it up welL then re volve II 
slowly. See how the larger and heavier 
partich-s naturally take their place at 
the largest diameter and then grade 
themselves according to size up the 
until the discharge opening Is 
reached where the smallest particles 
only discharge themselves. This Is 
one of the most Interesting and Im- 
portant Of all the cone fuel*, the Nlxlnic 

Function of the cones thus making pos- 
sible a free instead of an obstructed 
■ i ge. 

Till* educational iterlc* linn been prepnred for thiwe who want to KNOW the WHY 

of (he Hiinlinur Conical Mill-, Thai nil ihe-c lliini;- are ho ban been proved by tnllN 

ci nit l use u rltnl i nu approximately 40,000 toni* of ore each day. 
rite to un for i nl t-re-i Int da In today, 

larticle crushed 
pebble =1:260 . 000 
Comparative ■> I flVfe' particle crushed 

relation of crushing I _ |b y2"pebble=l:53,O0O 
medium to particle > Vf/V particle crushed 
being crushed- I bv 3" pebble -1:1700 

1:4 division ' 

, in Hi imiii lint- nriiiinii- ;■ i ■ i' i ■ ■ v i ii i .i i ■- 1 i luiin/u iimi> •>■ i > i v i 111 11 iin.i. 

\ZT ^hardinge 



Mill & 

fe Conical 





M U >••" lit KM VI | 
P II M,1X>\.\LD 

( It „ 

BS1 wil.lMil n I860 

PublaimJ .1 4iO Mark* Si, .San Fnocaco. by ikr [>wy PuUahiiw Co. 

Mil Ml ( iiMHIIII IiiHv 

n 11 

i s. Austin 

i ;. luhlo Cai'tunl 

i •■ Kiilb. 

P. I.ynu 

Jnmei l\ Kemp, 
i'. ii Probarl 
C w. I'm 1 1 
Hon V- u in, i, .11 

liinii«-.l Every Saturday 

13 par Year — 10 Cent* per Copy 

San Francisco, January 1, 1916 

The Buyer's Guide — Piibo I] 
Aiivi'i ttseri [ndax— Last Page 




Notes , 

Tin Outlook 

A forecast (or the New Tear, the general Improvement 
In conditions, the effects of the War, and the after- 
effects of the great struggle in Europe. An optimistic 
view of the general position, particularly as regards 
metal mining. 

1 lav Mining 

Remarks suggested by the prohibition of liquor-sell- 
ing in Arizona and Colorado, with particular reference 
to the mining excitement at Oatman and the general 
effect on the life of the frontier community. 



MlNtNI. M .ll MM 

Criticisms of articles appearing recently in the Engi- 
ng ,(- Mining Journal and the Boston News 
Bureau, with corrections based on first-hand informa- 


Valuing Complex Ores. 

By A. M. Plumb 

A new and practical point of view on the market 
value of ores by an engineer of experience in that 
capacity; a complex ore estimated by the usual process 
to have a value of $29 per ton is shown to allow only a 
comparatively narrow margin of profit, depending on 
the prices that prevail for various compounds. 

\Vn v Is Flotation? 

By Qeorge Huston 

A discussion of flotation details and essentials from 
the Coeur d'Alene; the theory of the bubble, the effect 
of adding oil, agitation in frothing work, heating 
the water, the effect of acid, the importance of ma- 
chines and methods of agitation. 

Flotation Residue. 

By W. Motherwell 

A comment on the article by Mr. Wilton Shellshear as 
to the disposal of residue in Australia. 


Testing Ores fob tiii: Flotation I'i 

By O. C. Ralston and Olenn L. Allen 

A first Installment of data on flotation not included in 
Mr. Hoover's book on the subject, by metallurgists of 
the U. S. Bureau of Mines and the University of Utah: 
description of the different machines in use; film- 
flotation and the Wood machine: the Potter or Del- 
prat process; mechanical frothing by the Janney ma- 
chine, the Hoover machine, and the Slide machine. 

Drilling in Narrow STOPEB. 

By P. B. McDonald 14 

How to maintain a mine's rock-drills in a state of 
perfection commensurate with the amount of money 
they consume in operation and cost; new developments 
in the technology of drilling; methods at the North 
Star mine; the Dreadnaught versus the fjeyner; 
strength of blow, cushioning, and speed. 

Oatman, Arizona — A Prohibition Camp. 

By Frank H. Probert 17 

The human-interest side of a much-heralded gold 
rush ; how an engineer was impressed by a visit to 
Mohave county; Oatman, a typical mushroom boom 
camp except for one thing; geological notes, the 
question of depth, a promising district. 


Review oi- Mining 21 

Special correspondence from Denver, Colorado; Fair- 
banks, Alaska. Our Denver correspondent discusses 
tungsten in the San Juan mountains, the unwatering 
of the Down Town mines at Leadvilie which was 
mentioned on our front cover several months ago, the 
pregnant matter of prohibition — a State dry as ashes, 
winter snows, roads. Word from Fairbanks is that 
the new trail to the Tolovana via Olnes has helped 
traffic; new prospects encouraging, better times for 
central Alaska, quartz operations. 

The Mining Summary 23 

Personal 28 

The Metal Market 29 

Eastern Metal Market 30 

Metal Production in 1915 31 

Established May 24. I860, as The Scientific Preas; name 
changed October 20 of the same year to Mining: and Scientific 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class mat- 
ter. Cable address: Pertusola, 

Branch Offices — Chicago, 300 Fisher Bdg.; New York, 1308-10 
Woolworth Bdg.; London, 724 Salisbury House. E.C. 

Price. 10 cents per copy. Annual subscription: United States 
and Mexico, $3; Canada, $4; other countries In postal union, 
21s. or ?5 per annum. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1. l!ilK 


Builders v. Manufacturers 

The builder creates, the manufacturer adapts or 'turns out' The builder meets 
specific conditions with a structure that is best fitted to those conditions. The manu- 
facturer attempts to meet these conditions by simply turning out his regular product, 
trusting or hoping that it will fit the conditions. In one case success is assured, and 
in the other, a risk, is taken. 

Every EMPIRE Gold-Dredge is designed and built — not manufactured — to fit 

the particular conditions under which it is to operate; that is the reason of the success 
of Empire Gold- Dredges in all parts of the world. 

Placer-mining as a business is the text 
of the two Empire catalogs — Dredges 
and Drills — sent on request. 


Includes Dredges, Drills, Hydraulic or Bucket Gravel-Elevat- 
ors, High-Carbon Steel Sluices and Riffles, Hydraulic Pipe- 
Lines, Giants, Etc. We design and build your equipment to 
suit your conditions. 



V. A. STOUT, We.tern Representative, Room 601 Balboa Building, SAN FRANCISCO 

.Iiiiniurt 1 1910 

MINIM.; ..nd S-irniih. l'KI S-S 


T. A. RICKARD, Editor 

OBLF-SUFPICINGNESS of the mineral resources of 
*~J this oountry is emphasised by the Secretary of the 
Interior in a recent report 1 1«- points to the facl 

that a battleship or an automobile can be built entirely 
from the products of American mines. The tires of the 

automobile are excepted, for rubber is not an indigenous 
produet. ami will not be until the synthetic article can 
be mannfaetureil. For the rest, this country produces 
.'i.V, of the world's eopper, 40% of the eoal and iron, 
if the had and zinc, but no tin or nickel worthy of 
mention. However, neither need be used in the con- 
struction of either the battleship or the automobile, for 
tungsten, manganese, ami vanadium ean be substituted 
tor the nickel, and zinc tor the tin. Thus Mr. Franklin 
K. Lane's boast is justified. 

'TMIIS PAPER is devoted to the technology of mining 
- 1 - ami to the advancement of the mining profession. 
therefore it rejoices in the progress of the one and the 
prosperity of the other, yet we regret often in these 
history-making days that the scope of our function re- 
stricts us from touching upon wider and more acutely 
controversial subjects, of far greater importance to the 
world at large. To dwell upon the prospects of good 
business in this tragic time does indeed hear the look of 
gross materialism. We must accept our limitations. 
otherwise these pages might become filled with non- 
technical discussion. May we be permitted to quote just 
this from Mr. E. S. Martin: "Whether there are more 
people in the world or less, whether they are fat or lean, 
whether they are Fords or oxen, makes no vital differ- 
ence ; hut whether men shall be willing to die for what 
they believe makes all the difference between a pigsty 
and Paradise. Not hy bread alone, Henry, shall men 
live." And is it not also true, as the Colonel of Bough 
Riders has said, that "the man who is too proud to fight 
is in practice always treated as just proud enough to he 
kicked." In other words, we wish that our national 
prosperity were better deserved. It is the old and 
iterative question that like Banquo's ghost rises to 
chill the gladness of the feast : can we industrialize our 
lives without commercializing our souls? That is the 
problem of American democracy. 

A MONO the best features of the recent Exposition 
- r *- was the co-operative metallurgical exhibit made 
under the management of the U. S. Bureau of Mines. 
In connection with this exhibit a number of investiga- 
tions into definite metallurgical problems were started 
under the auspices of a special committee organized by 
Mr. Charles E. van Barneveld, the chief of the Mines 

and Metallurgy department of the Exposition. By a 
happy coincidence Mr. van Barneveld was appointed 
professor of mining in the University of California 
while still responsible for the work above mentioned, so 

that he was able, aided by the gentlemen of the Bureau 
of .Mines, to arrange tor a continuance of the research 
at the University, Among the problems to be studied 
are I I the chemistry of roasting sulphide ores in the 
presence of water vapors, (2) the absorption of sulphur 
dioxide in various absorbents, (3) the distillation of 
sulphur from sulphide ores, (4) the thiogen process. 
(5) the loss of eopper in reverberatory- furnace slags. 
The chemical work is being done by Mr. L. II. Duschak 
and the pyro-mctallurgy by Mr. A. E. Wells. More- 
over, Mr. G. H. Clevenger will proceed with hydro 
metallurgical investigations at Stanford University, 
among the problems assigned to him being (1) sizing 
tests, (2) cyanidation of refractory silver minerals, and 
(3) the standardization of analytical methods in mills. 
All of this, of course, is much to the point and promises 
to be of direct benefit to the mining industry. 

T ABOR will be a determining factor in the prosperity 
- Li now promised to the United States. It is time for 
the managers of mining and smelting companies to 
recognize the grave danger that may shatter their hope 
of successful effort if they fail to face this basic problem 
frankly. The higher cost of living will cause a logical 
demand for a rise in the scale of wages. If labor shares 
the loss of capital in bad times, it should share the larger 
profit in good times. The obvious thing to have done was 
to fix a minimum wage during a period of depression 
and then to make an increase based upon the relative 
increment of profit in periods of commercial affluence. 
It is a mistake to postpone the adjustment until it is 
extorted by the violence of a strike. We do not follow 
such a plan in our dealings with members of a staff, 
whether in the office or at home. An attempt should 
be made to promote a feeling of reasonableness and 
mutual consideration. Now is the time to start. If 
only the suspicious attitude of labor to capital could be 
modified by genuine fair dealing, it would be possible 
not only to soothe labor unrest but render nugatory the 
conspiracies of the anarchistic organizations that thrive 
on the unthinking antagonism of managers and men. 
Both employer and employee are destined to prosper 
exceedingly in the near future if they can agree to be 
reasonable ; both may taste the sour grapes of disap- 
pointment if they antagonize each other needlessly. It 
is useless for the day's pay man, and it is stupid of the 
captain of industry, to think that either can exorcize this 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1, l!»lb' 

devil of disquiet by Bhutting his eyes and mumbling 
the old platitudes. Let them get together to the good 
of both and the well-being of the community. 

REVISION of the mining law will receive the sup- 
port of the Secretary of the Interior, judging by 
the remarks in his annual report, in which he says that 
"the old code is so elaborate and complicated that the 
best of brains cannot tell what the law is. The truth 
seems to be that between mining engineers and mining 
lawyers the rules of the game have been refined into 
obscurity, and if Congress were to say to the President 
that he might select three men familiar with mining 
laws and miners' difficulties to suggest a new mining 
code to Congress, it would, I believe, be giving in earnest 
a new freedom to the mining industry." This is of good 

omen for the success of the steps taken at the n nt 

representative meeting at Washington under the aus- 
pices of the Mining and Metallurgical Society of 
America, on which occasion resolutions were passed 
recommending thorough revision of the mining law by 
a Government Commission composed of five members, 
one representing the legal profession, one representing 
the Department nt the Interior, and three men actively 
experienced in the mining and acquisition of mineral 
land. In order to further the best interests of the mining 
industry in this matter, it was further resolved 1" Create 
a permanent committee on mining law revision, this 
committee to consist of five members from the Mining 
and Metallurgical Society, five from the American In- 
stitute, and live from the American Mining Congress. 
We congratulate Messrs. H. V. Winchell, Curtis II. 
Lindley. John W. Finch, and our other friends on their 
successful effort. May it succeed! 

The Outlook 

Watchman, what of the day I We' stand on the 
threshold of a new year, while the shadows of the dawn 
are still about us. In the east, whence light shoidd come, 
we see black darkness riven with lurid lightnings, and 
through the gloom is heard the sound of a great weep- 
ing. In the west, where day should wane, we see a 
brightening, a growing radiance that presages the sun- 
shine of happier hours. 

Indeed, the people of the United States at the begin- 
ning of 1916 may well wax rhapsodical when they re- 
member how deep was their dismay and how great their 
confusion only twelve months ago. Then the stock- 
markets were closed to prevent hysterical liquidation, 
finance was disorganized by a break-down of interna- 
tional exchange, mines, mills, and factories were working 
half-time, a gathering mass of unemployment threatened 
general distress, and worse than any actual evil was the 
tear of the future. Now. the -stock-markets are pulsat- 
ing with excitement, industrial activity has been re- 
sinned vigorously, business is expanding mightily, there 
is work for everybody, and a convincing optimism per- 
vades the air. Confidence has been restored. Money is 
plentiful, because Europe has sent us a plethora of gold 

in return for the grain, metals, and other supplies that 
we are selling at an unprecedented rate. The steel in- 
dustry, that barometer of business, is booming. Even 
the railroads are beginning to recover, and in some cases 
are smothered by traffic Idle cars are as scarce as idle 
men. Mining is in the ascendant, for the world is con- 
suming metals of every kind. 

For the moment, all is serene; what of the future? Is 
the astonishing business in munitions to collapse sud- 
denly at the first authentic breath of peace and will the 
collapse bring down a mere house of cards founded on a 
fictitious trade? "Will the rapid accumulation of gold 
induce a fever of speculation and an orgy of extrava- 
gance just when the rehabilitation of Europe will bring 
us into keen competition with newly organized masses 
of relatively cheap labor? It is well to consider these 
questions and to pause in our jubilation. The happy- 
go-lucky or laiss, i faire habits of this unorganized 
democracy may verge at times on the edge of industrial 
anarchy. A policy of simple drift may bring disaster. 
It is the part of a wise man or a sagacious community to 
look ahead and steer a definite course. 

So far. so good. Neither a welter of speculation nor a 
debauch of extravagance has overcome this country, as 
yet. The public has been warned and has taken the 
warning to heart. Wall Street is not the United States. 
The average citizen has not gone drunk with a crazy 
optimism ; on the contrary, he is asking seriously what he 
is to anticipate. He sees rocks ahead and is willing to 
be piloted. It is generally realized that the outstanding 
problem is to shift the intensified activity in the abnor- 
mal manufacture of munitions and other exports of war 
to the up-building of domestic trade and the creation of 
new channels of peaceful commerce abroad. This is 
being done. War orders are playing a steadily decreas- 
ing part in our prosperity. The profit made by them 
is being diverted to the renovation of manufactories in 
need of working capital and to the starting of industries 
of a less ephemeral nature than the making of shells 
and howitzers. Purely domestic development is receiv- 
ing proper attention. Successful efforts have been made 
to establish commercial relations with South America 
and other countries hitherto accustomed to do the chief 
part of their business with Europe. This justifies the 
expectation that the end of the War will mark the be- 
ginning of a new prosperity based upon logical develop- 
ment. The United States will be the only large indus- 
trial organism in a condition to supply the wants of the 
countries devastated and depleted by war. The loss of 
capital and of men in Europe will be so crippling as to 
compel an insistent call for the manufacturing, agricul- 
tural, and metallic products of this country. Not that 
it will be all plain sailing, for the adjustment of inter- 
national exchange, the rise in American wages, the 
higher cost of living, and other factors will make big 
perturbations. On the whole, however, the outlook is 
good, particularly for metal mining. 

We see no reason to amend the forecast presented to 
our readers several months ago in regard to the demand 
for metals in the near future. Later events have been 

January 1. 1916 

MINING and Sci.-nl.hc PRKSS 

oonflrmatorj . u well as the prognostications of sundry 

authorities eminent in tinancc and trade. Th insump- 

turn of the luis*' mi-tills in tin- making of monitions ia 
aiiMimiloiis. of oonrae, t>ut it will become a less decisive 

factor H industrial ilt-vt-lopiiii-iil gains ground As 

against the loss of this marital <>n the declaration of 
peace we can place the resumption of the usual de 
mand from the countries now entirely closed to Ameri- 
can exports. Whatever the decision of the sword, Ger- 
many will continue t.> be a ureal industrial country. 
Austria also, whether aggrandised or partitioned at the 
close of hostilities, will resume dealings with the United 
States. Of the copper produced in this Country, about 
goes normally to (iermany. Besides the normal 
consumption there will lie. when peace supervenes, a re- 
placement of at least a part of the metal taken out of 
ordinary use by the exigencies of war. The whole of the 
American lead production is usually required for home 
consumption. In 1914 exports of domestic lead, amount- 
ing to 58.700 short tons, were made to Europe for the 
first time in many years. The War has interrupted the 
smelting of foreign ores and concentrates both in Bel- 
gium and in Germany, cutting down the output from 
Australia, more particularly, where domestic smelting is 
now being stimulated by the State regulation of mineral 
exports. At the conclusion of hostilities, there should 
be a demand from Europe for American lead to supply 
deficiencies created by wastage and destruction. This 
applies also to zinc, which, like lead, is produced in this 
country at a rate only slightly in excess of consumption. 
That excess, however, is increasing. During 191:! and 
1914 it was 14% ; in 1912 and 191 1 consumption and 
production were just about equal. The War killed the 
Belgian zinc-smelting industry and interfered with that 
of Germany. Since hostilities began the successful de- 
velopment of the leaching and electrolytic precipitation 
process in this country promises to become a big factor 
in cheapening the production of the metal and in aiding 
competition with the European smelters. The con- 
tinued progress being made in the metallurgical reduc- 
tion of the base metals tends to strengthen the smelting 
industry of the United States, thereby establishing an 
increasingly better market for the produce of the mines 
at home and also abroad. With the growth of domestic 
consumption consequent upon the expansion of domestic 
industry and the exceptional demand from Europe re- 
sulting from the tremendous work of reconstruction, 
there should be a splendid market for the metals during 
the coming years. By that we do not mean that the pres- 
ent prices of the metals will persist undiminished ; that 
would be too much to expect, and would provoke a cor- 
rective, in the form of substitutions, likely to be injurious 
in the long run. The price of zinc, for example, is such 
as to hurt the galvanized iron trade and cause a demand 
for a substitute plating. Severe discountings of existing 
prices for copper and zinc, more particularly, are pos- 
sible without serious injury to legitimate mining. Cop- 
per at 17 cents, and zinc at 8 cents would afford ample 
margin for handsome profits. Allowing room for such 
contingencies, the outlook for metal mining is good. 

Dry Mining 

We arc glad to I ■•■ abb- to give our readers ,i time!) 
artiele on Oatman, the resuscitated goldfleld in An 

zona. It is being featured in the daily ,is .i new 
discovery, but in reality it marks the revival of activity 

in the desert country around the old Gold Road and 
Tom Seed mines, brought into fresh prominence by the 
development of a new rich mine, tio- United Eastern. 

The resuscitation or revival has I n effected without 

the aid of alcoholic stimulants, for Oatman is a dry 

camp. In his happy presentment of the picturesque 
features of this new rush. .Mr. Frank II. Probert lays 
emphasis on the fact that prohibition renders Oatman 

wholly unlike the mining excitements of former days. 
Undoubtedly the result is the loss of a certain kind of 
pseudo-romantic glow such as glorifies tin- Outcasts of 
Poker Flat and the Idyll of Bed Gulch, but that is 

Something more essential to I'l tier poetry than to 

human progress. It seems strange to the veterans of 
the West to think of an Arizonan boom devoid of the 
necessaries of exhilaration, and it seems equally strange 
that in the new year our friends in Colorado should bo 
facing a similar break with all the traditions of the 
past, for their courts also have decided that prohi- 
bition must be absolute. Our correspondent at Denver 
views the prospect with ill-concealed dismay, while 
recognizing frankly that the open saloon is an institu- 
tion not essential to civilization. The West is out- 
growing the recklessness of youth and no longer con- 
tuses good fellowship with a superabundance of cock- 
tails. So we shall neither sneer at, nor commiserate 
with. Oatman. The money that would have gone to 
the mixologists and distilleries will be kept for the 
more productive purpose of exploring the desert rocks 
in search of the precious metal. And the painfully 
sober prospector is doing it vigorously and effectively, 
according to all accounts. The geological structure 
offers no short cuts to wealth, as is clear from the pre- 
liminary diagnosis of Mr. Probert. Much more investi- 
gation is necessary, as he indicates while offering some 
pertinent suggestions. Hitherto some of the best ore- 
bodies have been found at a distance below the surface, 
thus creating the pleasant delusion that enrichment is 
a consequence of depth. One swallow does not make a 
summer — nor even a drink — at Oatman; likewise the fact 
that two shafts did not strike good ore until 300 feet 
was reached does not constitute evidence on which to 
build the idea of an ore-bearing horizon at a fixed dis- 
tance from grass-roots. Of course, we appreciate the 
fact that, in determining the probable value of a pros- 
pect, the postponement of the critical point until the 
workings have reached a given depth is not without 
practical value in ensuring a reasonable amount of 
vertical exploration. In a district where the orebodies 
have a decided pitch and are softer than the encasing 
rock, such a supposition tends to promote systematic 
search. The story of Goldfield proves that a bonanza 
may fail to poke its head above the cactus. But we do 
deprecate the assumption, already current in brokerage- 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1, 191u 

literature, that a poor showing at surface is not dis- 
couraging, nay, almost furnishes proof of the richness 
of the vein at 300 feet, for thai is what happened in the 
United Eastern, BO it is said. However, the humor of 
the position is evident. We believe that the enforced 
sobriety of the mining population of Oatman will not 
be without effect in modifying the imagination of the 
promoter and in giving legitimate mining a fair chance. 
Interesting developments may lie expected in this part 
of Arizona during 1916. 

Mining at Juneau 

We note that our contemporary at New York, the 
Mining Journal, has had something further to say con- 
cerning the exploitation of the big lode that traverses 
the Gastineau and Juneau groups of claims in Alaska. 

As is slated truly, the Subject is S of interest "nol 

only to thousands of investors in the shares of these 
Companies, but also to the engineering profession." We 
are told that "the problem itself involves the mining and 
milling at a profit of ore that is expected to average 
only about $1.50 per ton." No; the problem is to 
ascertain whether the expectation of a $1.50 yield per 
ton is warranted under given conditions; to determine 

how small veins of quartz ( laining $6 per ton in gold 

and dispersed over a big width of barren rock can be 
mined most profitably. The engineer's duty is to find 
out to what extent, selection and sorting can be applied 
economically. Of course, the small gold-bearing veins 

traversing the slate lode could be mined and milled 

selectively al a cos! about equal to their assay-value and 
in exeess of their yield; on the other hand, the whole 
width of lode-matter could be mined indiscriminately 
and milled unsorted for a cost of about 50 cents per ton 
and a yield of perhaps 80 cents per ton, a margin suffi- 
cient to pay interest on the cost and depreciation of a 

suitable plant. Somewhere between these extremes is 

the economic limit thai coincides with the maximum of 
profit. The engineers of the Juneau plan a $1.20 re- 
covery as best suited to the conditions in that mine; the 
Gastineau management planned a $1.50 recovery, which 
now. by such accidents as are a part of the sport of 
mining, has been reduced to $1 per ton. Our learned 
contemporary says that the one company intends to 
adopt "bulk mining." while the other applies "selective 
mining." This comparison is misleading. Both are 
aiming to restrict their stoping to mill-ore having the 
average yield that is most profitable, after balancing the 
three inter-dependent factors of tonnage, yield, and cost. 
The Juneau is selecting places suitable for bulk mining: 
the Gastineau is selecting plaees suitable for preferential 
mining, or sorting. 

Another contemporary, usually well informed, the 
Boston News Bureau, publishes an article on the subject 
with the sub-title 'An Investment Proposition.' Both 
the New York and the Boston paper talk about the enter- 
prise as an 'investment,' which, of course, it is not. It 
is. or may be, a highly attractive speculation, with all 
the risk inherent to gold mining. The promoters may 

call it an 'investment' when addressing an unsophisti- 

public, but the engineering profession must, be well 

aware that a wasting asset of uncertain life affords no 
basis for investment. However, we have digressed. The 
Boston paper asserts further that it is "a minor problem 
to balance Ofc mining below a dollar per ton by ore 
running up to $3 or $4 per ton. and make an average of 
$1.50 per Ion." Tie- problem is one for a miner, not a 
minor. It constitutes the crux of the whole matter. We 

are told how "of cumse. the unexpected happened" and 

a collapse of ground spoiled some rich stopes. That, my 
dear Sir, is part of the problem in this kind of mining 
and it is one of the things that militate against the in- 
vestment' idea. The Boston scribe says that "the ore is 
disseminated in fine particles through layers of slate. 
meta-gabbro, and schist." but he has not learned his 
lesson correctly. The wording smacks too much of a 
copper deposit in L'tah or Arizona, and is not applic- 
able to this Alaskan lode, in which the rock is enriched 
by gold in irregular veins of cpiartz, not by ehalcocite 
pervading monzonite-porphyry. The gold is not in the 
slate, schist, or meta-gabbro — nor in Shadrach, Meshach, 
and Abednego. Meanwhile nothing is said about that 
horse of schist that proved so destructive to the estimate 
of a large block of ore-bearing ground. Such happen- 
ings are part of the mining adventure and should not be 
exaggerated, but they inject an element of uncertainty 
into those approximations on which the exploitation of 
mines is based. These two big enterprises near Juneau 
require the most careful study of the most experienced 
engineers, and they are getting it, as would be better 
appreciated if the voice of the broker were not so loud. 
Reverting to the explanations of the New York period- 
ical, we find a curious blunder. The statement is made, 
in its issue of December 18, that the engineers of the 
Juneau "are going to adhere to the conventional 
stamps" while the Gastineau management has intro- 
duced the use of rolls into its mill. Our readers are 
better informed on this phase of the subject, for we dis- 
CUSSed it at length in our issue of October 16. In the 
Gastineau mill the ore is reduced in a large jaw-crusher, 
passing thence to a series of gyratory crushers, and 
then in succession to roughing rolls, finishing rolls, anil 
tube-mills. The Juneau mill has been designed on the 
same lines, except that ball-mills are substituted for the 
rolls. No stamps are to be used. Indeed, as we stated 
three months ago, a series of experiments is being made 
at Treadwell also with a view to determining whether it 
would not be advantageous to employ ball-mills, instead 
of stamps, in case a new- central mill is erected to treat 
the output of the three contiguous mines on Douglas 
island. In these and other matters this part of Alaska 
is destined to afford much of interest and instruction to 
the mining profession. The men in control of the work 
at the three principal groups of properties — the Tread- 
well, Gastineau, and Juneau — are among the most ex- 
perienced and resourceful in this country. If there be 
any rivalry, as our contemporary takes pains to suggest, 
we do not doubt that it will simply serve to give zest to 
the application of technical science on a splendid scale. 

Januan I 1 '• 1 •> 

MINING ud Sciential I'KI SS 


Our lire iui'ili'il 10 UM llli« <i,|',lrlni,nl |ur llu- (HfCUaunl o| In -Iniit ul and mlur iililllrri p«T- 

MinlnJ in mining and nwiallurgy, I hi I dllor wttcomm Ih* «*pn vton o| 1 In - 1 onfraty la III awn, ln- 
ItoclnJ lhal cartful criticism ii mora yaluabU than eafual oompllnunl, 

Valuing Complex Ores 
The Editor; 

Sir I have noticed from time to time, articles by 
many different engineers and metallurgists, on the bud- 
jeol of mine Valuation. I do not recall having seen any- 
thing in the oatore of a diaonasion of ore valuation. 
Siini- my work tor the past ):t years lias been almost en- 
tirely along the lines of valuation of complex ores, 
especially those containing zinc, I propose to open the 
i1in.iis.miui. if indeed the subject is deemed worthy of 
sinli, by submitting the following: 

Baving worked out the treatment of several complex 
ores and having attempted to work a treatment for 
several hundred others. I have taken a specific ease 
which has come to my personal attention and which, I 
believe, will serve the purpose of argument, more com- 
pletely perhaps than a general discussion of the subject. 

During the greater part of the present year, owing to 
increased activity in the zinc industry, engineers have 
had many occasions to examine and report on mines, the 
value of which has depended to a large extent upon the 
zinc content of the ore. The mine is sampled and the ore 
measured to a point where the engineer finds a certain 
number of tons carrying a certain amount of gold, silver, 
copper, lead, zinc, iron, and any other metal that can 
be recovered and sold. It is at this point in his examin- 
ation that an understanding of the methods of treatment 
to be employed that will effect a commercial saving of 
the metals, the cost of such method, and the marketing 
of the products, is fully as essential to the correctness of 
his findings as is the knowledge of methods for sampling 
and measuring the ore. It is at this point that the 
assayer has found himself in a most embarrassing posi- 
tion, not on account of his inefficiency as an assayer, 
but because he has not the facts at hand upon which to 
base a sound opinion as to the value, in dollars and 
cents, of the ore upon which he has determined its metal 
contents. I have seen assay-certificates from reputable 
assayers which showed fully the metal contents, and, in 
the space for that purpose, was shown a value, calculated 
from the analysis. In many cases these 'values' have 
been found to represent the metal-values, based upon the 
current quotations for the different metals, and the 
ounces and pounds of the same metals delivered at New 
York. It is needless to say that this method is mislead- 
ing and may result in financial disaster if further in- 
vestigation is not undertaken. 

Many engineers have attempted to estimate such ore- 
values by allowing 'liberal' losses. By this method 

great mistakes may lie made, chiefly because the losses 

allowed have not been sufficiently 'liberal' It is my 
intention to show thai there is no possible way by which 

these losses can be estimated. They must be determined 
accurately, and in most eases, they will be found to be 
surprisingly large. 

Some months ago, 1 was asked by an engineer who 
had finished an examination, what percentage of saving 
could be reasonably expected by the most modern prac- 
tices. I was told that the ore 'ran' $12 per ton, allowing 
$20 for gold, 50c. for silver, 50c. per unit for lead, 
and 60c. per unit for zinc. He had not assayed for iron, 
since it had little value. I was unable to make an esti- 
mate, because I did not know, nor did any one know, 
what grades of products could be made or how much of 
the gold and silver would be found in the zinc product. 
These facts, which are absolutely essential, can be de- 
termined, and must be determined, before the value of 
the mine can be definitely fixed. 

To illustrate how difficult it would be to make an 
estimate of this kind, I submit the following table to show 
what products can be made and what money will actual- 
ly be received at a certain stage of the metal market, for 
a certain ore. 

Weight, Gold, Silver Lenrt, Zinc. Iron, Silica, 

$ oz. oz. # %> ff $ 

Original ore 100 0.07 9.00 8.00 16.00 7.00 46.00 

Lead product 8 0.32 45.00 68.00 5.00 6.00 2.00 

Percentage saved. 36.50 40.00 68.00 2.50 6.80 0.30 

Iron product 14 0.22 17.00 8.00 11.00 32.00 6.00 

Percentage saved. 44.60 26.40 14.00 9.50 64.00 1.80 

Zinc product 26 0.02 6.50 2.60 48.00 5.00 10.00 

Percentage saved. 8.50 19.00 8.60 78.00 18.50 5.60 

Slime 7 0.04 11.00 7.00 12.00 6.50 49.00 

Percentage saved. 4.00 8.50 6.10 5.20 6.50 7.40 

Tailing 45 0.01 1.20 0.60 1.70 0.70 86.00 

Percentage lost... 6.40 6.00 3.30 4.70 4.20 84.90 

It will be seen that the total concentrate carries 89.6% 
of the gold, 85.5% of the silver, 90.8% of the lead, and 
90.1% of the zinc. This certainly can be called a high 
saving. The original ore, estimated upon metal contents 
and quotations, with gold at $20, silver at 50c, lead at 
4^c, and zinc at 5c, has a value of $29.10. Estimated 
with gold and silver the same and lead at 50c per unit 
and zinc at 60c per unit, it has a value of $19.50. When 
these products are sold, however, they will be sold about 
as follows : In lead concentrate we receive $19 for gold, 
47ic for silver, 3Jc. for 90% of the lead (wet, less 1£), 
and 10c for excess iron. We pay $3 freight and no 
treatment charge. This leaves us $63.75 per ton net, or 
$5.10 per original ton. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1. lltlij 

Iron concentrate will bring the same prices for gold, 
silver, lead, and iron. We pay the same freight and 
about $5.50 for treatment. This leaves $11.31 per ton 
net, or $1.57 per original ton. 

The zinc concentrate, with spelter at 5c, and $5.50 
freight, will net $19.30 per ton or $5.02 per original ton. 

These net receipts amount to $11.69 per original ton, 
which is 31% of the assayer's figure and about 60% of 
the engineer's. 

A careful analysis of the above figures will show that 
we have received net $11.38 per ounce for gold, 25.2c. 
per ounce for silver, 2.09c. per pound for lead, and 1.57c. 
per pound tor zinc, which figures may safely be applied 
to this particular ore so long as the grade does not 
change materially. The contracts upon which I have 
figured settlements may vary to some extent, but the 
general result will be about the same. 

Thus it will be apparent to the investor and to his 
engineer that the metal contents and market prices of 
the metals cannot be used as a basis of calculation for 
valuing ore until it is fully and definitely known where 
these metals will be recovered and what prices will be 
received for the various products. 

A. M. Plumb. 

Denver, December 18, 1915. 

Why Is Flotation? 

The Editor: 

Sir — Please allow me to contribute to '"Why is Flota- 
tion?' for I have worked on the subject more or less 
since 1903. 

In the effort to elucidate flotation, a common error is 
made of trying to fit one explanation to both film, or 
skin, and frothing methods. The surface tension theory 
will tit the skin method, but cuts no figure with frothing. 
This will be seen as we progress. 

To begin, what is a bubble? Webster defines it as "a 
small body of air surrounded by a liquid." Being 
lighter, it rises through the liquid, and on reaching the 
surface presses upward, not against the liquid, but a 
fluid as light as itself. There is no further bar to its 
progress, so it escapes and joins the aforesaid fluid, 
known as the atmosphere. 

In this case, differences of specific gravity rule, which 
is precisely what governs conditions when oil in a finely- 
divided state is released below a water surface. This 
strong upward pull of both air and oil, due to gravity 
differences between them and water, is of prime impor- 
tance in practical flotation work. 

If a close-fitting glass-plate is introduced into a tank, 
just under the water surface, air and finely divided oil 
will collect against it, when they are released from be- 
low. If a sufficient, quantity of each is used and the 
entire space on the under side is covered, an addition 
will result in the gradual displacement of the water from 
the area, and a collecting together of two large separate 
globules of air and oil. Remove the plate, and the air, 
having in the large globule the sum of the combined 
bubble pressures, escapes to the atmosphere, while the 

oil tends to diffuse itself over the surface of the water. 

Continuing our experiment, we have now an elastic 
film of oil on the water surface, instead of the glass plate. 
A further addition from below of both oil and air causes 
the former to join the film, while the latter, in its effort 
to unite with *he atmosphere, impinges sharply against 
the lower surface of the oil film, raising it upward in a 
partly spherical form. If the oil film were now as solid 
as the glass plate, no doubt the same collection into sep- 
arate globules would obtain. The point, however, to be 
noted, is that each factor in the experiment remains 
separate, namely, oil, air, and water. 

We left the bubble slightly above the water surface 
and against the oil film, but not detached. On renewing 
the flow of air and oil from below, we find that the pres- 
sure of others will lift the bubble completely out of the 
water into the oil. When the lower part of the sphere 
is high enough the oil ends will join and we now have a 
bubble detached from the water, resting in oil and on 
the water surface. It has no water in its composition, 
floats easily, and holds its shape and character in the 
open air, whereas previously it could only exist under 

Wherefore, with a continuous supply of oil and air, 
bubble manufacture will proceed until the surface is 
covered with a thick coherent mass called a 'froth,' and 
a superficial study will show that surface tension, as 
commonly defined, plays no part in the phenomena. 

In my opinion there is no selective action between oil 
and certain constituents of an oil pulp. Bach particle 
in the pulp takes its oil coating impartially, but some, 
like the oxides, carbonates, and silicates, part with it 
quickly in the presence of water, while others, like the 
sulphides, cling to it obstinately. A sulphide particle, 
satisfied as to its oil requirements, gives up no part of its 
oil coating to feed the surface film, so necessary for the 
preservation of the air bubble, this factor being fur- 
nished by the oil from the oxides, carbonates, and sili- 
cates. Consequently, when submerged in water, the 
upward pull of the oil coating of the sulphide particle 
keeps it in a state of unstable buoyancy. It should be 
noted at this time that with frothing methods, the oiling 
takes place in the advance stages of treatment, and from 
the above we glean that it is important that all con- 
stituents be coated equally. 

Agitation in frothing work serves to introduce air 
into the water, and to a less degree keeps the entering 
pulp in partial suspension therein. The method em- 
ployed is unimportant in this discussion. 

In the light of the above reasoning, what happens 
when a froth-flotation machine is started and in opera- 

On starting the agitators in clean water, myriads of 
small bubbles form, due to air beaten in or furnished 
otherwise. Their natural path is upward, and in clean 
water they break at the surface. 

But a change takes place when the ore pulp, pre- 
viously oiled, is added. The pulp particles on entering 
the water, quickly give up the oil from the oxides, car- 
bonates, and silicates, that forms the preserving surface 

.Iauilar\ I. 1916 

MININt . ud S.mi.iu I'Kl SS 

lilm. Tiii- sulphide*, being in ■ state of nn«t*hii 
mi' > and dinging obstinately to their oiled oowtipg 
kept in Misp«'iiM"M or driven upward by the agitation, 
la moving through the water they oroaa the path of in> 

numerable air bubbles, and find no difficulty in «in««ing 

enough t" aarirl the buoyanoy. There ia drive enough 
to impinge them violently againal the oil Sim and the 
ire of myriada following, gives force enough to 
elevate them above the water surface into the familiar 
both. The gangue minerals, having no buoyanoy, sink. 

In practical frothing work, the design of the principal 
factors is of importance. The size of the agitation-boxes 
should he the smalleel posaible compatible with the ton- 
lapacity desired. Agitators should be so gauged 
and designed as to form S uniformly sized bubble, large 
enough to bavc the maximum transporting power with- 
out reducing the number thereof. The oil should be of a 
nature allowing maximum stretch at (he surface, and 
just tough enough to stand wear and tear. The lower its 
specific gravity, in combination with the other qualities 
desired, the greater its pulling or lifting power. Oiling 
should be done during grinding, if possible, as it gives 
a better mis. 

Heating the water thins the oil and lessens the con- 
sumption, but gives a more delicate bubble covering. It 
has this advantage, that it heats the air inside the bub- 
ble, increasing its pulling or lifting power, and should 
enable the treatment of coarser sizes, but this may be 
modified by the fact of its tending to rob the sulphide 
of the oil coating, thus reducing the pull. 

I think acid roughens and increases the sulphide area, 
allowing more oil to adhere, and assisting buoyancy. 
Possibly it generates a gas that acts like air. The old 
theory of calcite being necessary in the pulp for bubble- 
lifting is doubtful. Carbonic acid gas is heavier than 

A lot of study has been bestowed on oils, but very 
little on the other factors that are nearly as important. 
Machines or methods of agitation designed to improve 
and control the uniform size and number of the bubbles 
have been little considered. 

As to lifting power or pull, I can remember a painful 
experience of my boyhood days, when the janitor caught 
us blowing soap bubbles, by holding a soaped spool 
tightly over a gas-burner tip. Filling the interior of the 
bubble with illuminating gas sent it out of sight with no 
effort. "When caught, we had the school population 
gazing heavenward, and the ceiling of the room was one 
mass of bubbles, some of which lasted for an hour. 

In the pneumatic systems of agitation the addition of 
a small quantity of illuminating gas, may give as good 
pull as heating. 

In 1904, I think, while experimenting at Sandon, 
B. C, I used a small tank and about 15 Daniels cells for 
bubble-making purposes. With a weak electrolyte, a 
copper plate on one side and a bunch of hay-wire on the 
other, I found that by stirring in an oiled pulp I could 
get a thick skin of bubbles. My apparatus was limited 
and soon exhausted the electrolyte, but I got a good 
flotation after the froth order. I remember the speed 

and si/i- «»s marvelous and under alose control Thi 

batteries belonged to the telegraph i tpany, I wa 

underpaid operator, and the Fool superintendent 
woefully obstinate, ignoranl of research, and painfully 
insistenl on the restoration to service of ins LG 

The i ibinatii n Soored ma. 

I recollect detailing the operation to an Elmore i 

sentative soon after, but did not know until lb. 

book, 'Principles of Flotation, 1 came oul thai the ideas 

had l n patented in Great Britain. However, that 

method of generating a hydrogen filled bubble under 
cdose eontrol, with eleetrioity, is open for use in this 
country. It was not patented hen'. Who knows but 
what some genius will utilize it, or the illuminating gas, 
to fill bubbles that will haul the ore direct to the smelter 
from the flotation-cell? 

George Huston, 
Mullan, Idaho, November 12, lltl.'i. 

Flotation Residue 

The Editor: 

Sir — I was much interested in reading the article on 
'Disposal of Flotation Residue,' by my friend Wilton 
Shellshear of Broken Hill, but for the honor of Aus- 
tralia I must differ from him regarding the system of 
spraying slime over sand-dumps. He says "the idea 
was first originated in South Africa, and has only lately 
been introduced into Australia." Strictly speaking, he 
may be correct, as he speaks of pumping or spraying 
slime. But I would bke to say that I saw slime-residue 
from a Moofe filter (the first one successfully used in 
Austratia) spread over the surface of a sand-dump from 
trucks at the Occidental gold mine, Cobar, New South 
Wales, in 1905 or 1906. I think A. J. Chappie, who was 
then the metallurgist there, will corroborate this. When 
was this system first used in South Africa? I saw it at 
New Modderfontein in 1911. 

W. Motherwell. 

Colorado Springs, December 15, 1915. 

Guatemala, the northernmost of the Central Ameri- 
can republics, has an area of 48,290 square miles, which 
exceeds that of Pennsylvania. The population is 2,119,- 
165, which is nearly as much as Bolivia, whose area is 
15 times as great; the capital, Guatemala City, has a 
population of 125,000 ; while the bulk of the people lives 
in the half of the country lying toward the Pacific, the 
steamship communication on that coast is less frequent 
than on the Atlantic side. Although in the torrid zone 
most of the country is at 4000 to 11,000 ft. altitude, and 
the climate is comparatively healthy and agreeable. 
About 60% of the imports comes from the United States, 
but the bulk of the exports has gone to Germany. The 
monetary system needs re-organization, and a gold stand- 
ard would benefit finances. The railroads are owned 
practically entirely in the United States, but in other 
lines investment of American capital is small as yet. 
In Guatemala City the tram-line is run with horse and 
mule power. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January ]. 1916 

Testing Ores for the Flotation Process 

By O. C. Ralston and Glenn L, All* 

INTRODUCTION. •Although the subject of testing 
for flotation has been well presented in T. J. 
Hoover's book on 'Concentrating Ores by Flotation,' 
there is Deed of later information on this limely subject. 
Much testing has been done in laboratories not connected 
in any way with the Minerals Separation company, with 
which Mr. Hoover was formerly associated as metal- 
lurgical engineer, and there have been developed meth- 
ods of investigation that may prove suggestive to many 

On that account we have compiled data on the subject 
of testing both from the literature available and from our 
own experience, as well as from what we have seen in 
other laboratories. This paper is designed to present 
the results of this compilation, with a critical discussion 
of the more important methods now in vogue. 

On account of the empirical state of the art of flota- 
tion a great deal of testing is necessary before large- 
scale practice can be commenced on any ore ; therefore a 
small laboratory-machine is necessary in which many 
tests involving many variables can be made in a short 
time. The machine must be so designed and so operated 
that a close approximation to the results possible with 
full-sized flotation machinery will be obtained. In a 
mill-plant it is a matter of some difficulty to control con- 
ditions through a wide range of such variables as temper- 
ature, acidity, quantity of oil, percentage of solids in 
pulp, fineness of grinding, etc., and as the proper treat- 
ment of a given ore can be ascertained only through 
testing it first, a critique of the testing methods in use is 
in order. 

Many people have had the experience of reading the 
available literature on flotation testing and of failing to 
get satisfactory results when the described testing was 
attempted. To actually witness some good test-work and 
learn thereby the appearance of froth, the exact manip- 
ulation of the machine and froth, goes far toward bring- 
ing the beginner to a point where he can test efficiently. 
None of the literature mentions the fact that it is difficult 
to get a high percentage of extraction and a high grade 
of flotation concentrate at the same time. The beginner 
often strives after both of these things in a single test, 
whereas he should determine how each can be attained 
before he attempts to obtain both simultaneously. Fur- 
thermore, it is difficult to manipulate a small machine to 
give as good results as a large one, until after consider- 

•By permission of the Director, U. S. Bureau of Mines. 
Communicated by D. A. Lyon, metallurgist In charge of the 
Salt Lake station of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, co-operating 
with the University of Utah. 0. C. Ralston, Assistant Metal- 
lurgist of U. S. Bureau of Mines, and Glenn L. Allen. Research 
Fellow of the University of Utah. 

able practice. So the small machine is generally pessim- 
istic, compared with the large one. It is practically es- 
sential for the beginner to weigh and assay all of his 
products in order to see if the extraction and the grade 
of concentrate are satisfactory, where an experienced 
manipulator can often tell by aid of past experience and 
the use of a glass or microscope whether he is getting 
good results or not. 

With these points in view, we shall describe first the 
satisfactory machines and their operation. Then we 
shall give a more general exposition on what variables 
to study and what points to observe. 

Flotation test-apparatus must necessarily be classi- 


' - Concentrate 



fied in the same way as large-scale machines, namely, as 
film-flotation machines, acid-flotation machines, and 
froth-machines of both pneumatic and mechanically 
agitated types. Film-flotation, as exemplified in the Mac- 
quisten 1 and in the Wood machines, does not seem to have 
the same wide application as does froth-flotation ; hence 
little need be said about them. 

Film-Flotation. Macquisten tubes have such small 
capacity that a single tube is small enough for test-work 
on a few pounds of ore at a time (see Fig. 1). A small 
4-ft. tube is known to give trustworthy results, although 
a longer one is more desirable. Testing with a Mac- 
quisten tube was done for several years in the laboratory 
of the General Engineering Co., of Salt Lake City, of 
which company J. M. Callow is president. Since Mr. 
Callow has begun the exploitation of his own pneumatic 
frothing-machine this work has been set aside. 

'M. & S. P., Vol. XCVI, page 414 (1908). 

January l. L016 

MINING and Scient.lic PRESS 

Tli.' Wood machine can lie built iii miniature and for 

-mull machine of the type ikatched has 

been mod i" the plant of t li«- Wood ore-teating work* 

.,: 1 1, ,:•,.■■ This small machine was about two 

long and one toot wide. Tha method of operation is tbl 
aatae aa that of the fullsi/cd maohine. (See Pi 
\^ neither of theae machines has been much 
in practice, they an merely mentioned tor the sake 

of eompleteneaBi Hoover 1 baa reooi aded a teat on a 

vanning-plaqna, so that the sulphides will Moat off onto 


Fig. 2. the wood MACHINE. 

are low, although the grade of oonoantrate obtaii 
often vary good. For practical purposes, however, tip- 
test is not of much value) A better teal machine in the 

sniall unit shown in Pig. 4. The arid should !"• allowed 

to run down through a section of garden-hose to within 
an inch of the surface of the ore and the ore should be 
kept stirred with a wooden paddle so that the bubbles 

the surface of the water, but we consider this test of 
practically no value. Hoover, however, acknowledges 
that it is merely a test illustrative of the film processes. 
In testing ores for the Potter or the Delprat processes, 
Hoover's text is again the source of information. An 
illustrative test-tube experiment is pictured in Fig. 3. 
In another test a 200-c.c. beaker is used with 100 c.c. of 
3% HoSO, and brought to nearly boiling temperature. 
The ore when introduced into this yields a froth com- 
posed of sulphides supported by bubbles of COy In 
case the ore is deficient in carbonate, an addition of as 
much as 3% of calcite or siderite is made. The froth is 
skimmed with a spoon as fast as it forms. We have 
noticed that a great deal of mineral is often lifted partly 
but never reaches the surface. Consequently extractions 

2H. E. Wood. Trans. A. I. M. E., Vol. XLIV, pp. 684-701 

sT. J. Hoover. 'Concentrating Ores by Flotation.' 1st edition, 
page 77. 


of CO s generated by the action of the acid can lift the 
sulphides out of the body of the pulp. The froth formed 
should be skimmed with the paddle as fast as made, 
then filtered, dried, weighed, and analyzed. Not many 
ores yield gracefully to this treatment and slimes give 
poor extractions. Fines and Wilfley-table middlings are 
better adapted, and the presence of siderite in the pulp 
is desirable, as it reacts slowly with dilute acid. From 

Garden Hose. 

Wooden Padd/e. 

I,- Froth. 

Fig. 4. a potter-delpbat test. 

1 to 3% H,S0 4 is best in testing and \ to \\% solutions 
on the large scale will give about the same results. The 
temperature of the pulp should be maintained at 70° C. 
by use of a steam jet. Five to ten pounds of ore per 
test is necessary. The extractions obtained are always 
lower than in full-sized units. While oil is not neces- 
sary in this process it will greatly assist in the flotation, 
and the addition of a small amount is often of much 
assistance in test-work. 

Mechanical frothing as developed by the Minerals 
Separation company in England and Australia, and 
modified by many others, has been one of the most im- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1, 1916 

portant methods of flotation. Therefore the laboratory 
machinery that has been developed is at as high a state 
of perfection as any such machinery now in use. 

The Janney machine is probably the best designed 
machine for getting reliable quantitative results on a 
small quantity of ore. Photographs and sketches are 
appended (Fig. 5, 6, and 7). It can be seen that the 
agitation compartment is cylindrical in shape and that 
its top is surrounded by a froth-box. which slopes into 
a spitzkasten, where the froth can be skimmed. The 
tailing sinks to a return-hole at the bottom, passing into 
the agitation-compartment again. To provide good agi- 
tation, four vertical baffles are attached to the wall of 
the agitation-compartment, against which the pulp is 
swirled by the two impellers. Lining the walls with 
expanded metal lathing or with a coarse-mesh iron 
screen adds to the thorough mixing that the pulp must 
receive. The two impellers are on a common shafting, 
which enters the machine through a stuffing-box in the 
bottom of the machine. The lower impeller with four 
vertical vanes is submerged ; it agitates and emulsifies 
the pulp while the upper impeller, likewise with four 
vertical vanes, acts as a pump to lift the pulp and beat 
air into it. A pulley and belt connect the shafting with 
a variable-speed motor. 

A dome-shaped lid is used on the machine. A small 
hole in the top of the dome allows the introduction of 
oil, acid, water, or other materials without the removal 
of the lid. The lid is so constructed that it can be turned 
upside-down with the dome extending down into the 
froth-box, and in this position it can act as a funnel. The 
dome rests then on the top of the agitation-compartment 
and no froth can escape into the froth-box. This allows 
a period of agitation of the pulp before the dome-top is 
turned right-side up to allow aerated pulp to overflow 
into the froth-box and down into the spitzkasten, where 
the froth can be removed. 

A discharge-plug at the bottom of the machine allows 
the flushing out of tailing after the test has been com- 
pleted. So careful has been the design of this test- 
machine that even this discharge-plug is beveled to fit 
flush with the bottom of the machine and thus afford no 
dead space in which the solids might settle. 

The spitzkasten is long and narrow, in order to per- 
mit a deep froth to be formed and to travel over as long 
a space as possible, before reaching the discharge. This 
tends to allow more of the entrained gangue to settle out 
of the mineral froth. The sides of the spitzkasten are 
of heavy plate-glass, each fastened to a metal-frame by 
means of screws. The wrought-iron shaft projects 
through a brass stuffing-box and is supported by a ball- 
beaiing beneath. All the other metal parts are of cast 

The small variable-speed motor may be of either D. C. 
or A. C. type. F. G. Janney reoommends the use of a 
General Electric, shunt-wound, direct-current motor, for 
230 volts, with a rated speed of 1700 r.p.m. and } hp. 
The impeller-shaft is to be driven at 1900 r.p.m. maxi- 
mum speed. For speed-control he recommends a Gen- 

eral Electric direct-current field-rheostat, with an 
ampere capacity of 1.25 to 0.063 at 250 volts. 

In our own laboratory it was desirable to use the 
ordinary city-lighting circuit of 110 volts, A. C. On 
that account we have found the following motor satis- 
factory: i-hp> General Electric repulsion induction 
motor, single-phase, 60-cycle, with full speed of 1780 
and carrying 4.2 amperes at 110 volts, or 2.1 amperes 
at 220 volts, depending upon the voltage of the current 
supplied to the machine, either voltage being acceptable. 
Speed-control is obtained by the use of an ordinary 
field-rheostat in series with the motor. Such a motor 
has a speed varying with the load and with the voltage 
applied. As the load is practically a constant, the speed 
will depend upon the amount of resistance in series with 
the motor. As the majority of laboratories find a city 
alternating current more convenient to obtain, such a 
motor is recommended. 

The operation of the machine is as follows: It is set 
up on a bench convenient to the sink and to running 
water. The motor is set up one foot to the rear with 
the switch and rheostat placed so that they can be easily 
reached while standing in front of the machine. A }-in. 
round-leather sewing-machine belt is used for drive. 
The bearings are well oiled, the stuffing-box is properly 
packed, and some attention should be given to it occa- 
sionally in order to see that it is kept screwed tight 
enough to avoid leakage. 

Enough clear water is run into the machine to barely 
show in the spitzkasten and the motor is started at its 
lowest speed. A 500-gm. charge of ore ground to at 
least 48-mesh is added and the cover placed on the ma- 
chine in its inverted position. (See Fig. 5.) This is 
done to allow thorough mixing without circulation of 
the pulp. All or part of the oil and other reagents are 
now added and the motor brought up to full speed for 
30 seconds. The speed is again lowered to the minimum 
and the cover is turned over into its upright position. 
(See Fig. 6.) The speed is then raised and water is 
added through the hole in the top of the lid until the 
froth in the spitzkasten is nearly at the overflow lip. 
The ultimate speed of the agitator will depend some- 
what upon the character of this froth, as some oils will 
give a deep persistent froth, while other froths are thin 
and brittle and allow of more water being added to the 
machine, as well as more violent agitation in order to 
beat more air into the pulp. The froth may either be 
allowed to flow out of the spitzkasten of its own weight 
or skimmed with a small wooden paddle. It is a good 
idea to wet the glass sides of the 'spitz' with water while 
the froth is rising, so that none of the froth will stick to 
the glass. 

The duration of the test is about five minutes with an 
ore that floats easily, while other ores will require a 
considerably longer time to allow the entrained gangue 
to settle out of the froth before it is discharged from 
the machine. In such cases it is best to hold back the 
froth until its appearance shows it to be fairly clean. 
Beginners are likely to dilute their froth with too much 

.lanuar.v 1 1916 

MINING and Scacnbfo l'KI SS 


gangu>- In a I machine the troth can 

over Cram tour i" light (sal of ^pi t^kn-st<-n before it in 
urged, while In this tart machine it only hai ■ 
trawl oi ■boot l" inehaa Consequently, the small ma- 

ehine is liable to yield oonotntrate of too low a U ■. 

■ame appliaa bo moal other maohinea tor making 
tests mi flotation. 

The eoneentrate may !><■ oaughl in a pan or on a filter. 
After the teat the machine is brought back to low speed 


and the tailing-plug removed, so that the tailing can be 
caught in a pan or bucket, or run to waste. 

If it is so desired, this rough concentrate can be put 
back into the machine and treated in the same way as 
the original sample, or the concentrates from several 
tests combined to give enough material for re-treatment. 
If this is done three products are made, namely: 

A 'rougher' tailing, to waste. 

A clean concentrate, for shipment. 

A 'cleaner' tailing or middling, which in actual prac- 
tice is returned to the head machine. 

When these conditions are observed results only 
slightly lower than those possible with a big machine 
can be obtained. A test can be run in from 5 to 30 min- 
utes in such a machine with 500 grams of ore in any- 
thing from a 3: 1 to a 5: 1 pulp. The glass sides of the 
spitzkasten allow close observation of the condition of 
the froth, and this is a great advantage to the beginner. 

'I'lir small amount of ore neoesaarj for a teal la a 
df omunderahle convenience aa One grinding <>r tl 

in tin- laboratory is often irk* The aluminum 

ing is little oorroded by either acid or alkaline 1 1 
lytea The return of pulp from tin- 'spit/.' to the agitat- 
Ing-oompartmenl allows the material to !»• treated until 
all mineral baa been removed without stopping the 
machine, so that a single treatment yields a dean tail- 
ing. However, a second treatment of this 'rougher- 


froth' is sometimes necessary in order to get a high- 
grade concentrate. Clean tailings generally mean only 
medium-grade concentrates due to entrainment of 
gangue, in the removal of all the mineral. 

The stuffing-box in the bottom will probably leak if 
not watched. However, this driving of the impellers 
from below, instead of from above, leaves the top of the 
machine free for the operator and is more convenient 
in every way. This is of importance in a laboratory- 
machine, and will excuse the use of a stuffing-box. In 
large-scale machines a stuffing-box underneath would 
not be tolerated, and the drive should be from above. 
"We would also suggest a sheet-lead construction as being 
more easily built. A i-ineh sheet-lead is sufficiently 
rigid to stand up well, while it is ductile enough to be 
worked readily into the desired shape. The joints are 
easily burned, and it is acid-proof. 

The Hoover Machine, so-called, was designed after a 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1. 1916 

test-machine described in the second edition of floover's 
book, being copied from one of Lyster's patents, and lias 
been much copied by people wishing to make flotation 

Filter Cone. 

U io' *J 


tests. An improvement over this construction was pub- 
lished by Ralph Smith' recently (see Fig. 10A), and a 
modified sketch of the same is shown in Fig. 10B. while 

Froth Concentrate. 

Trough for Froth. 

" Contracted Spitzkasten. 
Fig. 10A. sketch of the lyster or hoover machine. 

photographs of the machine used for a while in our labor- 
atory are shown in Fig. 8 and 9. Either a variable- 

«E. & M. J., Vol. C, page 395 (1915). 

Pulp. - t 



speed motor is belted to the pulley that drives the 
Stirring mechanism, or a pair of cone-pulleys on a con- 

stant-sp I motor is used. This construction has been 

popular because it can be made of wood, at small ex- 
pense. The Janney machine will cost about $100. while 
the Hoover machine can be built for a small fraction of 
that amount, jlr. Hoover's original drawing does not 
show the spitzkasten drawn to a point, as only the front 


side was beveled. Our sketch shows both sides beveled. 
This is desirable, as it eliminates space in which fine 
sand can settle, and tends to minimize the amount of 


Longitudinal Section. 
flg. 12. the slide machine. 

pulp lying inactive in the spitzkasten. In the agitation- 
compartment the pulp is swirled into the corners, where 
it is well mixed with air; hence the baffles sketched in 
the Janney machine are unnecessary. One objection, 
however, is that unless the agitation-compartment is very 
tall the pulp being swirled into the corners has a tend- 
ency to splash out, and a lid similar to the one on the 
Janney machine is desirable. However, it is difficult to 
attach one because the stirrer-shafting is in the way. 
The operation of this machine is practically the same as 
that of the Janney, except that without glass sides on 

Jiuiuan 1. I '.'lii 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

iii.- spitakaatan n is hard to gat aa clean a frotl i 

charge of i<nki to Jimni grama is n ssary in thi 


I'm. Si ii>i .Mmhisi, as shown iii Pig. 11 and 12 
ned bj Hoover and perfected by many others. In 
recant praetioe it is motor-driven. A anmber of these 
machinea ware given by Jamea If, Hyde to various uni- 
versities in tliis country. .Many people favor this appar- 
atus f.>r the reason thai they have had little opportunity 

Tins element <>t the mach lade m of some value 

in testing Dotation "ils. i.ui in a weak froth much of the 
sulphide mineral als.. setttos out and is tost, s,, that the 
teal results with ibis machine often sh..» nnneoeaaarily 
low extractions and a high grade of concentrate, On 
the other hand, when conditions are adjuated to t'i\. i 
troth persistent enough t<> hold all il"- sulphide mi 
considerable gangue is entrained in the stiff froth, 
Further, after skimming one froth we and it ueci 

Fig. 8. the hoover machine. 

to use any other design. In this machine the agitator is 
driven from below through a stuffing-box, as in the 
Janney, with the consequent freedom of the top of the 
machine for the convenience of the operator. The top 
half of the machine is so constructed that it can be slid 
to one side, cutting off the froth formed in the agitation 
from the gangue, which is allowed to settle. The oper- 
ation consists in agitating with oil and other reagents, 
then a period of quiet during which the froth collects at 
the top while the gangue sinks. Two windows in the 
side enable the observer to see when the gangue has sub- 
sided sufficiently to allow the top half to be slid along the 
rubber gasket, cutting off the froth from the remainder 
of the pulp. The time necessary for the settling of the 
gangue is sufficient for much of the gangue to separate 
from the froth, leaving only clean sulphides in the froth. 


to add more water and start the machine again to make 
more froth. It is hard to make the slide machine give a 
high extraction with only one agitation. The intermit- 
tent character of such work and the time necessary to 
wait while settling are disadvantages that make the Jan- 
ney or the Hoover machines of greater utility, in our 
opinion. The parts are of cast aluminum with a rubber 
gasket between. A charge of 500 to 1000 grams of ore 
is used. (To he Continuc(1) 

[The General Engineering Co. at Salt Lake City and 
the Mine & Smelter Supply Co., at Denver, sell notation 
machines. So does the Denver Fire Clay Co., which 
makes a modified Hoover machine. The Joshua Hendy 
Iron "Works, San Francisco, makes machines for the 
Minerals Separation company. — Editor.] 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1, 1916 

Drilling in Narrow Stopes 

By P. B. McDonald 

THE staff of the North Star Mines Co. at Grass 
Valley, California, has for years given an unusual 
amount of attention to the subject of rock-drills 
and drilling. As in other departments of their mining 
and milling, they have been keenly on tjie alert for im- 
provements and have not hesitated to risk a trial of new 
or labor-saving devices in the hope of achieving economy 
in their operations. This general policy of attempting 
to lower costs by an added refinement or a new me- 
chanical contrivance does not always work out as figured 


Leyner 26 Shop Nf 14430. 

July a. 

Sent in Mine- 

Aug 1. 

Rocks in valve, 2 Pawl Springs. 



Hammer re-ground. 

ii 7 

Rifle nut. Swivel- connection coupling 


• 17 

Water tube and Rubber. Hammer reground. 


Oct. 3 

Hammer re-ground. 

n S 

Side rod and spring. 



Hammer re-ground, Water-tube 


« 12 

Mew hammer. 



air, the fact is at once apparent on the tally-sheets con- 
veniently kept in the foremen's change-room at surface, 
where the accessibility of such records spread out on a 
table makes them doubly valuable during the frequent 
discussions of the foremen and superintendent between 
shifts as to what is taking place underground. A newly- 
repaired drill sent underground may lie around there a 
week or two before being used, after which it might 
break down immediately ; records of all such occurrences 
are valuable to the superintendent and foremen. An 


Waugh SO SHopN°6OI02. 


Mar 22 

Sent in Mine . 


Apr. 2 

4 P Spgs. fi&fatincr ring . f S- to 


" 28 

Hammer stuck. 

May 2 

OK IS'* changed handles. 


June 28 

Hammer. f/8-OO 


Flo. 1. 

Fio. 2. 

on paper. "In fact," said one of the staff, '"what ap- 
pears in advance likely to be a saving frequently proves 
a loss, and the reverse ; we have made numerous mis- 
takes, but, on the other hand, we have made savings 
much greater than the occasional losses." 

So important is the matter of rock-drilling at the 
North Star, on account of the hardness of the ore and 
the narrowness of the stopes, that the expense of drilling 
has represented fully one-third of the cost of delivering 
ore to the mill. This fact has made it worth while to 
pay considerable attention to rock-drilling in its various 
phases; 70 or 80 rock-drills are in commission at the 
mine and over 18,000 drill-shifts are worked per year. 
It is obvious that an increase in efficiency of only one 
41-ft. hole per drill per shift will count up to appre- 
ciable proportions in twelve months, particularly when 
it is remembered that 25 or 30 ft. per shift is all that is 
possible for one machine to drill in this hard rock. 

One of the admirable features of the rock-drilling 
methods at this mine is the system for recording results 
and repairs of the individual machines. The under- 
ground time-keepers make a daily report of the hours 
worked by each drill in much the same manner as they 
keep the time of the men. Thus if a drill is nol 
good work, through some mechanical defect or lack of 

important part of the record is the card system kept in 
the repair shop, where each rock-drill in the mine has a 
small card recording its repairs, an example of which is 
shown in Fig. 1. By these various records kept for each 
drill, it is possible to compare the different varieties in 
use and to see that each machine is maintained in per- 
fect condition. 

In the company's office is a card system for recording 
monthly data about the drills, in which the daily records 
from the mine are conveniently summarized. Each in- 
dividual rock-drill is tabulated, as in Fig. 2. Details of 
the different varieties and makes of drills in use at the 
mine are summarized by months, as in Fig. 3. The 
yearly summary is tabulated, as in Fig. 4. 

Previous to my visit to Grass Valley, I had heard 
more or less about the Paynter rock-drill tester as de- 
vised and patented by W. D. Paynter at the North Star 
mine, but I had supposed that the machine was merely 
a nice refinement for making sure that the rock-drill 
manufacturers did not sell an imperfect drill to the com- 
pany. As a matter of fact the tester is much more than 
that: it lias a broad field of usefulness. Something can 
be judged of its merit when it is stated that Mr. Paynter 
went to Michigan last summer to install one in the shop 
of the Copper Range Consolidated, that the Anaconda 

January l. 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

company Iiils put < i at Butte, tin- Copper Queen at 

EKabee, aad the Sullivan Machinery Co. recently ordered 
one tor ita factory. The teller waa deaoribed in the 
Mining LMnSouNTino Pbjbb of Augual -. L918. Brief- 
ly, u is an apparatus for determining quickly and ao- 
mi ratal y the number of blowa struck per minute by any 
rook-drill and the foot-pounda of energy per blow. The 
eaaenee of the usefulness of aueh a machine lies in the 
little appreciated tint that tor anv particular variety 
of rork to Im> drilled, there is a strength of blow exactly 

Baited to give the fastest and most satisfactory results. 
To illustrate, practice has shown at the North Star that 
a rork drill striking a blow of 45 footpounds, with an 
air-pressure of W to 95 lb., is lust suited to the rock in 

that mini'. On o tccaaion two rival rock-drill repre- 
sentatives chanced to arrive at the mine simultaneously. 
Types of their respective drills were tested on the 
Paynter machine, which showed that one drill struck a 


VYaugh S topers. 



Drill Shift 

Cost Per 
Drill Shift. 


* 105 


/ 0. 136 
















0- 114 




0. 115 


















* 853 

$ 121 


Fig. 3. 

tremendously hard blow of 80 foot-pounds, while the 
other struck a much weaker blow, there being only a 
minor difference in the number of blows per minute. 
Naturally the man with the hard-hitting machine con- 
sidered that his drill would do the better work under- 
ground ; however, the mine-staff predicted that such 
would not be the case. The two drills were taken in 
the mine, where the weaker-hitting machine, even in 
the unusually hard rock of the district, drilled more 
footage in less time than its competitor. But that is not 
all. A similar test of the two drills was then made in 
the Empire mine, where the management favors an air- 
pressure of 70 to 75 lb. Here the harder-hitting ma- 
chine, as would be expected, showed to advantage by 
reason of the lower pressure. 

It is not difficult to see that in a soft sticky rock, such 
as schist or some varieties of slate, a hard-hitting drill 
will only tend to bury its bit in the ground, where it 
will stick and stop. Again, in a very hard brittle rock 
a too-powerful blow may only succeed in crystallizing 
and breaking the drill-steel. On the other hand, a ma- 
chine striking too weak a blow will not cut so much 
ground as one striking a blow of just the proper 
strength. However, the proper strength of blow and the 
right number per minute will vary widely in different 

varieties of rook The point is to determine what 
strength of Mow is suited to the rock in any particular 

mine; to pick out a type of rock drill that spp 

that figure, adjust the blow to the axaol strength by 
varj bag the valve a little; ami than to keep all the rook 

drills in the mine repaired ami winning at that Strength 
of blow by occasional tests ami adjust incuts. At the 
North Star mine an increase in the Strength of blow was 
found to increase the speed of drilling up to a blow of 
IS l""l pounds, after which any increase in the Strength 

of blow decreased the drilling sp 1 until 65 foot pounds 

was reached, when if tended to increase ut an insigui 
ficaut rate. This was clearly shown in a curve plotted 
by Robert II. Bedford and William Hague, as given in 
a paper to the American Institute of Mining Engineers 
at Salt Lake City in August 1914. 

The Paynter tester gives a graph or card of the blows 
struck (usually taken for a period of 5 seconds) that 

Yearly Summary 1914 


Drill Shift. 

Cost Per 
Drill Shift. 




f 0.4740 


2284. 75 







V Waugh. 

150. 66 


0. 1945 






Fig. 4. 

can be interpreted quite as elaborately as a steam-card 
from an engine. Practice gained in the interpretation 
of these graphs enables the repair-man to tell which part 
of the drill is deficient, whether the lubricating oil is so 
thick that it is retarding the blow (as sometimes hap- 
pens in a machine of tight-fitting parts), and a variety 
of minor details concerning the operation of the valve, 
hammer, piston, and other parts. In these cards (two 
of which were shown in the Mining and Scientific 
Press of July 3, 1915) the straight vertical line running 
up to the point represents the striking blow of the drill, 
that is 'the punch,' while the back stroke or 'recovery' 
is indicated by the wavering line to the next blow. 

Another phase of the drilling practice at the North 
Star is the close attention paid to getting full-pressure 
air to each rock-drill underground. E. M. Weston has 
pointed out that on the Rand many of the mines have 
air-pipes, supplying drills at working-faces, that are so 
small that the air-pressure is cut down to an inefficient 
force. It is a common fault at many mines in this 
country to have too many drills on one small pipe, 
diminishing the pressure of air to insignificant strength. 
At the North Star power-house, the air is compressed 
to 105 lb., insuring a pressure of at least 90 lb. at the 
drills underground, which is in line with the modern 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1. 1916 

tendency to recognize the superiority of a high pressure 
of air tor efficient drilling, just as dynamite of higher 
grade than formerly is becoming popular in mining. 
Frequent tests are made in the North Star mine under- 
ground by an air-gauge to determine if the air-pressure 
is up to standard in all stopes and drifts. It has been 
found that reports by the miners of unusually hard 
ground encountered, or poor work done by a certain 
drill, may be due to insufficient air-pressure caused by 
careless piping. It is important that every miner and 
■ very drill (both of them expensive items on a cost- 
sheet) shall have air-pressure that will enable them to 
work to the best possible advantage. At this mine the 
air is taken down the vertical shaft by a 6-in. main from 
which reductions are made to the stopes until inch pipes 
each supply two drills. 

I found at the North Star mine that Leyner and 
Waugh drills were the best liked. The old J. George 
Leyner No. 8 drill (which is not now manufactured) has 
given good sen-ice because it strikes a blow of just the 
right strength for this particular mine, 45 foot-pounds, 
and is a fast and satisfactory driller, in spite of its high 
cost for repairs. In competition witli the Leyners there 
were- being tried several of the new Dreadnaught drills 
of the Denver Rock Drill Co., which were apparently 
attracting favorable attention. I was told that the first 
Dreadnaught tested did not seem to strike a blow of 
sufficient force, but that this was now thought to have 
been due to the using of a too heavy lubricating oil on 
the new parts: with a lighter oil the drill had constantly 
improved its blow. As is more or less well known, the 
strength of blow depends a good deal on the air-cushion- 
ing (in the cylinder) that becomes necessary in order to 
attain a high number of blows per minute. Other things 
being equal, the machine striking a high number of 
blows, say 2000 per minute, will be expected to hit a 
lighter blow than a machine that strikes 1200 blows and 
cushions less. The Dreadnaught is a mounted hammer- 
water drill that differs from the Leyner-Ingersoll No. 18 
in being a little lighter in weight and in being valveless. 
The valveless feature makes for simplicity and lessens 
repairs; the main objection to the valveless drill has 
been the difficulty of replacing worn parts, but with the 
increasing use of improved steel for such parts this 
objection may lie much lessened. It is not unlikely that 
for drilling in flat stopes. such as in the North Star, 
where the dip is 23°, some such mounted machine as the 
Leyner or Dreadnaught will ultimately replace stoper 
drills. The latter are dusty as well as being not par- 
ticularly suited to flat holes; thus the Calumet & Hecla, 
with a dip of 38°, has favored mounted Leyners for rais- 
ing and Btoping rather than the typical 'stopers.' At 
the North Star a number of Waugh stopers. both the 
new valveless types and the old 12-A type are in use. 
There are also a number of baby or 'chippy' Leyners, 
the light-weight Leyner-Ingersoll No. 26. Although this 
little machine does not strike so heavy a blow as might 
be wished, it is popular because of its handiness. 

Incidentally 1 may mention that at the adjacent Em- 
pire mine, I found the Leyner-Ingersoll No. 18 and the 

Ingersoll-Rand BC 21 stoper to be the standard drills. 
The Empire is generally spoken of as being somewhat 
more conservative in the trying of new machinery than 
is the case at the North Star. Throughout the district I 
did not notice any new-style drill-bits such as the Carr 
or H bits, bi^t the old lour-point cross-bit appears to re- 
main in favor. There is no particular tendency to drill 
longer holes in stoping, as is so marked a policy in the 
wide stopes of the Lake Superior copper mines, for the 


reason that the stoping- width is so narrow (3 to 5 ft.) 
that the holes are drilled only 4$ ft. deep. 

"While I was at the North Star, Mr. Bedford showed 
me how they intended to draw one end of the water- 
tubes, after heating them, in order to reduce the diam- 
eter of the inch or two of length that protrudes into the 
hollow drill-steel. At is well known, there is some 
trouble from the water-tube of a water-drill becoming 
caught in the drill-steel and getting its end twisted off, 
causing much inconvenience in buying and replacing 
tubes. Considerable difficulty has been experienced at 
the North Star in reaming out the hole in hollow steel 
by hand after the sharpening has closed it; a modifica- 
tion of a machine in use at the Copper Queen mines at 
Bisbee is to be adopted, but using water pressure instead 
of air and oil cylinders, to ream the holes. 

To a miner used to wide stopes the 2 or 3-ft. stopes 
of the Grass Valley district would appear extraordi- 
narily diminutive and the little colums for mounting the 
drills would look ludicrous in stature ; but the extrac- 
tion of such a narrow vein of such hard ore from rock 
that holds it "back' so that (as the Cornishmen say) 
"it's like pulling it out by the roots of the hair." is a 
problem of no mean proportions. 

January 1. 1 :* I «; 

MINING Scicnlific PRESS 


on riu: ROAD III Till. MINIS. 

Oatman. Arizona— A Prohibition Camp 

By Frank H. Prober* 


[T the golden trail to Oatman." "The golden 
hub of Mohave county's wheel of fortune." 
Let us hope that this joyous dithyrambic will 
not give place to a dirge of disappointment; let us hope 
that when the slag of excitement is cleared from this 
melting pot of men, money, and mines that a golden 
yield will result. Here 's success to the prohibition camp 
of Oatman, the first of its kind in the Golden West! 

The regular route is by way of Needles, California, on 
the Santa Fe railroad, where every train discharges 
many people bent on visiting Oatman, but the muddy 
Colorado river has to be forded on scows propelled by 
Indians and a fussy little motor-boat. On the Arizona 
side a score or more of automobiles are waiting to carry 
the crowd over one or other of the desert roads that lead 
to Oatman, 21 miles to the northeast. It is proposed to 
build a bridge across the river at Needles for the accom- 

modation of traffic and there are recurrent rumors of a 
railroad from Topoc following the route of the dis- 
mantled narrow-gauge road built to the Vivian mine and 
so to the new camp. Most of the freight ami many pas- 
sengers reach Oatman through Kingman, 27 miles north, 
but the mountain grades are steeper and the road very 

Leaving Needles and the broad expanse of river-bot- 
tom, the topography changes abruptly into a rough rock- 
ribbed section, characterized by the ruggedness of detail 
rather than by the broader features of mountain uplift. 
It is a district of igneous rocks and successive lava 
flows, the result of intermittent vnlcanism. Gray crags 
of andesite, resistant ribs of paler rhyolite, a network of 
silicified vein outcrops, and on the higher elevations 
castellated buttes of tuff, the remnants of the mantle 
that covered and closed the Tertiary period, are con- 




MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1, 1916 

spicuous features of the landscape. There is no running 
water, no vegetation other than the sage and cactus, the 
rocks are burnished by the attrition of hot sand, the 
softer part of the rock-mass has weathered, crumbled, 
and been removed, leaving the bare skeleton of the vein 
system to bleach in the blazing sun. 

Passing Boundary Cone at the western end of the Black 
range, which guards the gate to this new treasury-vault, 
there are signs of activity, interest, expectancy, work, 
hope, and effort. Several townsites have been surveyed, 
and Old Trails, Ryan Addition, City of Carter, Mazona, 
Oatman, and others in the making, attract the visitor 
with promises of water, electric light, telephone, tele- 
graph, good roads, reasonable rents, terms to suit ten- 
ants, and so forth. 

The automobile stops at the Oasis cafe, the biggest 
little gold mine in the district, where the pay-streak is 
always rich and the bullion ready minted. A busy scene 
is presented, for this is the heart of Oatman, the end of 
the trail, a meeting-place for everybody. I counted 58 
cars within a stone's throw of the Oasis at the noon-hour. 
The prospector's faithful friend, the burro, is no more; 
his place has been taken by the equally reliable and 
faster Ford car. 

The Oasis cafe is the best place to feed, although the 
Mojave Eats, and the Mulligan, or 'Mad House,' as it 
has been dubbed, are well patronized, judging by the 
bread-line outside at 5 o'clock every evening. 

Oatman is a typical boom camp of mushroom growth ; 
houses hastily thrown together, lean-tos of all descrip- 
tions, stores, banks, booths— but no saloons. Arizona 
went dry on January 1, 1915. This subject of prohibi- 
tion must not be dismissed without comment. Its effect 
on the standard of work, the moral* of the community, 
and the deterrent influence it has against vicious prac- 
tices is most noticeable. The saloons of former days, the 
bars, foot-rails, display of glassware, white-vested bar- 
tenders — all these outward signs remain; and the ten- 
dencies, appetites, and habits of mining men of all 
classes ring true to bygone days, but thirsts are quenched 
and success toasted with grape-juice high-balls, or malted 
milk. The result is obvious: the town is orderly, con- 
versation is clean, competition keen, money is saved, a 
harmless game of pool or billiards serves as recreation 
after a full day in the field, and the street is deserted 
before 10 o'clock at night. I am informed that fully 
30% of the monthly pay-roll is invested in local mining- 
stocks, or put into the ground prospecting. There is a 
contagious, clean, healthy atmosphere. 

Accommodations for the visiting hordes are not of the 
best, but are improving. Prospect tunnels and the dry 
arroyos near town are eagerly sought by the wise ones 
who have brought their blankets. The Oatman Hotel 
sleeps two and three men in a room, and lucky is he who 
can find private quarters. 

What a motley mixture of humanity, what types are 
foregathered here! Bankers, brokers, engineers, agents, 

•[This Is not a typographical error. The word in this sense 
Is commonly spelled morale, which Is wrong. — Editor.] 

those of brawn and those of brain, promoters intent on 
selling something they haven't got to someone who 
doesn't want it, newspaper men, State senators, pseudo- 
politicians, horny-handed miners, yellow-legged experts, 
all sorts and conditions of men, all there for one pur- 
pose, all buo.Mfd by the same hope. Subconsciously one 
appreciates the motto of the golden eagle: 'In God we 
Trust.' Everybody of note is addressed by his first 
name, as uncle John, Frank, Ralph, Lew, Tom, Dick, or 
Harry, and it is a sign of professional standing if your 
name is misspelled in the local papers. The number of 
qualifying adjectives, such as safe, conservative, or 
prominent, before a name indicates the degree of esteem 
in which the visitor is held by the enterprising reporter. 
But good nature prevails and Diamondfield Jack has as 
many friends as other noted characters. 

Business is brisk in Oatman. Transactions involving 
thousands of dollars and hundreds of thousands of 
shares are discussed and arranged so airily and so easily 
and with such dispatch that it is bewildering. The new 
arrival is button-holed, taken up over the outcrop of 
the Olla Oatman where the wonders of the world are 
pointed out to him ; here is the vein, there is the United 
Eastern, the ore lies so deep, this group of claims has a 
better and bigger showing, all you have to do is to go 
down, first in your pockets, then in the ground. Groups 
of claims change hands every day, on paper. Short- 
lived options, usually five days, are the thing, for and in 
consideration of x dollars and 1000 x shares of stock. 
Possibly the claims have not been recorded, maybe the 
location work has not been done ; what matters ? Was 
not the United Western compan3 r organized on the Oofty 
Goofty, Oofty Goofty No. 1, and Oofty Goofty No. 2, 
three claims a mile or more away from the main group 
on which the present work is being done. 

Already there are over 50 companies organized to ex- 
plore the district, within a radius of four miles of Oat- 
man. Nearly all have a capitalization of a million shares 
variously quoted on the Oatman Investment Co.'s board 
from 10 cents up. A few are inactive, most of them 
range between 20 and 50 cents, while the United East- 
ern heads the list at quotations of $4.50, one hundred 
times its selling price of a year ago, and fully justified 
by the value of ore developed. There are many 'wild- 
cats,' but who has the courage to differentiate between 
this prospect and that? Could any excuse for an out- 
crop be less attractive than that of the United Eastern, 
or any surface showing more inviting than the Olla Oat- 
man, below which little or no ore has been found ? 

No subject is of greater interest or more engrossing 
than the psychology of mining, the analysis of the 
mental attitude of the speculator; and surely there is no 
better field in which to study it than Oatman. The veins 
outcrop, either as prominent silicified ribs in the softer 
andesites or as shallow depressions in the quartz-por- 
phyry or rhyolite, all showing more or less brecciated 
rock fragments cemented by caleite or quartz. There 
are many of them, trending generally to the north-west. 
The ore occurs as a series of lenses pinching vertically 

January 1. 1916 

MINING and Scientific PR1.SS 


mi. I horizontally within tin- rein-filling; owing t<> Um 
re-opviuuK of traeturee, oxidation and teaching ti 

i. 'in Eonnd near tin- surface in pay- 
ing quantity. The rich ore-ahoot of the United Eastern 
apexed 800 ft belon tin- surface: the first ore mined in 
ill.- Tom i, even deeper, benoe it is axiomatic 

among ownare of claims mi. I premotare of companies 
that a shaft must be sunk 800 t.> 600 ft before arose cut- 
ting t.> tin 1 rein it driving along it. The stock market 
responds to these conditions; interest increases as the 
ribed depth is attained, and tin- volume of business 
is direetly proportional to distance from sorface. Pail- 
ore to tind ore is not discouraging as long a.s the vein is 
than. After the first shock of disappointment, specu- 
lation is renewed as the drift advances; even 60$ Ber- 
enice powder 
cannot shat- 
ter the assur- 
ance of the 
man ipulatore 
of stock. If 
the pay-shoot 
is not on this 
level, then of 
a certainty it 
must be below. 
There is al- 
ways the dom- 
inating influ- 
ence of hope, 
the insatiable 
desire to gam- 

Already five 
or six com- 
panies have 
taken their 
place on the 
anxious seat 

of expectancy and suspense ; the United Western is 
cross-cutting to a vein at the 507-ft. level ; the Big Jim 
at the 400; the Oatman Gold, Black Range, and Tel- 
luride are pushing lateral work. Success in any one of 
these will fan the flame of excitement into the wildest 
enthusiasm and the whole list will respond. Even 
the most sanguine of optimists does not expect that 
all the properties will strike a bonanza, but unques- 
tionably other rich shoots will be exposed by the sys- 
tematic development in progress throughout the district. 
That pay-ore extends to considerable depths is evidenced 
by the Tom Reed and Gold Road mines, where ore of 
good milling grade is being stoped on the 1075 and 1100- 
ft. levels, respectively. The Pioneer, Orion, and Vivian 
properties were opened below the 400-ft. level before the 
present boom started. Further work is contemplated. 

The district is not new ; it has been prospected for 40 
years, and the Gold Road and Tom Reed properties long 
ago entered the ranks of dividend-payers. The question 
naturally arises, why has it languished so long ? Why, in 


pnBaar__jin«Bi ■■■veiBBBBBBBBenr -m r --—--. (SgHHlH 

ftkfjjjjjjjjr __^lg*^gH 

&fcWi ifiRf^sflKESMiS 


■i. 1 

T** * If yPPS 



in ..i prominent outcrop , little 

aotnal mining development t is tins awakening do 
better understanding of gaologica] problems, to bjq 
menta in mining anil metallurgical praetioe, t.. tie 
chance discovery of another I ansa, or is th 

plethora ol . money seeking SVenUSa of U 

in. 'Hi I Widely different viewa are bald on this subject, 

hut the cold fact remains Unit Oatman is to lie thor- 
oughly an. I systematically explored until its bidden 
riohea are uncovered History will repeat itself, and 
when the books are Anally balanced it may he found 
that for every dollar taken nut of the ground, three or 
four have been expended. 

The foregoing paragraphs are of human interest. 
Such reflections are indelibly impressed on the mind 

and memory 
of tin- nomadic 
engineer. But 
there are mat- 
ters of tech- 
nical interest, 
ideas of the 
genesis, occur- 
rence, mining, 
and treatment 
of the ores to 
be discussed, 
and still many 
intricate prob- 
lems to be 

Nearly all of 
the precious- 
metal deposits 
of the Western 
States have 
been found in 
broad metallo- 
graphic prov- 
vince of Tertiary lavas, extending from northern Ne- 
vada to southern Mexico. Attempts to show that com- 
mercial mineralization is confined to one or other of the 
differentiated flows have led to much controversy and 
delayed search in proscribed areas. Theories however 
beautiful are often killed by facts, however ugly. The 
highly commendable work of J. B. Spurr at Tonopah 
in 1904 was challenged by J. A. Burgess in the light of 
later development, although a revision of data led to no 
serious change of opinion. The discussion of the dacites 
at Waihi, in New Zealand (Tertiary lavas), is another 
case in point, t At Tonopah the earlier andesite has been 
the most productive. At Goldfield the dacite carries the 
ore, although rich shoots at the Kendall and Sandstorm 
mines occur in the old effusive rhyolite, while gold pros- 
pects were found north of Diamondfield in the younger 
andesites. The deposits of Bullfrog are in rhyolite with 
quartz and calcite vein-filling: the Manhattan ore is 

tM. & S. P., November 13, 1915, page 729. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1, 1916 

associated with intrusive rhyolite, and at Searchlight the 
orebodies of the Quartette mine are related to the an- 
desite-porphyry. At JRandsburg, California, older rhyo- 
lites carry the ore. In Mexico other examples of the dis- 
tribution of gold and silver in one or other of the earlier 
Tertiary flows could be given. Prom the available data, 
it is evident that in different localities one member of the 
series of lavas has played the major part in the formation 
of primary ore. This may have been enriched, either by 
addition of mineral from later intrusives, or by concen- 
tration due to processes of oxidation and leaching made 
active by structural features induced by the orogenie 
disturbances of later times. 

No careful geologic work has been done at Oatinan. 
A correct diagnosis of the rock sequence and mineraliz- 
ing agencies would be of inestimable value. In Bulletin 
397 of the U. S. Geological Survey, F. C. Schrader 
gives the results of his reconnaissance in somewhat am- 
biguous phraseology, which fortunately was elucidated 
by Howland Bancroft in the Mixing and Scientific 
Press of July 3, 1915. W. H. Weed is non-committal 
in the statement that the dikes (meaning intrusives! 
have been fissured and mineralized by vein-forming 
agencies. E. W. Brooks is more positive and limits the 
area of commercial mineralization to the newer andesite, 
thus confirming Mr. Schrader, but he refers to it as a 
flow, being "poured out upon the older andesite." My 
own hurried observations suggest the importance of 

1. The true nature of the younger andesite. 

2. The influence of later volcanic disturbances on vein- 

3. The relationship between value of ore and replace- 
ment of calcspar by secondary quartz. 

4. The influence of oxidation on the vertical distribu- 
tion of ore. 

5. The inference that can be drawn as to the nature 
of deep-seated ore from the character of that now de- 

Seriatim, I am of the opinion that the newer andesite 
was both intrusive and extrusive, that dikes and sills of 
this chloritic andesite occur in the older flow, and that 
the possibilities of mineralization of vein-fissures is de- 
pendent upon this association. Veins in both the older 
and newer andesites may therefore be productive to a 
considerable depth. 

Rhyolite dikes and quartz-porphyry intrusions have 
played an important part in shattering the rock-mass, 
re-opening spar-filled fissures, causing a brecciation not 
only of the gangue but of the enclosing wall-rocks, and 
admitting of active oxidation to great depth, with prob- 
able concentration of precious metals at well-defined 
horizons. Strike-faulting is very noticeable within the 
vein and probably determined the lenticular form of the 
ore-shoots. Groovings and striations would indicate both 
horizontal and vertical movements that may explain the 
tendency of shoots to pitch, or rake, to the north. The 
acid intrusives may, too, be the source of the silicious 
waters that have re-cemented the brecciated material in 
the veins. 

There is a pronounced relationship between high- 
grade ore and secondary silica; or, conversely, unal- 
tered calcspar, the original vein-filling, is generally low- 
grade, if not barren. This condition can be studied well 
in the United Eastern mine, where frequent cross-cuts 
show the erratic distribution of the rich ore. The gold 
is very finely divided and rarely noticeable to the naked 
eye. It is always associated with a dull waxy-green va- 
riety of quartz of resinous lustre, resembling bees-wax. 
Under a hand lens the quartz is seen to replace the cal- 
eite. Banded structure is not common and veinlets of 
secondary silica appear penetrating the crystal mass of 
the spar. As accessory minerals, fluorspar is plentiful in 
certain localities, as on the Times group, while limonite 
and manganese oxides are well distributed throughout 
the district. 

The subject of oxidation is important. None of the 
mines is wet and ground-water level has not been estab- 
lished in any workings on the vein system. The re-open- 
ing of fissures and strike-faulting indicated by the in- 
cluded angular fragments of wall-rock, by crushed vein- 
filling, and by persistent striated polished walls within 
the vein itself, rendered conditions favorable for the 
percolation of oxygenated waters to great depth, with 
the attendant possibilities of enrichment. Manganese is 
a common constituent of the vein-filling, and, as is now 
generally recognized, plays a prominent part in the pre- 
cipitation of gold from migrating solutions. At Oatman 
I found many examples of free gold in intimate associa- 
tion with blebs of limonite and manganese oxide. This, 
in my opinion, is not residual gold, it was not left to 
enrich the specimen by the removal of other more readily 
soluble minerals, but was precipitated when the de- 
scending waters ceased to be acid in character and when 
ferric and manganic salts predominated. The porosity 
of the veins at Oatman, the presence of manganese, the 
advanced oxidation are all contributory causes to the 
localization of the ore-shoots some distance below the 

As a corollary to the above, it is to be inferred that 
sulphides will be found below the zone of oxidation. 
Pannings of discarded assay-pulps first caused me to 
look for sulphides in the more compact portions of the 
vein underground. Sulphides are not. uncommon and 
will be found in increasing quantity on the lower levels. 
At the horizon where oxidizing conditions ceased, gold, 
limonite, and manganese oxides were deposited, and still 
deeper the primary sulphides may be anticipated. 

The chief impression I have, as a result of my visit to 
this promising district, is that careful, competent, 
searching study of the geology of the district will pre- 
vent the useless expenditure of money in many direc- 
tions, and lead to intelligent development in others. 

The excitement caused by developments at Oatman 
is spreading to the old Cerbat and Chloride mining dis- 
tricts. The Golconda zinc mine, the property of the 
Union Basin Mining Co.. after proving the continuity 
of the ore to the 900-ft, level, is building a 200-ton flota- 
tion plant, which should be running early in 1916. 

The prospects of Mohave county are promising. 

Janoan l. L916 

MININi . ,nd, I'KI SS 



Aj tten ul ihr uiirlJ'i (ml iiuiiiiii! antral by our otrii lorm/Miiuli'MH. 


i . \..-i. v in mi si\ Ji w 'I'm Dot n Tow h Lai \ "i Li u>- 

imii a liKi'Snu. im'I Him ijiiu- New Roads. 

\ recent lettw mentioned the deposits i>i tungsten on or 
eh in the San Juan mountains, which have 
been known for a Ions time, The Increasing price or tungsten 
has Bnall) resulted In the active development ol Beveral veins 
known to rmntali tnngaten, The Yukon mill, which is on 
Cement creek a mils or so below the Gold King plant, has 
been acquired by the tungsten operators, and is now pro- 
ducing concentrates. 

With a tew of the usual mishaps which attend any large 
enterprise, the utiwaterlng of the Down Town mines at Lead- 
ville progresses steadily. The water is now down to about 
the 7 "o ft. level of the Penrose shaft. While some zinc ore 
has already been shipped from the drained area, results have 
been small so far. It always takes time to get large operations 
under way. The draining has made available a large and 
favorable area for prospecting, but uncovered only a few 
known orebodies. The known deposits are mostly in the 200 
it. yet to be unwatered. One of the interesting questions that 
may be solved by this enterprise is whether or not the famous 
Leadvllle ore-shoots extend for a considerable distance down 
toward the Arkansas. Judge Owers, well known in Leadville, 
assisted in putting down some diamond-drill holes many years 
ago, the results convincing him that as much or more ore lay 
on the dip below the Penrose shaft as above it. He acquired 
a large territory covering the supposed extension of these ore- 
shoots, and spent a large part of the latter days of his life 
endeavoring to finance the project of sinking a new shaft to 
cut the ore horizon on the dip. some distance below the Pen- 
rose. Unfortunately the drilling records were not sufficiently 
conclusive to warrant such a large undertaking, and the 
project was never consummated. The pumping equipment 
now installed is far more efficient than the old plant, so it is 
reasonable to expect that an additional hundred feet or so 
will not deter the operators from following the ore down on 
the dip as long as prospects are good. 

The Supreme Court of Colorado has decided that not even 
the home-rule cities of Colorado may dispense liquor after 
January 1, 1916. So the State will be dry as ashes. There is 
considerable difference of opinion as to the advisability of 
this drastic prohibition law as regards the prosperity of the 
State as a whole. It is thought by many that it simply amounts 
to transferring the profits of the liquor trade from the hands 
of Colorado citizens to those of other States. It is pointed out 
that the consumption of liquor in prohibition territory, both 
in this State and in others, is nearly as great as in wet ter- 
ritory. The only difference being in the method of distribu- 
tion. That the present good system of distribution, which in- 
cludes such magnificent units as the Silver Dollar saloon, the 
Brown Palace bar, the six Colorado breweries, and other 
notable works of man, will be ruthlessly destroyed in favor of 
the mail-order house with headquarters outside the State. On 
the other hand, the roseate claims of the 'drys' are well known. 
Phoenix will miraculously arise from the ashes of legal de- 
struction, and a large chunk of the millenium will burst forth 
upon Colorado like the life giving sunshine of spring after the 
clouds of winter. However diverse the opinions may be as to 
the effects of this law on the State as a whole, there is little 

difference of opinion as to lis effect on the mining oei 

The open saloon Is an Institution that mosl mining men 
cherish, but experience has shown thai It is do) good for ua. 
While the mining tow i lonely' voted wet, still ever) 

miner one meets is of the opinion that dry places will be B 
good thing. The mail-order route may not be as sociable as 
the bright lights, the brass rail, and the Familiar "Thl 
on me, boys," but It is a whole lot better for the health 
pneumonia, more sleep, less hurrah, more work — prosaic, un- 
interesting, but as long as it was forced on us we know it is 
going to be beneficial. 
The extremely open winter weather has been a good thing 


for the mining industry. Money has been tight, as every one 
knows, and many enterprises were without funds until late in 
the fall. If the winter snows had come early, an unusually 
large amount of surface work would have been suspended until 
spring. Take the single item of roads for instance: I feel 
sure that there were more miles of wagon-road built in Colo- 
rado's mountains during November and the first half of De- 
cember this year, than in any similar period of its history. 
The new highway from Durango to Alamosa was finished late 
in November; the Bear Creek Canyon road was finished on 
December 13, and the Jarr Canyon road to Cripple Creek was 
completed about December 1. 

The outlook at present is that next year will be one in which 
the high water run-off will be of short duration. It is the 
early snows that drift into the big banks and last until August. 
The spring snows, even though abundant, do not get packed 
down, and they go off with a rush in June. This condition is 
bad for the farmer, but favorable for the miner. It means 
open roads and trails and little water to pump. Some power- 
plants are feeling the lack of water, but then there is plenty 
of coal to burn and plenty of auxiliary steam plants available 
for the larger distributing agents. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1, 1916 

Roads to Tolovana, and Prospects of THE N«W District. — 
Fairbanks Last Season, and Prospects idb Next. — 
Scrapers. — Lode Mines. — Ti ngste.n. 

Now that a good trail has been constructed to the Tolovana 
via Olnes, much travel and freighting has been done between 
Fairbanks and Livengood. Many criticisms of the trail have 
been made, as while the route is about the shortest possible, 
there are several high divides that make heavy hauls difficult. 
Many people advocate the Happy Creek route. Though at 
least IB miles longer, it has no appreciable grades. H. 11. 
Ross, territorial road overseer, is now engaged in cutting out 
a winter trail by way of that route with the aid of a Holt 
caterpillar-tractor, intending to do heavy hauling that way 
later. Good progress has been made so far, the men being at 
Lake Minto, and one lot of men has left Livengood to meet 
the others, to assist in the work. If a post-office is finally 
assigned to the new district, it will be designated Livengood 
by the Post-Office department, the original name of Brooks not 
being considered suitable. There is a Brooks in Alabama, and 
an improper abbreviation for Alaska would result in much 
confusion. However, commissioner and recorder Atwell was 
appointed as that officer for Brooks, and the radio-station is 
also known as Brooks. How the mix-up will be straightened 
out is yet to be seen. If the pay-streaks are as good as hoped 
for, however, the matter of names will be incidental. 

No extensive prospecting was done last month, all the pros- 
lectors being busy arranging for the winter. From now on 
the 'dirt' will fly, and the camp be developed considerably 
during the next few months. That there is pay. and good pay 
on Livengood. has already been proved; but whether it is only 
in spots, or continuous, is yet to be determined. Pay has also 
been reported on the Mike Hess side, but no sluicing has been 
done there to prove this. The general feeling is one of quiet 
optimism, and it will take a lot of blank holes to discourage 
anybody. Plans are already under way to remove the im- 
mense log-Jam that blocks navigation to the mouth of Liven- 
good creek, so that freight will be much cheaper by water next 
year than this, when portaging was necessary for the 500 tons 
of material that was shipped in that way. 

The fact that gold production from Fairbanks placer mining 
in the past Beason was much greater than last has been a 
source of great satisfaction to everybody. Merchants report 
much better business for the fall than a year ago, and the 
extensive operations planned for next season should keep pro- 
duction up to the mark. Open-cuts on Cleary and Pedro 
creeks will be as extensive, while the usual amount of drift 
mining will be carried on on Fairbanks. Chatanika. and Ester 
creeks. The ground adjoining that on Ester, which gave a 
fortune to Short and Ray last season, will be worked this 
winter and next summer by Jack Leach, who has Just as good 
pay in sight. The Al Hilty open-cut on Cleary will also yield 
well again, unless the option on the greater part of the creek Is 
taken up, in which case production will be delayed till a 
dredge is erected. This option is held by delegate Wickersham 
and associates. If taken up, either the Murphy ditch will be 
completed from the head of Chatanika, and the creek hy- 
draulicked or a dredge constructed. The Hilty ground 
yielded a large return this year, not only paying off consider- 
able debt, but putting Hilty and Durand on their feet, if re- 
ports are authentic. The ground was worked with a large 
Bagley scraper and American scraping engine. 

Hanot Bros, are to erect a much larger patented scraping 
rig on their Pedro ground. In this machine the scraper is 
attached rigidly to a carrier that travels on a trolley cable to 
boxes. As soon as the load is picked up, the slack Is pulled 
out of the trolley cable, and the load is taken to the boxes, 
with more speed and much less power than is possible with 
either the slip scraper or Bagley scraper. Aside from the 
patented features, the rig is similar to the levee machine used 

on the Mississippi that was illustrated in the June, 1915, issue 
of The World't Work. 

That the quartz properties on Fairbanks creek are gradu- 
ally emerging from the prospecting to the production stage is 
shown by the three small steam plants now working there. 
McGillvray. Nars, and Handberry have recently installed a 
small hoist, and expect to make regular shipments to the 
custom mill farther down the hill. This property has long 
been idle, but the advent of a good custom-plant has made 
operations much less of a gamble. Considerable ore of mill- 
ing grade has been blocked out. Ott, McGowan, and Lyden 
have also erected a small steam plant on their lease, and are 
taking out ore for shipment to the Heilig mill. Their lease 
is on a portion of the Gus Hess ground, and adjoins the Mispah 
claim where Hess, Gels, and Thompson are now operating. 
While they have been working only a few months, the lessees 
are well satisfied with results. Hess and partners are also 
using a steam-hoist, and have been in good ore for some 
time. They should have a large shipment ready in a few 

Gilmore and Stevens have bought out the last of the lessees 
on their ground, and are now operating on their own account. 
Their new five-stamp Allis-Chalmers mill has been started 
again, and should be kept working steadily from now on with 
proper management. The lessees extracted only a small part 
of the 6-ft. lode and could not keep the mill going full time, 
but the owners think the whole vein can be milled at a profit. 
Operations so far consist of windlassing from two shafts, but 
a power hoist will soon be necessary. At the Huddleston- 
Leyendecker property, in which Gilmore also holds an Interest, 
the vein has been found down the hill from the shaft, and an 
adit is being driven. The shaft was lost last summer, due to 
heavy rains, and stoping too near to it and the surface. The 
adit shows 4 ft. of milling ore. 

Mr f 'arty and Kellen are now cleaning out the old stopes of 
the Pioneer claim to get the $15 to $20 ore shot down as waste 
when this grade could not be treated at a profit. 

Foss and Farvean have been getting some good ore lately 
from their lease at the McDonough property. The last 60 tons 
milled averaged over $30 per ton, and it is expected that the 
next shipment will net even better. The lessees use an Inger- 
soll-Rand stoper with steam, and while it is not always very 
comfortable to work with, it is better than hand-drilling. 
Lots of trouble was experienced at this property from water 
and swelling ground this fall, and practically the whole mine 
had to be re-timbered, the largest timbers obtainable being 
used. Everything is in good shape now, and the partners will 
probably be well repaid for their extra trouble and expense. 

Crites and Feldman have had the misfortune lately to get 
drowned out of their shaft on the top of the hill. The shaft 
was being sunk for prospecting purposes before the main adit 
was driven that distance and the flow of water was considered 
too large to handle economically. A cross-cut adit will now be 
driven to cut the vein at a depth of 150 ft, and in case the 
grade continues, the main adit will be driven in from the 

The mortgage on the Newsboy mine has been foreclosed and 
the property will pass into private hands. Several calls were 
made for a stockholders' meeting to consider a plan whereby a 
foreclosure could be avoided, but as there was no quorum 
present, this had to be resorted to. At any rate, this property 
will probably pass into the active list sooner than under pri- 
vate ownership. 

Encouraging reports come from the newly discovered 
scheelite deposit at the head of Gilmore creek, the shoot widen- 
ing considerably and containing a high percentage of tungsten. 
Albert Johnson, the owner, is a prospector of wide experience, 
and says that the deposit has more promise of size and con- 
tinuity than any he has seen. Placer scheelite has been seen 
ever since the creek was worked; this vein is probably one of 
the main Bources of the mineral. 

■Iiiiitiitrv 1. 1916 

MINING and Scienti6c I'RKSS 


Th* nm of iln- uwk m «>M by "iir ipactol e o rrm p ondenti and compiled [rom ihr local prru. 


(ill* vn\ 

Gold output of the Chlsiuui district last season was between 
♦ 100,000 and $150,000. About 50 man "ill winter there. More 
work Is to be done during the winter than before. S. n raj 
prospects are reported to be very promising. 


Twenty claims, two mill-sites and water-rights at Windham 
bay have been sold by G. Jensen and E. J. Dailey to the 
Alaska Bond & Development Co.. H. H. Smith president, for 
1211,000. Work will commence in the spring. 

During the first 13 days of December the Alaska Gastineau 
mill treated 61,669 tons of ore averaging $1.10 per ton; the tail- 
ing assayed 23 cents. By the end of 1915 it was hoped to have 
the beads up to $1.35 per ton. On No. G level of the mine 808 
ft. has been driven east, with good ore in the face. The last 
300 ft. averaged $5.36 per ton. The schist had not been 
entered on December 20. On No. 7 level the east drift was 
advanced 067 ft., the last 110 ft. assaying $4 per ton. All 
slopes are looking better. The Annex Creek power-plant is 

On December 17 a snow-slide demolished the blacksmith-shop 
change-house, and dry-house at the Gold Belt mine. The dam- 
age is estimated at $2000. The crew in the adit are temporarily 
engaged at diamond-drilling. 

Eugene Meyer, Jr.. & Co. have issued a summary of a report 
of J. H. MacKenzie, consulting engineer of the Alaska Juneau 
Gold Mining Co., showing the progress being made in develop- 
ment and equipment of the plant. It says in part: "Practically 
all contracts have been let for mill and power-plant construc- 
tion. Grading for power-plant is completed. Mill grading is 
more than 50% complete. Erection will commence early in the 
spring, and It is anticipated that the plant will be ready for 
operation on schedule time. The mill design is believed to 
embody every desirable known economic feature based upon the 
most recent experience in mill construction. The ore will 
move entirely by gravity through the various phases of treat- 
ment. Mill screens have been entirely eliminated, with conse- 
quent increase in capacity and reduction in milling costs. 
Ample wharfing facilities have been completed, making it 
possible to bring the largest ocean-going steamers within a 
stone's throw of the reduction-plant. There remains one ad- 
ditional warehouse to be erected. Compressors, blacksmith- 
shops, and general buildings all of ample size were completed 
before the beginning of the present enlarged program. The 
original plans for placing the property on an 8000-ton daily 
basis are going forward absolutely according to expectations 
and schedule, and there is every reason to believe that the 
final expenditures to complete the plant will not exceed the 
present cash resources of the company. It is expected that the 
plant will be in operation early in 1917." 


Cochise County 

Prospectors in the Huachuca mountains are active at pres- 
ent. The area has produced a good deal of gold from placers. 
In Ash canyon a formation has been opened containing a rich 
but narrow vein. Several copper deposits are producing ore. 
Snow has fallen In the mountains recently. 

lillUI \ M !'•■! H I I 

iii Hooker canyon, be opposite side ol the Oils riv. i 

Qeronlmo, P, Morgan and Owens BroB. have bond I wide 
deposit of gold-bearing decomposed porphyry, Willi some sliver 
and copper. They rciiorted this at Globe last week. 

Greenlee County 

The Detroit Copper Co. has 140 mining claims on which 
assessment work has to be done. Men were sent to do this, 
but they were driven out by the strikers. The company on 
December 18 filed a complaint with Judge Sawtell of the 
Federal court against the Western Federation of Miners, ask- 
ing for an injunction restraining this body from Interfering 
with the work mentioned. An order was Issued accordingly. 
Governor Hunt refused to discuss the matter. 

Mohave County 

The latest and one of the most important rei>orts from the 
Oatman district is that the Tom Reed and United Eastern 
mines are being sampled with a view to consolidation. 

Drilling has been started at the Copperfleld Porphyry Copper 
company's ground near Mineral Park. The shaft is 40 ft. deep. 
Fifteen per cent ore is to be shipped. There Is talk of a 100- 
ton mill. Power can be secured at $12 per hp. month. 

The Golconda Extension shaft has cut high-grade gold-silver 
stringers at 350 ft. The main orebody is considered to be near. 

A new method of concentrating molybdenum ore has been 
devised by T. D. Walsh, who has been experimenting at the 
Leviathan mine. The new mill of the American Molyb- 
denum Co. is in commission. 

A new road is being constructed Into the tungsten area 12 

miles east of Yucca. Forty men are employed. A new road 

over Goldroad hill is to be built by the county at a cost of 
$33,800. This will cut down the heavy grades on the old road. 

At 250 ft. in the Carter Mining & Milling Co.'s mine, 26 
miles south-west of Kingman, a cross-cut has passed through 10 
ft. of $30 ore. 

At the Lazy Boy a two-drill compressor and machine-drills 
are at work. The shaft is down 60 ft. A 40-hp. gasoline hoist 
is to be installed at once. 

The United Northern company is constructing a road one- 
half mile long, and grading for machinery. A two-compart- 
ment vertical shaft is to be sunk 500 feet. 

The Oatman Amalgamated Gold Mines Co. has been organ- 
ized by C. A. Jones of Los Angeles and J. T. Burns of Colorado 
Springs. Colo., for the exploration and development of ap- 
proximately 400 acres of ground. 

Extensive interest is being taken in the Cedar Valley, Union 
Pass, and Wallapai districts, where are a large number of 
prospects and properties in the development stages. 

In the Aquarius mountains, 56 miles from Oatman, A. C. 
Parsons of San Francisco has purchased 13 claims, in which is 
said to be a commercial deposit of bismuth. 


The State Mining Bureau, under the direction of Fletcher 
Hamilton, state mineralogist, is preparing a new, general 
report on all of the mineral resources of California. Instead 
of delaying publication until the entire area of the State has 
been covered, the reports are being issued as advance chapters, 
by groups of adjacent counties, as soon as completed by the 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1, 1916 

field men. Competent geologists and mining engineers are 
engaged in the field gathering data, and It Is expected in the 
next tew months to complete this survey of the whole State. 
All mines, quarries, mineral springs, cement mills, and other 
plants handling mineral products are listed and described, 
including situation, equipment, extent of development, geolog- 
ical conditions, etc. The reports are well Illustrated with 
photographs and drawings, and contain also tables of the 
mineral yield of the several counties, showing a wide diversity 
of products. 

The following chapters have just been received from the 
printer, and are now ready for distribution at the prices in- 
dicated, which Includes postage. They may be obtained from 
the main office of the State Mining Bureau, Ferry building. 
San Francisco, or the southern California branch office, at 
Room 208, Union League building, Los Angeles: 

The chapter on Amador, Calaveras, and Tuolumne counties 

Siskiyou moooc i 




V>" { » B V 


N . i> 

(.5^ INYO \ 

f V 




£2, '""**""■ 

MAT OF lAl.lRiHMA. showing 00UNTIE8. 

covers the central portion of the Mother Lode gold belt. This 
district is one of the oldest, and is still the most important 
quartz gold-producing section of the State. With photographs 
charts, and index; the report contains 180 pages and the 
price is 50c, postpaid. The author is W. B. Fletcher, field 
assistant. There are three distinct lodes in Amador county, 
the principal being the Central or Mother Lode belt. The 
quartz veins of this formation occur in black slate, black 
slate and diabase, and amphibolite schist. From 1880 to 1913, 
Inclusive, Amador County mines have yielded a total of $64,- 
338,755, of which $62,511,953 was from gold. Fifty pages are 
devoted to interesting descriptions of the deposits and general 
development of asbestos, clay. coal, copper, gold (38 pages), 
lime, marble, and sandstone. Work at Jackson is being done 
to a depth of 4100 feet. 

Notes on Calaveras county cover ?S pages. In 34 years the 
mineral output was $49,437,433, of which gold accounted for 
$39,920,552. and copper $8,233,314. The Mother Lode here 
displays the characteristics of large bodies of low and medium- 
grade ore, presenting mining propositions now attractive to 
conservative capital. 

Tuolumne county (41 pages), had an output of $34,744,511 

in 34 years, gold contributing $32,983,771, and limestone and 
marble over $1,200,000. Some well known mines are operated 
in this county. Readers of the Pkkss will have noted the 
revival at Sonora of late. 

The chapter on the 'north of the Bay' (San Francisco) group 
covers the counties "I Colusa, Glenn, Lake, Marin, Napa, 
Solano, Sonoma- and Yolo. This district contains a greater 
number and variety of mineral springs than any other similar 
area in the United States. It has also been an important pro- 
ducer of quicksilver, and is notable for its yield of cement, 
crushed rock and other building materials. The report con- 
tains 208 pages and the price is 50c. postpaid. Walter W. 
Bradley is the author, who had an extensive area to cover to 
investigate i he varied resources. The value of the mineral 
production of these counties is as follows: Colusa, (from 
1875), $2,621,423, sandstone amounting to $1,440,998, and min- 
eral water. $881,258; Glenn (from 1890), $244,876, building 
materials predominating; Lake (from 1873), 247,877 flasks of 
quicksilver worth $9,404,501, 6,117,457 gal. of mineral water. 
$2,080,745, and $504,236 of boras; Marin (from 1888), $3,869,- 
799, brick and stone making over $3,700,000: Napa (from 1862), 
$24.64s.71!i. of which $14,898,064 is from 334,063 flasks of 
mercury, and $1,779,999 from mineral water; Solano (from 
1873), $17,205,665. mostly building materials; Sonoma (from 
1873), $7,662,966. quicksilver contributing $2,533,228 and stone 
$4,277,886; while the mineral resources of Yolo county are now 
being developed. Copiously illustrated deposits and plants add 
greatly to the value of this report. 

The chapter on Del Norte, Humboldt, and Mendocino covers 
the three northernmost coast counties. There are important 
mineral resources in this area, most of them as yet undevel- 
oped owing to lack of transportation facilities. The comple- 
tion of the Northwestern Pacific railroad to Eureka, and the 
line now reported under construction from Grant's Pass. 
Oregon, to Crescent City, will result in increased development 
of all industries in this district. It is also one of the most im- 
portant lumbering areas of the State. The report is of 60 
pages, and the price is 25c. postpaid. F. L. Lowell is the 
author, who commences with a brief geologic description of the 
region. The black sands of this part of the State are frequently 
discussed among mining men, and under Del Norte and Hum- 
boldt counties the author gives some notes on the subject. 
Chrome iron occurs in several places. The Horse Mountain 
copper deposits, before the investing public some time ago, are 
described; so are the placer operations, oil occurrence, magne- 
site. and manganese. 

The chapter on the San Joaquin Valley district covers the 
counties of Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, 
San Joaquin, and Stanislaus. While this is one of the most 
important agricultural sections of California, it also has large 
and valuable mineral resources, including the Kern County 
and Coalinga oil fields, and the famous Raymond granite 
quarries. The report covers 220 pages, the price of which Is 
50c. postpaid. The authors are Walter W. Bradley. G. Chester 
Brown, F. L. Lowell, and R. P. McLaughlin. Fresno county 
has a mineral output of $66,294,637, petroleum accounting for 
$62,130,959, copper $1,063,957, and stone $1,167,433. As the oil 
industry was recently covered in Bulletin 69 of the Mining 
Bureau, only brief mention is made of the industry in this 
and Kern county, the latter having produced $131,441,710 out 
of a total of $159,176,373 of all minerals. Interesting reviews 
are given on the power schemes, quarries, quicksilver deposits, 
antimony, the Nimaret iron deposit (by F. B. Weeks), in 
Madera county, gold mining in Mariposa county, dredging in 
Merced county, and gas wells in San Joaquin county. 

The chapter on Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity counties covers 
an area in which is located the State's largest copper and 
silver-producing area, also the largest yielding hydraulic gold 
mines of the present day. The western part of this area in 
particular has great possibilities from a mineral standpoint, 
but as yet only slightly developed on account of meager trans- 

.Iiuiuury 1. 1916 

MINIM, Nirn.ih. I'K! SS 


portatlon farllltl«» The report In Ol the I'll" being 

. Cheater Brown i» the author. The m 

U l» as follow*: SIkiMu ((ruin 1880), llOtv 

al which itit;. '.03. 109 ih copper, tad IM.6I 

Siskiyou (from>. about 116^000,000, ni"-'U |Old and 

Trinity, H60.000, mostly gold. Shimiii count] li but 

iii pieaent on account of the demand for ooppar, while the line 
output I* Increasing at a great rale: the eoppar belt is fully 
ili-M-rliii'i! BOOM of the asbestos deiioslts urr of Importance, 
IM of gold mines are shown. This county has the onl] 
electric Iron Mueller In the State, now reducing Iron and 
manganese ores. Siskiyou Is noted for Us many small gold 
mines and placer workings. Trinity Is a mountainous area, 
Quarts mining Is not considered to be on a large scale, but 
hyiir.iuiicking and dredging unv The asbestos deposits are 


am .mkih Ooi n n 

After being reported as sold many times during recent years, 
the old Bnreka mine at Sutter Creek has really been sold to 
Neu York people, represented by Walter Beam of Denver. The 
property was owned by Mrs. Hetty Green, who allowed it to be 
idle for 31 years. 

Calavebas County 

Underground work at the Utica mine at Angels was sus- 
pended on December 86, when 100 men were paid off. Nothing 
Is known of future plans. The mill is crushing ore from the 
Goldcliffe mine, owned by the Uttea company. .1. F. Martin 
is superintendent. 

Elookauo County 

The Guilford mill, 2} miles from Placerville. was held up 
and robbed of $1200 of amalgam on December 25, the bandits 
scraping the plates In expert style. 

Nevada County 
Following its usual custom, the North Star Mines Co. on 
December 24 gave each employee receiving $3 per day a $10 
coin, and each receiving less than that wage, a $5 coin. 

Shasta County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Mammoth Copper Co. has 
started a lower adit from the Frlday-Lowden mine to develop 
the main orebody 400 ft. below the present lowest workings. 
It will be 7J by 8J ft., and 5000 ft. long. It will form the main 
working adit, and be known as No. 6 tunnel. Three blast- 
furnaces are reducing copper ore, including 300 tons received 
daily from the Balaklala company. Shipments of selected zinc 
ore are being made to Eastern plants at the rate of 250 tons 
per day. Arrangements have been made recently for more 
extensive work at the Sutro. Stowell, and other mines. 

Operations have been resumed at the Shasta Belmont, near 
Copper City, with William Arps in charge of affairs. The 
property has been developed to a limited extent by short adits 
and some rich ore exposed. A good wagon-road extends from 
the mine to Heroult. on the railroad, and small shipments will 
be made to the Mammoth smelter. A new main adit has been 
started, designed to open the ore at fair depth. The ore con- 
tains copper and zinc, with some gold and silver. 

Large quantities of supplies have been shipped to the Midas 
mine, at Harrison Gulch, and preparations made for more ex- 
tensive work. Unwatering of the deep levels of the Midas 
will be pushed, and development of the Gold Hill. Bonanza, 
and other properties carried forward. More units will be added 
to the reduction plant in the early spring. 

It is estimated by conservative mine operators that the min- 
eral output of Shasta county for 1915 will approximate $7,000,- 
000. The increase is due largely to the heavy output of zinc, 
and the higher price of copper. This year marks the first time 
that the extensive zinc-ore deposits have been turned to profit- 
able account. 

Redding, December 20. 

The Crown Deep mine between Redding and Shasta is to be 

ii ,1 in the owner James Hulme, rhs (rower-llm 

stolen last >«-;n in iii nine was >» .■.•"►. i , luoei 

Binas Ooi ten 

\- was mentioned 111 the P t Ol II t<iim 

<>f powder ws I "ff al the Brand) Cit) gravel 

The powder, in 86-lb. sacks. «.is arranged In '■ drift, tai 
and connected with the outside by fuses. Tins,- were in on 
Deceml !0 p.m . Blghl men then retired to thi 

smith-shop, which is surrounded by i>inh banks -'"" 
distant Some of the powder exploded, the remainder catching 

tire and blowing out from the mouth of the drift The Ham. 

smoke, and fume quickly spread over i ii«* whole area, envelop* 

Ing the nun- As a result lour ii were asphyxiated, while 

the others are still very III. The fume was miell as in swat 
as t'omptonviiie. seven miles distant; while al Brand) City, s 
half-mill- from the mine, several people were nimosi o\. rooms 
The cause of the accident is unknown. Previous large lilasis 
at the same property were always successful, 

Till Ml v I'm S IV 

Most of the small mines In the Carrvllle dlstricl are 

for the winter, but the Bonanza Kim; lias 10 nun In Its IS 

and mill, while the Strode is leased, with five Stamps drop- 

Hydranllcking has been started al the Paulsen ranch, a half- 
mile from Lewiston. The property is of considerable extent. 
An eight-mile canal delivers GOO miner's inches of water with 
a 200-ft. head. The gravel averages 20 ft. in depth. Seven 
men are employed. The owner is the Bublou Mining Company. 

Clear Creek County 

(Special Correspondence.) — A two-foot body of smelting ore 
has been cut on the 100-ft. level of the Albro mine situated 
on Albro mountain. Shipments are at the rate of two carloads 
per week, returning $65 gold and silver per ton. Earl Dingle 

is lessee. The Wyoming Valley adit in Gilson gulch is being 

extended steadily. The manager, J. J. Hoban, states that an 
electric compressor is to be installed at once. Shipments have 
been started from the White property of the Little Giant Min- 
ing Co., on Red Elephant mountain. The ore is being extracted 
from the vein cut 2000 ft. from the portal of the Commodore 
adit, and returns averaging $70 per ton in gold, silver, and 

lead are being received. Work will be resumed on January 

1 at the Stanley mine. The adit will be driven to intersect a 
number of cross-veins, while development will also be done on 
several levels of the shaft workings. H. J. Wolff is manager. 

Machine-drills were started this week at the McClelland 

adit, the portal of which is situated near Dumont. There will 
be no cessation of work until 3000 ft. has been driven. This 
will take the heading to the base of the Lamartine mine. L. 

W. Shaffer is manager. Jenkins and Johnson, leasing on 

the Pozo mine, are making an average net earning of $2000 
per month. Operations are above the Newhouse adit. 

Idaho Springs, December 19. 

Gilpin County 

On every 1000 shares in the Cashier Gold Mining & Reduc- 
tion Co., which operates the Pittsburg mine in lower Russell 
gulch, a dividend of $15 has been paid. The employees were 
given a 10-lb. turkey each. The shaft is to be sunk to 100 ft. 
An electric pump has been installed at 1000 ft. Recent ship- 
ments were high in gold, silver, and copper. W. Auger is 

Good settlements are reported from the Senator, Gilpin- 
Eureka, Ingalls, Powers, New Treasury, and Black Hawk 

Hinsdale County 

The Colorado-Utah Mining & Operating Co., which has a 
lease of the Golden Fleece mine, has erected a concentrating- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1> 1916 

Teller Coi:xtv (Cripple Creek I 
The Elkton shaft i8 down 1438 ft. No. IT level station Is 
to be cut. The main vein will be cut on the dip near the shaft 
at the bottom level, and ore should be mined early in February. 
Water Is receding at the rate of 21J ft. per month. As the 
Roosevelt drainage-tunnel approaches the shaft, now less than 
500 ft. distant, the water recession is more rapid. 

Shoshone County (Coeur o'Alenei 
t is considered probable that the Chicago, Milwaukee, and 
St. Paul railroad will be constructed to this region. 

At 900 ft. in the Marsh mine 7 ft of ore has been opened, 
3 ft. being suitable for shipment. The mill is making high 

A cross-cut In the Patuxent, Nine-Mile district, has passed 
through 60 ft. of ore, 6 ft of which contains 30% lead, with 
some zinc. Another good vein is being developed in this mine, 
owned mainly by James F. Callahan, well known in Idaho. 

For the sum of $150,000, A. Swan of Burke has secured an 
option to purchase and lease the Coeur d'Alene Mining & 
Concentrating Co.'s property. A royalty of 15% of the net 
smelter returns is to be paid the mining company, which will 
apply on payments falling due. 

The first of the regular monthly dividends of 7c. per share, 
equal to $70,000, was paid by the Hecla company at Burke on 
December 20. An extra of 3c. was also paid. The total for 
1915 was $565,000, and $3,755,000 to date. 

Concentrates assaying up to 35% copper and 90 to 100 oz. 
silver, are being shipped from the National mill at Mullan to 
the smelter. A good recovery' is reported from the plant. 

The Anaconda Copper company has secured a three-year 
bond on the Douglas mine in the Pine Creek district for the 
sum of $361,000. An initial payment of $100,000 has been 
made. A mill and other machinery is to be ordered at once. 
The ore contains zinc, which will be treated at the new plant 
at Great Falls, Montana. 

Dividends of Coeur d'Alene companies are as follows, ac- 
cording to The Wallace Miner: 


Caledonia $ 52,100 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan 163,500 

Interstate-Callahan 697,485 

Hecla 100,000 

Federal 120,000 

Hercules 200,000 

Success 45,000 

Total $1,378,085 

Total 1915. 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan $1,062,750 

Caledonia 677,300 

Federal 480,000 

Hecla 565,000 

Hercules 2,250,000 

Interstate-Callahan 2,657,445 

Stewart 804,934 

Success 555,000 

Total $8,952,429 


Tiik Copper Country 

Two more stamps are to be added to the Ahmeek mill: they 
should increase the annual output by 7.000,000 lb. of copper. 
Four shafts are supplying ore. 

A number of additions and improvements are being made at 
the White Pine mine and mill. The new railroad to the prop- 
erty was completed and opened for traffic last week. 

The Franklin mill crushed about 30.000 tons in December. 
Fifty machine-drills are at work underground. 


Jasper County 

Owing to the rise in prices for concentrate the expected 
$25,000,000 output for the region will be exceeded. The yield 
during the week ended December 17 was 6087 tons blende, 518 
tons calamine, and 904 tons lead, averaging $89.65, $64.47, and 
$69.81 per ton •espectively. The total value was $545,736, and 
for 51 weeks, $24,645,953. 

In the zinc-lead region there are approximately 300 mines 
being operated, half of which are using electric power to great 
advantage. Current for some districts is not yet available, but 
provision has been made for motors. It is estimated that some 
time ago motor-driven pumps were lifting 86.000,000 gal. of 
water per day. 


Lincoln County 

Spokane people, headed by J. E. Wallace, W. W. Wallace, and 
C. Robinson, have organized the Diamond Hitch Mining Co. 
to operate the Diamond Hitch and Cabinet Queen lead-zinc 
claims near Troy. In the Troy mine the Wallace Bros, are 
opening good lead-zinc ore. An adit from this mine will 
develop the others. 

Sllvebbow County 

In his report for the year ended November 30, 1915, the 
deputy state mine inspector, Mr. McGrath, considers that con- 
ditions in this county were never better, nor the future 
brighter. There are 14,067 men employed, receiving $1,595,845 
in wages during September. This does not include lessees 
and prospectors. As has been mentioned in previous issues of 
the Press, many mines are being re-opened. 

Some of the taxpayers of this county are as follows: 
Anaconda Copper .Mining Co., $272,262; Butte & Superior 
Copper Co., $81,264; Butte, Anaconda & Pacific railroad, $14.- 
844; Elm Orlu Mining Co.. $14,066; and North Butte Mining 
Co.. $10,879. 

The Butte Miner of December 19 is a special issue of 56 
pages, a number of which are devoted to local mining. 


Clark County 

Little has been heard of the Boss platinum mine of late. 
It was under option to California people, but has reverted to 
the original owners, S. E. Yount, F. A. Hale, and O. J. Fisk. 
Of the purchase price of $150,000, only $50,000 was paid. An 
adit is being driven to cut the rich vein recently opened. 

Goodsprings, Platina, and Smithsonite districts are busy. 

Elko County 
Operators in the Dolly Varden district, near Currie, are 
optimistic as to the future. More work has been done in the 
last four months than in a previous year. 

Esmeralda County 

The final report of the Goldfield Consolidated for November 
shows that 32,100 tons of ore gave a net profit of $52,706. 
Costs totaled $4.73 per ton. Development amounted to 2412 
ft., at $5.75 per foot. Lessees mined 219 tons of ore worth 
$4394; of this the company received $2213, less transport and 

Nye County 

Eight companies and several lessees at Tonopah last week 
produced a total of 10,423 tons of ore, worth $213,574. 

The Belmont shipped 153,100 oz. bullion. On December 19 
the refinery at the Tonopah mill of this company was 
destroyed by fire, caused by an oil-supply pipe breaking. 

At 1540 ft. in the Extension, the Murray vein has been 
opened by a cross-cut from the Victor shaft. So far the metal- 
value is low. A bullion shipment consisted of 87,165 ounces. 

In the Tonopah Mining Co.'s properties development totaled 

January 1. 1916 

MINING ..nd Scienuhc PRKSS 


344 ft., coiuldirably above the average, with encouraging 
result*. The plant at Millers treated 2865 tons of ore. 

The Cash Hoy. Halifax, nml North matin tunall slilp- 
mriits to the. \W»i KiuI mill. 

Of tin- l." pa(M In Its special Issue of December 18, tlU 

. derotei U pagea to mining, it natal 

that "great a* has been tin- advuiui h In mining in I'tnh In the 
put, they have been as nothing In comparison »ltli the 
progress made In 1915." This was reflected on transactions at 
the Salt Lake BtOOk Bbtohange, whin- 13.000,000 more shares 
were sold than In 1914. One of the graatOHl features 
was the Increased mill capacity of the State, also the 
Important developments In the Alta-Cottonwoods area, 
and the large Increase In the output of Park City. Brief 
mention Is made of the Important developing and pro- 
ducing mines. The antlmatntl metal production was as 

Metal. 1915. 1914. 

Arsenic, pounds 1.S27.200 2. ".-.1,940 

Copper, pounds 174,864,816 152,034,002 

Gold, ounces 170,836 157,961 

Lead, twunds 186,030,225 171,323,137 

Silver, ounces 12.512,891 11,154,916 

Zinc, pounds 27,341,830 15,989,267 

Value $27,336,267 $52,229,268 

trlcl was sold last week to the U B It * M Co. It BOB 
slsted of 21 tons asnayn gold „n,l | ,,i »||ver i • 

from the Davis lease. 

Jl Ml (',,( \ l\ 


wiiii a oapltal or 11,000,0011 the TlnUc Tunnel On. was in 

lorporated last week, it win drive ■ dralnafs-ttinnel about 
ftre mill's Ion*;, thai will roach ■ depth of 8800 ft Im-Iow tin- 
collar of Iron Blossom No. 2. Tin- trail.- will be 11 II per 
mile, There Will l>e room for a double track electric line, and 
a dralnage-dltch. It Is thought that the water developed will 
pay the coat of the work. 

Salt Lam. Ooi 

Grading for the first 
four miles of the Alta 
Cottonwood electric train- 
way Is finished; the road 
Is to be eight miles In 
length. Locomotives and 
other equipment have been 


The flotation-plant at the 
Silver King Coalition has 
been in operation since 
December 5, and is giving 

Dividends totaled $10,136,636, against $7,107,822 in 1914. 
The total disbursements are $128,384,153, from a metal output 
of $724,609,605. 

The Bingham district made an interesting showing on ac- 
count of new development, and 33 mines yielded a total of 10,- 
176,984 tons of ore worth $33,786,250, mostly in copper from the 
Utah Copper Company. 

In the Alta-Cottonwoods a year ago only 17 mines were 
worked, employing 100 men; now there are 70 and 700, re- 
spectively. Ore shipments in the past two years were $221,000 
and $1,000,000, showing the amount of work done. Good 
progress Is being made on the new electric railroad to serve 
the region. The U. S. Geological Survey has just published a 
bulletin. No. 620-1. on this region. 

At Park City 12 mines in 1914 shipped 62,606 tons, while in 
1915 the figures were 18 and 91,477, respectively. Re-treatment 
of tailing is a feature of present operations. Much new equip- 
ment has been erected. The Snake Creek tunnel is now in 
over 13,000 feet. 

There were seven dividend-payers at Tintic. Ore shipments 
for 11 months show a fair increase over 1914. 
Beaveb County 

Fortuna continues to expand; 75 miners are busy; there are 
more prospectors; and extensive development is planned by 
several companies. The first shipment of ore from the dis- 

exceilent results, the recovery of lead and silver being from 
90 to 95 and 90 to 93%, respectively. 
Utah County 

To develop and extract various substances from the oil- 
shale in Kyune canyon, the Utah Oil Shale Products Co. has 
been organized with a capital of $300,000. The John D. Scott 
process will be used. L. P. Palmer is president and A. H. 
Northrop vice-president. 


Chelan County 
(Special Correspondence.) — A car of antimonial ore from 
the Gold Creek mine, in the Methow district, has been shipped 
to Chicago. The company is preparing to build a small smelter 
at the mine this winter. 
Methow, December 25. 

Stevens County 

Five hundred tons of zinc carbonate ore has been contracted 
to go to Donora, Pennsylvania, from the Great Western 
mine, seven miles south-east of Northport. The ore assays 
30% zinc, 5% iron, and 1% sulphur. The daily shipment will 
be 15 tons. Development is good in this mine operated by 
the Norman Mines Company. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1. 1916 

British Columbia 
The Granby company's furnaces are reducing 900 tons of 
ore each per day, the Anyox total in November being 60,000 
tons. The converter-plant here has been closed for the winter, 
matte being sent to the smelter at Grand Forks. Costs of 
producing copper at Anyox are expected to be reduced to 8c. 
per pound. 

On January 10 the Standard Silver-Lead company will pay 
2Jc. per share, equal to $50,000. and making a total of 


In November the Mclntyre mill at Porcupine treated 8657 
tons of $7.29 ore with 95.52% recovery, at a cost of $4.07 per 
ton. The profit was $25,050. The ore averages $11.17 per ton 
at 600 ft. depth; at 700 ft. it is erratic, from 40c. to $10.40. 
The Extension shaft is down to 885 ft. The Mclntyre-Jupiter 
Mines, Ltd., has been formed with a capital of $2,000,000, of 
which the Mclntyre-Porcupine Mines, Ltd., takes 955,000 shares 
and the Jupiter Mines, Ltd., receives 943,893 shares and $60,000 
for its property. 

No. 8 vein of the Tough-Oakes has been cut at 250 ft depth. 
Other developments are very satisfactory. 

At a depth of 425 ft. the Hollinger company has started a 
long drift to connect with a shaft at the Vipond boundary. 
This will take 18 months, but will result in rapid underground 
electric haulage. 

Near Timmlns the Hayden Gold Mines Co. has 11 men em- 
ployed at exploration. 

A 3-in. vein of 3000-oz. ore has been cut in a winze below 
the gBO-ft. level of the Chambers-Ferland. The vein is in 
conglomerate, 37 ft. from the Nipissing boundary. 

After January 1, 1916, the Crown Reserve company need not 
pay royalty on ore extracted to the Ontario government, but 
will pay the 37c profits tax. which applies when an annual 
profit of more than $10,000 Is made. 

The Triumph Mines Limited has been organized with a 
capital of $3,000,000 to develop the Success claims at Porcu- 
pine, succeeding the Porcupine-Success Gold Mines Ltd. The 
western part of the property has been extensively trenched, 
disclosing 30 veins. Shaft-sinking is to be commenced. 

The Hollinger mine and mill employs 1100 men, also con- 
tractors. Sinking continues. 

A 6 ft. by 22-in. Hardinge ball-mill, one 5 by 11-ft. tube- 
mill, three 22 by 1 v ft. agitators, and five ::: by B-ft. Dorr 
thickeners are soon to be installed in the Mclntyre mill, to 
increase the daily capacity from 300 to 460 tons. 

By means of a device (to be patented) of C. A. Randall of 
the Tough-Oakes mill at Kirkland Lake, the capacity of the 
plant has been increased from 80 to 110 tons daily. 


In November the Oriental Consolidated mines and plants 
yielded $144,800. The ore was above average grade. 


During October the Santa Gertrudis mill treated 20.503 tons 
of ore for a profit of $34,000. 


Eight furnaces are in blast at the Cananea Consolidated. 

The Moctezuma mine and mill will be re-started in a few days. 

The railroad to Nacozari is not repaired yet. El TIgre is 

to resume in a few days. 


After being erected In fast time the new mill of the Benguet 
Consolidated company at Baguio had its first clean-up near the 
middle of October. A new vein of better grade ore has been 
opened. C. M. Eye is in charge. 


Frank A. Crampton is at Philadelphia. 

L. R. Bldrow has returned to El Tigre, Sonora, Mexico. 

J. S. Williams has returned to Nacozari, Sonora, Mexico. 

Artui-r R. Weigall has arrived in San Francisco from 

Wiilakii Mallery is working antimony ore at Bernice, 

Walter J. Radford has returned here from Breckenridge, 

E. C. Bloomfield has arrived from the Altai, having been in 
Siberia three years. 

O. A. Ti rner is manager for the Copperfield Mining Co. at 
Gross Springs, Arizona. 

S. J. Lewis spent the Christmas holidays at Monterrey, re- 
turning to Mexico City. 

Bertram Hi nt is now connected with Maurice, Badian & 
Co., at Medellin, Colombia. 

Norman C. Stixes, manager of the Sissert copper mine, 
Ural region, Russia, is visiting Berkeley. 

J. M. Mitchell-Roberts, metallurgist with the Seoul Mining 
Co.. in Korea, is on a visit to California. 

W. J. Lakeland sailed by the Ventura on December 28 on 
his return to Burma, by way of Australia. 

E. H. Hamilton is consulting metallurgist with the Canadian 
Consolidated Smelting Co., at Trail, B. C. 

John D. Pope, 11 years general manager of the North Butte 
mine, has resigned; Norman Braley succeeds him. 

William Tiifit. superintendent of the U. S. Metals Refining 
Co.'s plant at Grasselli, Indiana, is at Kennett, California. 

John Henry Rickard has arrived in San Francisco to 
superintend the antimony smelter of the Chapman Smelting 
Co., in this city. 

Gelasio Caetani. now an officer in the Italian engineering 
corps, has been wounded in action and recommended for the 
military medal. 

B. F. P. RoMEB has left Amsterdam on his way to Batavia. 
Dutch East Indies, where he will make geological examina- 
tions for the Government. 

Arthir Gif-tokd. formerly superintendent of the Mysore 
mine, diet] at Madras in December. 

H. L. Twite, of the mining engineering firm of Twite & 
Stannard. has been killed in action while serving as a lieu- 
tenant with the Royal Engineers in France. 

The V. S. Civil Service Commission, Washington. D. C. an- 
nounces an open competitive examination for metallographist. 
for men only. From the register of eligibles resulting from 
this examination certification will be made to fill a vacancy in 
this position in the War Department, for duty at Watertown 
arsenal, Massachusetts, at a salary of $2000 per year, and 
vacancies as they may occur in positions requiring similar 
qualifications. The appointee to this position will have gen- 
eral but subordinate charge of the testing laboratory at the 
arsenal; direct the preparation of metal specimens for micro- 
scopic examination, the photographing of the same and the 
interpretation of the appearance of the specimens under the 
microscope, and prescribe proper heat treatment, etc., for 
specimens examined. Applications must be filed at Washing- 
ton by January 25. 

The Commission also announces an examination for civil 
engineer, applications to be in by January 18. Eligibles from 
this will be available for vacancies in the Philippine service, 
at $1800 to $3000 per year. A knowledge of design and con- 
struction of various equipment, and also of water supply and 
irrigation is necessary 

Jnnunry I, 1916 

MINING and Sdwtific PRKSS 




San PrAaelnOk Deoembei 

Centa per pound. 

Antimony 40 

BlOOtrol) l: 

.•I 5.66— 5.86 

QuIokaJlTO tper lla»k> $136 

Spill, r 20 

Tin 40 

/.inc-dust. 100-kg-. ilnc-llned cases 30 

old: PRICES 

san Praneiaco, December 29. 

Antimony: market weaker: 5<i r ; product, per unit $ 2 

Chrome: SJTr chromic oxide and 2'"r s.llea per ton 12 

MaKiiesli.-: plastic, no iron and linn-. calcined, per ton. ...60 — 65 
Magneslte: refractory, up to T'l iron, calcined, per ton. ..30 — 40 
MuiiKnncsc: ."•"'. metal, Bfi silica, per ten. f.o.b, cars. S. F. 12 

Tungsten: minimum 65- , Wti,, per unit for spot 35 — 15 

At Boulder, Colorado, on December 18, 8091 tungsten ore 
i ji: SO per unit. 

(By wire from New York.) 
NKVV YORK. December 29. — Copper Is excited anil active: 
lead is linn owing to export demand; sine is quiet but Brm. 


Below are given the average New York quotations, in cents 
per ounce, of fine silver. 

Dec. 23 

" 24 88.87 

•■ 25 Holiday 

" 2''. Sunday 

•• 27 

• 88 S4.12 

" 29 54.37 I 

Monthly averages, 



Average week ending 

17 50.46 

24 62.36 

1 56.27 

8 55.54 

15 55.66 

22 54.23 

29 54.05 



July .... 

















An error in silver prices last week gave an average of 55.22c; 
this should have been 54.23 cents. 

The President of Uruguay has recommended to that country's 
Congress that a bill be passed to coin 5,000,000 pesos, equal to 
$5,170,000, say 10,000,000 oz. silver, but old coins are to be 
melted, yet some new metal will be required. 

Profit taking by India, and a lull in European buying caused 
a slight weakening lately, but there is not much set-back an- 
ticipated. The Chinese New Year occurs on February 4; this 
Is a stiffening factor. The shortage of British coin is not yet 
satisfied: the Master of the Royal Mint is appealing to the sup- 
pliers of gas to arrange for the clearance of automatic gas- 
meters at more frequent intervals, with a view to the return of 
the coin into active circulation as speedily as possible. 


Prices of electrolytic In New York, In cents per pound. 


Dec. 23 i". XT 

•■ 21 21.12 

•' 25 Holiday 

" 26 Sunday 

" 27 21.50 

" 28 22.HII 

■' 29 22.25 


















Average week ending 

17 18.58 

24 19.58 

1 19.77 

8 19.60 

15 19.54 

22 20.06 

29 21.55 


Exports during the week ended December 11 totaled 15.793,210 
lb„ worth $2,962,163. England got 2,637,492; France, 5,599,216; 
Italy, 4.282,917; and Sweden, 1,837,526 lb. Imports amounted to 
7.470.514 lb., valued at $1,180,923. Of this, Canada sent 1.901,362; 
Chile. 940.579; and Peru. 4.042,961 pounds. 

Dividends declared are as follows: Anaconda, $1.50; Champion. 

$2. making $31 for 1915. against nothing In rill. Qreeni •'••n 

■olldeted, 60a; North Butti ola, 18; T« aaei 

and r. s. K, A If. Co.i I5c. on oommon ■took. 

The past year was II, A S A 

in the Culled Slates, 


Lead Is quoted In cent! per pound or dollars per hundred 
pounds, New York delivery. 


Dec. 23 .'.Hi 

" 21 5,111 

■' 25 Holiday 
" 26 Sunday 
" 27 

5. Ill 

Average week ending 







• a 


Monthly averages. 






June 3.90 





















. 3.80 
. 3.86 
. 3.82 
. 3.60 



Zinc Is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands. New York 

delivery, in cents per pound. 

Dee. 23 17.60 

" 24 17.30 

" 25 Holiday 
" 26 Sunday 

" 27 17.40 

•• 2S 17. 50 

" 29 17.50 

Average week ending 

Nov. 17 17.02 

" 24 18.58 

Dec. 1 18.52 

8 15.83 

" 16 16.04 

" 22 17.50 

'■ 29 17.44 

Monthly averages. 






June 4 84 

. 5.14 
. 5.22 
. 5.12 
. 4.98 









July 4.75 

Aug 4.75 

Sept 5.16 

Oct 4.75 

Nov 5.01 

Dec 5.40 



The Interstate-Callahan company. Idaho, has paid $1.80 per 
share, equal to $697,485, making $2,557,495 since April last. 

Net earnings of the American Zinc, Lead & Smelting, Co. in 
1915 were $5,000,000; or $20 per share, all debts are paid. 

The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia being the largest producer. The price Is fixed In the 
open market, and, as quoted weekly In this column, is that at 
which moderate quantities are sold. Buyers by the carload can 
usually obtain a slight reduction, and those wanting but a flask 
or two must expect to pay a slightly higher price. Average 
weekly and monthly quotations, in dollars per flask of 75 lb., 
are given below: W(jek end , ng 

I Dec. 16 130.00 

105.00 " 22 130.00 

115.00 I " 29 135.00 

Monthly averages. 


Dee. 1 

1914. 1915. 

Jan 39.25 61.90 

Feb 39.00 60.00 

Mch 39.00 78.00 

Apr 38.90 77.50 

May 39.00 75.00 

June 38.60 90.00 

1914. 1915. 

July 37.50 95.00 

Aug 80.00 93.75 

Sept 76.26 91.00 

Oct 53.00 92.90 

Nov 55.00 101.50 

Dec 53.10 123.00 

The average price for 1915 was $85.80 per flask. 

According to H. D. McCaskey of the U. S. Geological Survey, 
this country produced 20.681 flasks in 1915, an increase of 4133 
flasks, but the value was more than double. All States showed 


Prices In New York, in cents per pound 
Monthly averages. 


Jan 37.85 34.40 

Feb 39.76 37.23 

Mch 38.10 48.76 

Apr 36.10 48.25 

May 33.29 39.28 

June 30.72 40.26 

,Tln is quiet at 39 cents. 

1914. 1916. 

July 31.60 37.38 

Aug 50.20 34.37 

Sept 33.10 33.12 

Oct 30.40 33.00 

Nov 33.51 39.60 

Dec 33.60 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1, 1916 

Eastern Metal Market 

New York, December 23. 

Contrary to expectations, a revival In the demand for copper 
set in about December 15, and the climax came yesterday, the 
22nd, when, through the United Metals Selling Co.. the British 
government purchased 60,000 tons, or 120,000,000 lb., of copper 
for delivery at the rate of 5000 tons per month throughout 
1916. The price was over 20c, and is understood to have been 
about 20.50c. From December 15 the quotation advanced al- 
most daily, and prior to the news of the big purchase. 20.50c. 
was quoted. Exports for the month were good. Spot zinc Is 
scarce, and this fact, together with a fair demand has sus- 
tained prices. The unwillingness of consumers to buy far-off 
deliveries of zinc is pronounced. Lead is firm at 5.40c, New 
York, and Is principally supported by the strong export situa- 
tion. Large consumers of tin were roused to activity by the 
report that Great Britain would limit exports until there was 
4000 tons In stock. Antimony is more plentiful, but the quota- 
tion is maintained. Aluminum is easier, with fewer buyers in 

The great demand for steel continues; ruling prices are the 
highest of many years. Several of the railroads have laid 
embargoes on shipments of iron and steel to New York for 
export, one result of which will be the shipping of steel to 
domestic consumers, which they might not have received other- 
wise. The entire trouble is due to the lack of ships to carry 
products abroad. Many thousands of loaded freight-cars, one 
estimate is 35,000. have been standing at or near New York 
harbor, unable to unload. There is a shortage of lighterage 
facilities also. In some centres the situation has created a 
shortage of coal and coke. 


On the strength of the transaction before mentioned, the 
domestic quotation for electrolytic went to 20.75 and 21c, 30 
days, delivered. Lake copper, the prices of which are on about 
par with electrolytic, is In an extremely strong position, with 
some of its producers sold up until March next. About De- 
cember 15, following a period of quiet, some good Inquiries 
appeared in the market and proved the forerunner of an ex- 
cellent movement, something which was not expected in view 
of the heavy buying of previous weeks. Copper was taken, 
mostly for March and April deliveries at 19.87 to 20c, and by 
the 17th the market was firm at 20c. 30 days, delivered. By 
that date practically all re-sale metal had been absorbed, and 
the producers had the field to themselves. On the 20th, buyers 
were particularly active, and whereas 20c could have been 
done in the morning, the market at midday went up with a 
rush to 20.25c; good sales were made at the latter figure. 
Coincident with the appearance of the large inquiries there 
was talk of a possible shortage of copper, of the possibility of 
consumption outstripping production, and persons in close 
touch with the producers are commencing to take the report 
seriously. War demand has continued the principal motive 
power behind activity, though the wire-mills have been heavier 
purchasers in the past few days. In London the trend of 
electrolytic copper has been upward, the quotation on Septem- 
ber 21 being £100 10s. European statistics, as cabled to the 
New York Metal Exchange on December 20, showed that 
stocks in Great Britain on the 15th totaled 11,233 long tons, 
against 13,572 tons, November 30. and 17.118 tons, November 
15. Fine copper in France amounted to 1262 tons on Decem- 
ber 15. against 1473 tons on November 30, and 1645 tons on 
November 15. Exports in December total 24.972 tons. 

For upward of a week the market price of prompt spelter 

has been close to 17.50c, New York. Lower has been quoted. 
It is charged, is the interest of some who seek to depress the 
market. On the other hand, sales of spot have been made at 
17.75c, New York. The scarcity of prompt and near-by metal 
is insisted on by various producers. The demand has been 
good for deliveries to the end of the first quarter, but con- 
sumers are showing but little Interest in deliveries further off, 
and this despite offerings at 15.50 to 16c, New York. St. Louis 
quotations are about 25 points under New York prices. Second- 
quarter metal is nominal at 13.30 to 14c, New York. Exports 
in December total 5661 tons. 


The strength of lead today unquestionably lies in the export 
demand. If the metal were to be had it would bring 5.50c, 
New York, for shipment to foreign consumers. Since the lead- 
ing interest advanced its New York quotation to 5.40 (Decem- 
ber 14) the independents have held to that figure. A few 
nervous consumers entered the market as a result of the ad- 
vance, but the majority are proceeding cautiously and have 
not rushed to buy. Prior to the advance the market was weak, 
and both sellers and consumers were mystified by the advance. 
Inquiry has been light. Exports so far this month total 5908 


The report published last week that England intended to 
curtail shipments of tin to this country until it had 4000 tons 
in its warehouses caused a rush to buy here, and on December 
16 about 500 tons was taken by large consumers and dealers. 
On the 17th probably 300 tons more was purchased, but there- 
after the market became quiet, and not even concessions in 
price could arouse the interest of buyers. The report that 
England Is to regulate shipments, so far not officially con- 
firmed, is generally accepted by the trade. It is regarded as 
reasonable that it should want to protect itself against delays 
in shipments from the Far East, and from possible interfer- 
ence with them. The New York quotation on December 15 
was 37.75; 17th, 40; 21st, 39.50; and on the 22nd, 39c Up 
to December 21, 3605 tons had arrived in the month, and 
there was afloat on that day 5478 tons. 


Chinese and Japanese grades are quoted at 39c, duty paid, 
in a market considerably easier because of the arrival of sev- 
eral hundred tons. The plant of the Magnolia Metal Co., Mata- 
wan. New Jersey, was partly destroyed by fire on December 17. 
The company has been making antimony from domestic ores. 
Cookson's antimony at London is nominally quoted at £100 
per ton. 


The market for aluminum 99% pure is easier at 56 to 58c 
per pound. Buyers are fewer and their requirements are more 
easily satisfied with scrap metal and wire. The latter, as 
previously stated, is being taken down and replaced with 
copper wire. 

According to the U. S. Geological Survey, the past year's 
metal output was an increase of $250,000,000 over that of 1914. 
The production is estimated as follows: copper, 1,365,000,000 
lb.; gold, increase of $7,000,000; silver, increase of 4,000,000 
oz.; iron, increase of 6,500,000 tons; zinc, 425,000 tons; lead, 
515,000 tons; quicksilver, 20,681 flasks, an increase of 25%, 
with small increases in coal, coke, oil, and Portland cement. 
The Western States' metal output shows an increase of 
$130,000,000. It is probable that final figures for 1915 will 
make a total of $2,500,000,000. 

January l. 1916 

MINING .nd Scicnl.hc PRESS 


Metal Production in 1915 

The I S QMllUlOl Sun.i has leaned lit. pi.llnilunry 
■ t»trmclit» rUgardlUf. the mineral output ol . citaln ItatM, 
from uhlch the following la abstracted 


Tti" output of KOld. sliver, copper, lead, mid line at mini's 

was valued ut 188,661,000, an increase ol nearly tv, from that 
of 1914. which «aa (89,966,089. Than waa eerj nttii' change 

In the output of fold, hut there »i'iv notable Increases in the 
Other metals, especially In lead and /.Inc. Increased prices 
mad* B difference of nearly $98,000,000 In copper. Sim- 
lead, and over $2,000,000 In tine, according to estimates of 
V C llelkcs. 

ord production of silver waa made, the output Increas- 
ing from (.877,994 to 5.45S.000 oz. or over HI,. The greater 
part of the silver, as formerly, came from the copper ores, but 
the increase in the shipments of silver-lead ores also con- 
tributed to the Increase. The Commonwealth mine, at Pearce, 
was treating approximate]} 10,000 tons of ore per month, mak- 
ing bullion containing principally silver. 

Arizona is the leading copper-producing State of the country, 
and had an output of marly 130.000,000 lb. In 1915. an In- 
crease of nearly r.7.000,000 lb. in spite of the strike in the 
Cllflon-Morcnci district Great increases were made at the 
smelting plants at the Calumet & Arizona, Copper Queen. 
United Verde, Hayden. International at Miami, and Consoli- 
dated Arizona at Humboldt. 

The mine output of lead Increased from 15,003,068 to $22,272,- 
000 lb„ or 48 per cent. 

The mine production of zinc, estimated as recoverable spelter. 
increased from 9,792.337 to 17.729,000 lb., an increase of 81%. 
It came almost entirely from the Golconda and Tennessee 
inin.s. in Mohave county. 

For the first eleven months of 1915 the metal mines of 
Arizona contributed nearly $11,000,000 in dividends, the princi- 
pal ones being the United Verde, Miami, Calumet & Arizona, 
Ray Consolidated. Superior & Pittsburg. Old Dominion, Shat- 
tuck. Arizona Copper, United Globe, Tom Reed, and Magma. 


The mine output of Colorado metals for eleven months of 
1915, with an estimate for December, from data compiled by 
Charles W. Henderson, indicates a yield for the year of $22,- 
330,000 in gold, 7,080,000 oz. silver, 66,664,000 lb. of lead (in 
terms of lead in lead bullion and lead in leaded-zinc oxide), 
7,100,000 lb. of copper, and 100,000,000 lb. of zinc (in terms of 
spelter and zinc in zinc oxide), with a total value of $43,- 
100,000, compared with $19,883,105, 8,796,065 oz. 74,211.898 lb., 
6.639.173 lb., and 96,774,960 lb„ respectively, with a total 
value of $33,460,126, in 1914. 

The quantity treated by the Globe, Leadville, Pueblo, Dur- 
ango, and Salida smelters was approximately the same as in 

The gold output of Cripple Creek (Teller county) was $13,- 
539,245, an increase of $1,543,129. The yield was also $507,328 
larger than the 1908 yield, which was the largest yearly output 
since 1906. Cripple Creek, to the end of 1915 has produced 

Lake county, chiefly from Leadville, but also including the 
Lackawanna'Gulch and St. Kevin lode districts and the Arkan- 
sas River dredge district, produced $2,261,000 in gold, 2,660,000 
oz. silver, 20,000,000 lb. lead, 1,840,000 lb. copper, and 71.000,000 
lb. zinc, with a total value of $14,000,000, against $1,571,451, 
3,810,830 oz., 26,784,615 lb., 2.3S2.910 lb., 78,763,334 lb., respec- 
tively, with a total value of $9,057,297 in 1914. 

The Sun Juan region I • Plata, Ouray. Ban Juan, 

ami San Minuet counties produced 18,890,000 K"M 

Hiker. 18J300,000 lb, lead, 8,880, lb. copper, and 1,000,000 lb. 

lino, compared with $8,969367, 2,616,487 o*., 11361 766 lb., I 
■ lb., ami 1381384 lb,, respectively, in 1914 


The output of gold, silver, copi>er, lead, and zinc from orei 
sold or treated from Idaho mines In 1916, had a total value of 
about $37, 780,000. This is an Increase of more than 589 oral 
the production of 1914, which was valued at $84,846348. There 
was no great change In the output of gold and a slight In 
in i hat of silver, but there were material Increases In the pro- 
duction of copper, lead, and zinc, especial!; of zinc. The in- 
crease in the total value of these metals, amounting to over 

$i::,»tio, was due largely to the Increased price ol lead and 

due. These estimates are reported by C. N. Gerry. 

The production of silver increased from 12,479,516 oz. to 
13,000,000 oz., or more than 4% The price of silver, however, 
was comparatively low and the value of the output was over 
$400,000 less than In 1914. 

The output of copper increased from 6,445,187 to 7,169,000 

The mine output of lead, which is the main mineral product 
in Idaho, Increased from 348,526,069 to 377,000,000 lb. A large 
part of this output, however, had not reached the smelters at 
the close of the year. This is an increase of over 8% in 
quantity and nearly $4,000,000 in value. Nearly all the large 
mines of the Coeur d'Alene region produced more lead in 1915 
than in 1914 on account of the effort to market the ore the last 
half of 1915. The Yreka district around Wardner, alone pro- 
duced 169.500,000 lb. of lead against 162,471,235 lb. in 1914. 

Shipments of zinc ore and concentrate increased from 64,- 
754 tons in 1914 to 97,000 tons in 1915. The shipments con- 
tained about 80,000,000 lb. of recoverable spelter, valued at over 
$11,000,000. On account of the unusual price for zinc in 1915, 
the zinc produced in the State was more valuable than the 
gold, silver, and copper combined. 

The principal dividend payers in 1915 were the Consolidated 
Interstate-Callahan, Hercules, Bunker Hill & Sullivan, Cale- 
donia, Federal, Hecla, Stewart, and Success, which will pay 
in all nearly $9,000,000. 


The value of the output of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc 
from Montana mines in 1915 was nearly $87,000,000, an in- 
crease of more than 81% over the total value of the same metals 
in 1914, which was $47,849,747, and is the greatest annual value 
of metals produced in Montana. There were increases in the 
output of all metals, but especially of lead and zinc. Though 
quantities show increases, the large increase in value was 
even more the result of a great rise in prices. The figures are 
derived from preliminary estimates by Victor C. Heikes. 

The mine output of gold was valued at nearly $5,000,000. 
against $4,117,911 in 1914, an increase of over 21%. There was 
a larger gold output from placers, particularly from dredging 
in Alder gulch, in Madison county. The production of gold 
from silicious ores also increased. 

The mine output of silver increased from 12,016,460 to 14,500,- 
000 oz., increase of nearly 21%. The increase was due not only 
to the enlarged output of copper ore, which supplies the greater 
part of the silver, but to the great impetus given to the market- 
ing of zinc ores. 

Montana's greatest asset is copper, the output of which in- 
creased from 233,229,640 to 275,000,000 lb. This was an increase 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1. 1916 

of nearly 18% over 1914, but the output did not reach that of 
1913. In the early part of the year the mines were adjusting: 
themselves to conditions, imposed by the War, but as the price 
increased from 13.60c. in January to 19.75c. in July, every 
effort was made to market the metal. 

The mine output of lead increased considerably — from 9,656,- 
008 to slightly over 14,000,000 lb., increase of over 4.V;. due 
largely to the shipment of lead concentrate and of residue re- 
sulting from zinc smelting. 

The mine production of zinc increased from 111.580.544 to 
184,086,000 lb. The spelter output represented an Increase of 
nearly 61% in quantity, but as the price of the metal increased 
from 6.30c. in January to 22.2c. in June there was an increase 
in the value of the output from $5,690,608 in 1914 to over $26,- 
000,000 in 1915. The two main producers were the Butte & 
Superior and Elm Orlu mines, at Butte. 

The largest dividend payers were the Anaconda. Butte & 
Superior, and North Butte. 


The value of the 1915 output of gold, silver, copper, lead, and 
zinc from Nevada mines was approximately $34,566,000. This 
represents an increase of nearly 1S% over the output of 1914. 
These estimates by V. C. Heikes of the Salt Lake City office of 
the Survey indicate a marked increase in zinc output, and in- 
crease in lead and copper yield, as compared with 1914. The 
copper production however was below that of 191". when 
Nevada had a record output of over 90,000,000 lb. There was 
a slight increase in the gold production, but a decrease in 
silver largely in the Tonopah district, where the output was 
affected by the decreased price of silver. 

The production of gold was valued at about $11,968,000. an 
increase of 4% over the production of 1914. The greater part of 
the gold came from siliclous ores milled at Goldfield and 
about 20% of the total came from Tonopah. 

The silver production decreased from 15.455.491 to 11. 17*. 

oz. The decrease was at Tonopah. where the mines were 
affected by the low price of silver. At the Cornstock district 
of Storey county, the production was also lower, and the idle- 
ness of the Mason Valley copper smelter to a small extenl 
lessened the silver output. 

The mine production of copper increased from 60.9S6.450 to 
67,480,000 lb. an increase of 10.6%. The total value of the out- 
put, on account of the high average price in 1916 Im 
from $8,111,198 to approximately $11,708,000. 

The lead production Increased from 12,809,655 to 14 7 
lb., an increase of over 16%. This output, however, is not as 
great as that of 1913, when over 16,000,000 lb. was produced. 
There was great activity in the Yellow Pine district of Clark 
county, where lead-zinc ore is separated into lead and zinc 

A great increase, nearly 62%, was made in the mine output of 
zinc from 12,980,232 to over 21,000,000 lb. As the price of the 
metal was abnormally high in 1915, the value of the output in- 
creased from $661,992 to about $2,993,000 in 1915. The Yellow 
Pine district of Clark county was by far the largest producer, 
but the Amalgamated Pioche property in Lincoln county made 
important shipments. 

The main dividend payers of the State were the Nevada Con- 
solidated. Goldfield Consolidated, Tonopah Mining. Tonopah 
Belmont, Tonopah Extension, Jumbo Extension, Jim Butler. 
Nevada Wonder. Seven Troughs Coalition, and West End. To 
December 1, 1915, the total in dividends was over $6,000,000. 


The output for 11 months, with Sn estimate for December, 
indicates a yield of $1,500,000 in gold, 2,032,000 oz. silver, 
3,951.000 lb. lead, 72,000,000 lb. copper, and 24,640,000 lb. zinc 
(in terms of spelter and zinc in zinc oxide), compared with 
$1,171,696. 1,777.445 oz., 1,763.641 lb., 59,307,925 lb., and 18,403,- 

:!92 lb. respectively. These preliminary figures were compiled 
by Charles W. Henderson. 

The Mogollon district, Socorro county, 80 miles from Silver 
City (Grant county), continued to be the most productive dis- 
trict in New Mexico in output of gold and silver. The pro- 
duction in 1915 was $512,021 in gold and 1,319,460 oz. silver, 
as compared with $629,102 and 1,410,327 oz. in 1914. 

Another injportant district was the Cochitt (Bland) dis- 
trict, Sandoval county, inactive from 1904 to 1914, but with a 
record from 1894 to 1904 of a production of $695,000 gold and 
$345,000 silver. 

Copper has been an important metal in New Mexico. The 
output from 1*45 to 1910 was 92.323,163 lb., and the total output 
to the end of 1915 was 318,027,798 lb. Since 1919 the increased 
production was due principally to the activity of the Chino 
Copper Co. Its gross output in 1915 was 69,375,000 lb. The 
Burro Mountain Copper Co.'s new 1000-ton mill in the Burro 
Mountain district, was operated only part of the time, but 
development of the mines continued on a large scale. 

The yield of lead showed an appreciable increase. 

Largely increased shipments of zinc carbonate and sulphide 
ores and zinc sulphide concentrates were made in 1915. The 
production of zinc ore and concentrates was 39,970 tons of 
36.3%, compared with 29,459 tons of 37.53% in 1914. 


The mine production of gold was $7,390,000, compared with 
$7, :!:::;. 508 in 1914, and that of silver 193,000 oz., compared with 
176,642 in 1914. A nominal quantity of lead was produced. 
These are preliminary estimates reported by Charles W. 
Henderson. The usual well-known producers contributed. 


The output of Texas mines for 11 months, with an estimate 
for December, from preliminary figures reported by Charles 
\V. Henderson, amounted to $2500 in gold. 705,000 oz. silver. 
250,000 lb. lead, 50.000 lb. copper, and 33,000 lb. zinc, compared 
with $2:!4, 580,817 oz.. 149,027 lb., 23,760 lb., and 216,451 lb., in 
1914, respectively. 


The value of the mine output of gold, silver, copper, lead, and 
zinc in Washington decreased from $809,767 in 1914 to ap- 
proximately $72*.000 in 1915. according to preliminary esti- 
mates by C. X. Gerry. There were increases in copper and 
lead, to the extent of a return to normal production. There 
were shipments of zinc ore, the first since 1911. The gold and 
silver mines, however, showed decreased output, especially in 
the Republic mining district. 

The mine production of gold, which is the most important 
metal of the State, decreased from $557,173 to $407,000. 

The silver output decreased from 264,861 to 220,000 oz. 

The mine output of copper increased from 77S.72S to 915,000 
lb., or over 17 per cent. 

The production of lead from ores sold or treated increased 
from 65,507 to 230,000 pounds. 


The domestic output of quicksilver in 1915, based on pre- 
liminary figures collected from the individual producers by 
H. D. McCaskey. was 20,681 flasks, valued, at the average do- 
mestic price for the year at San Francisco (estimated at 
$85.50 per flask), at $1,768,225. Compared with the Surveys 
final statistics for 1914, which gave a production of 16,548 
flasks, valued at $811,680 (the smallest since 1860), the out- 
put of 1915 shows an increase of 4133 flasks in -quantity and 
of $956,545 in value. The value therefore more than doubled, 
owing to the greatly increased prices demanded, but the quan- 
tity increased only about 25%. The production was the larg- 
est in value since 1SS1, and the greatest in quantity since 

jiuiiian I 1916 

MINING and Scient.fic PRF-SS 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1, 1916 


[wide view, one Bide ivniovi'il 

Why dime your mineral thereby causing a heavj lose in your tailings? Give the pulp :i chance to c<'t oat oi tlip mill when 
it is Sue enough, don't cause it t" remain in the mill until it finally finds its way bo the opposite end of the mill. 


the pulp when tint- i'iimiikIi passe* out l»-tw«-ii the liner* all around the mill, this gives a tremendous capacity, it also gives 
a granular product that is ideal for concentration and percolation. RUNS WET OR DRY. 

Write for Circular "To-Day 1 ' 


162 South Anderson Street, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, U.S.A. 


It's comparatively easy to find the right oil 
to efficiently concentrate your ore — but — 
the big problem is to obtain a uniform and 
reliable supply. G. N. S. assures both the 
right oil and the right service. 





2813 pnffen. Three volume*. Buekrum. $25.00 poMtpnlil. 


i[L© t i?Zau'0©K] 

PQ,© I L7Zau'0©[ 

"An Oil for Every Ore" 

Send us a description of your ore. We will 
send samples of the oils best suited. Tell 
us your experiences — your troubles. Let 
us help you. 

Address Flotation Oils Department 

General Naval Stores Co. 

175 Front St., New York 

Lindley on Mines is now truly a monumental work. 
It not only faithfully develops and brings down to the 
present moment with authorities, the text of the earlier 
work, but presents to the American Bar the first philo- 
sophical text discussion of many new, vital questions 
that have arisen only within the last few years, with 
close practical analysis of related legislative enactments 
and regulations, Including a discussion of pertinent adju- 

The new chapters Include a complete review of the 
recent federal policy of "Withdrawal of Mineral Lands," 
derining the legal effect of "Executive and Ballinger 
Withdrawals" and of the "Congressional Withdrawals" 

Particular attention Is devoted to the Important "Alas- 
kan Problems," Including recent federal and territorial 
legislative enactments affecting mining of the Alaskan 
coal lands. 

Questions concerning national forests and their relation 
to the mining industry are also fully treated, with text 
of the statutes and regulations in the Appendix. 

Not only will the work be of special value to all law- 
yers Interested in mining laws, but will be of practical 
service to mining engineers. It takes up the geological 
problems related to mining as raised in litigation, and 
which have reference to the question of "Title to Mines." 

The problems related to "Extralateral Rights" have 
been given full attention, with an analytical treatment 
of "Rights on Secondary Veins." 

The work includes an analysis of the nature and con- 
clusiveness of "Federal Patents," with a discussion of 
the effect of federal attack on railroad patents contain- 
ing valuable deposits of oil. 

Relative rights of surface owners to underlying reser- 
voirs of liquid minerals or minerals In solution. This 
Is not only a very Important question, but one that up 
to the present Is comparatively untouched In American 
text. Careful treatment of the subject will be found In 
Lindley on Mines. 

For Sale by S3 

MINING and Scientific PRESS, San Francisco 

Jiumnry 1, l'.'lii 


MINING and Sucnlih. I'KI SS 

i >H 



You have always received service from the MINING and 
Scientific PRESS, but not until 1915 did you get MINING 
and Scientific PRESS SERVICE. Note the distinction and 
remember the difference. This department was organized for 
the benefit of readers and advertisers alike. It goes to 
unheard-of lengths to attain its ends. 

One hundred and nine field representatives, a traveling 
manager, and an executive head keep the department keyed 
up to service pitch. 

When a new mine opens, when an old one is to be 
reworked, when machinery is to be purchased, MINING and 
Scientific PRESS SERVICE tells of it first. 

When mine operators wish quick information regarding 
some appliance, they simply write to MINING and Scientific 
PRESS SERVICE and the reply goes by return mail. When 
they want catalogs, prices, or performance data, this depart- 
ment gets quick action. 

With the first week of 1 9 1 6 we begin writing Chapter 
Two of our history. It will record further development of the 
department, a wider range of activity, a service to readers 
and advertisers even more comprehensive than at present. 

Bear in mind this department. Whenever you want 
ANYTHING done for you ANYWHERE— write— 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 




MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1, 1916 


i-i this heading announcements may be made of new 
and second-hand machinery or supplies, lor sale or wanted. 
The cost Is live cents per word, one dollar minimum order. 
Krmtttances MUST accompany order. Copy must be re- 
ceived by Tuesday morning for current weeks Issue. 

250-H.P. K,0 W. P. 
150-H.P. 110 W. P. 



We own and offer for sale all of the following material 
which was in use at the Jack Rabbit mill, 40 miles south of 
Casa Grande, Ariz. This material will be loaded at that station 
and attractive pricea will be made rather than move to Denver. 
In addition to the following list there is a complete line of sup- 
plies, such as packing; pipe, valves and fittings, electrical goods, 
tackle blocks, oils, greases, etc. The large pump has never 

used and balance of equipment very little. 
13 and 31 and 34x10x25 Prescott Triplex Expansion Pot Valve 

Station Pump with 10x16x18 Independent Air Pump and 

Condenser. Kxtra valve seats, valves, springs and parts. 

This pump has never been used. Just as It came from 

the factory, never set up. 
18x10x18 Prescott Chandler Type, Duplex steam, outside end 

14x 6x12 Prescott Duplex Sinking Pump. 
2 .so. yti Cameron Sinners, 11x7x13. 
1 No. 7 Cameron Sinker. 10x5x13. 
1 — 3x2x3 Kairbanks-Morse Duplex Pump. 
1 — 6x4x6 Kairbanks-Morse Duplex Pump. 

1 — 16x18x111x16 Sullivan Air Compressor. Type WB 2, 703 feet. 
1 — 42x10 Air Receiver. 
6x8 Ray & Tltcomb Geared Hoist. 
10x12 Ray & Titcomb Geared Hoist. 

Steam Winch and Hand Winch. 
18x10 Schumacher & Boyd Engine Lathe, with 16" Universal 

1 % to 6-Inch Williams Tools Co. Power pipe threading machine. 
No. 3 Buffalo Drill Press. 

Hand Pipe Tools. 
250-H.P. 160 W. P. International Fire Box Boiler. 
International Fire Box Boiler. 
Return Tubular Horizontal Boiler. 
60-H.P. 126 W. P. International Fire Box Boiler. 
50-H.P. 100 W. P. Ames Locomotive Portable Boiler. 
1 — 20,000-gal. Galv. Iron Water Tank. 
1 — 10,000-gal. Galv. Iron Oil Tank. 
1 — 30.000-gal. Steel Oil Storage Tank. 
1 — 36-bbl. Round Steel Tank. 
4 — 20-bbl. Steel Wagon Tanks. 
13 — 13-bbl. Steel Wagon Tanks. 
2 — 2%-lnch Wagons without bed. 
1050 bbls. Fuel Oil. 


EVERY MINE AND MILL can save money through the use 
of a CEMENT GUN. Preserve your timbering, get warmth, com- 
fort, and good appearance in your buildings by covering them 
with cement. Easily applied, costs little, lasts indefinitely. 
We have several used CEMENT GUNS, as good as new, for sale 
at bargain prices. Write to us. We will explain how cement 
blown on a structure makes It a ten times better building. We 
will also show how little It costs and how much It saves. Write 
today. Address Box 157, Mining and Scientific Press. 

FOR SALE — One heavy construction, full housed mine fan, 
top horizontal discharge, overhung 10 ft. diam. wheel, complete 
with pedestal, thrust and outboard bearing, and fly wheel pul- 
ley. Capacity 70.000 cu. ft. at 350 R. P. M. As good as new and 
a bargain. Aluminum Ore Company, East St Louis, Illinois. 

FOR SALE — Partially developed molybdenite property located 
in British Columbia, about eight miles from shipping point on 
railroad. For particulars, apply to Box 183. Mining and Scien- 
tific Press. 

CINNABAR PROPERTY for development Capital wanted. 
Write H. L. Nay. Kellogg. CaL 

WANTED — Promoter to handle silver-copper property; 40 to 
60 ft shafts on all claims; veins well opened up. Extension 
of mines that have produced $1,000,000. Answer quickly. Box 
Mining and Scientific Press. 

BARGAINS In used crushers, rolls, mills, concentrating and 
slime tables, cyanide machinery, flotation machines. Hlrschfeld 
Supply Co.. 1414 17th St.. Denver, Colo. 

FOR SALE — New gasoline hoist, sheave, shaft, boxes, rope 
and buckets; also 2 -stamp mill; Rolls; Pel ton water wheel; 
Chilian mill. W. F. Downle, Shannon Ave., Spokane, Wash. 

TO REDUCE the high cost of living, send for our Wholesaler 
to Consumer Catalogue. Smith's Cash Store, 108M Clay St.. 
San Fr3ncisco. 

WANTED — Antimony ores; state price, percentages, analysis, 
quantity can be delivered monthly, and points of delivery. Ad- 
dress Manufacturer. Station C. New York. 

nage, conditions favorable, large profit. We have solved the 
problem. Can demonstrate In any quantity. Need $5000 to 
equip property. Liberal terms. Address 645 Mills Bdg., San 

FOR SALE — Planimeter. Polar type, cost $45; Is just like new; 
will sell for $25. Address Box 124, Mining and Scientific Press. 

WANTED — Antimony mine: state location, character and 
quantity of ores, and full particulars. Address Manufacturer. 

Station C. New York. 

FOR SALE — Iron ore; vast body, covering 3000 acres; near 
railway. Box C. Auburn. Cal. 


State price, percentages, analysis, quantity that 
can be delivered monthly, and points of delivery. 






Leery Building. Seattle, Wish. 

Complete metallurgical wo'ks. anv process, manufactured and 
installed in accordance with most recent practice. 

Each time you repaint with an inferior mate- 
rial think of that extra labor cost. Then think of 




Booklet No. 141-B free upon request. 

Made in Jersey City, N. J., by the 





Rapid Drop 
Portable Mill 

Strikes 150 to 200 twelve 

hundred-pound blows per 


Feeds the ore evenly all 

around stamp. 

Can be erected without a 

building or cover. 

Cost of repairs and operation 

very small. 

It buys your bacon as you go! 


224 South Spring St., Los Angele*. Cal. 

Jumuij i 1916 

MINING ,>nd Scientific PHI SS 



Advertising for positions wanted Li | cents per 

rtion Minimum order 50 cents Replh 
without rxtra charge. Remittances must accompany 
Tuesday mornliiK f"Jf i 
rek'» ll 

POSITION WANTED —Am electrical engineer, M. M. • 

I in electric power plant d< 

• li aftlng, Street railway and 

ii, expert repairing; understand steam, 

.chlnlst work; close observer with prac- 

n i. ii with best results; strictly sober. 

position in Mexico through present war. 

tddrssa Bos 177, Mining and Scientific Press. 

]■* tBTTH »N WANTKI'— A man and Wife who can take full 
iur boarding bouse, mess, o* club, and serve you the 
' meals for the least expense, are open for permanent 
t; Well go anywhere. Can furnish the best «<f refer- 
ences and Kuarantee satisfaethin. Address C, I. Mullen, Kay- 
mond Hotel, Salt i»ik.- City, Utah. 

GRADUATE mining and civil engineer, with li years prac- 
lining experience, Including superintendence, surveying 

and assaying, desires position as superintendent or assistant 
superintendent of mine. Address BOX 164, Mining and Scientific 

technical graduate, 10 years experience eyaniUatWm, concentra- 
tion, amalgamation, notation; exceptional and noteworthy con- 
nections) low prodfuetlon costs, unquestionable technical and 
! Meal control of operations; desires strong associations. 
Address Bos 176. Mining and Scientific Press. 

thtiriMigh practical miner. Handle men successfully, 
it opening and operating new properties. Would con- 
sider accepting interest In promising property. Address Box 
186. Mining and Scientific Press. 

POSITION WANTED — First-class mlllman. IT years experi- 
ence bat terns, amalgamating, concentrating. Hardinge and 
tube mill amalgamation; good mechanic on repair or erecting 
work; references. Address Box 168. Mining and Scientific Press. 

70UNG MAN. anxious to learn the mining business, wishes 
position as time-keeper or in the engineering or assaying de- 
partment of a mine; will go anywhere. Address Box 182. 
Mining and Scientific Press. 

ASSAY Kit, experienced in cyanide plant and underground 
work wants a position; will go any place. Address 2152 High 
St.. Fruitvale. Cal. 

ASSAYER open for position; young man; will go to foreign 
country; understands bookkeeping. Address Box 170, Mining 
and Scientific Press. 

MASTER MECHANIC — Have installed 200-ton plant complete; 
practical machinist, electrician and construction foreman; fair 
technical education. Address Box 141,* Mining and Scentific 

MIL.LMAN. experienced, wants situation, amalgamation, con- 
centration and flotation, and machinery repairs. Address Box 
135. Mining and Scientific Press. 


Large st Stock! 
in the world 
of hew and 
second hand 

Ready to 



supply - CO 







Announcements in thin column are ■ • 

B nv ««f tin- Li ik*. si mil, 1 1 

United ' n of Minimc ""■! 

lhun kept constantly nfoniH-d concerning opfh 




WANTKI "-^Experienced engineer f<»r ufiHiatnnt In ongln>-< i inn 
office of lar«. coi iged in tin- mining and smelting 

business; should have flrst-olass technical education and n i 

experience In mechanical nrorkj preferably In connection 
mining and smelting operations; knowledge <-f steam and alec- 
eric power pi also very desirable; man who Is capable 

of taking charge "f office and drafting room la wanted: appli- 
cants should give full information In regard to education ami 
experience. Address Box 173, Mining and Scientific Press. 

WANT ECD Han familiar With placer work. Position open 

about March 1st Apply at once foi conversance. Location In 
Nevada, Want good working foreman who can supervise the 
work. Address b<>\ 184, Mining and Scientific 1'ress. 

Cue! engines, hammer drills, machine drill sharpener, tempering' 
steel; single man with Western experience preferred. 
Box 178, Mining and Scientific Press. 

MINING AND SCIENTIFIC >R£SS wants a permanent circu- 
lation representative In every mining community In the world. 
Replies will be held confidential If desired. Address, The Man- 
ager. Mining and Scientific Press. 

In answering advertisements under this heading do NOT 
send original credentials. Send copies. 

Recent Water Wheel Practice 

The most recent development in tangen- 
tial water wheel construction consists of 
auxiliary needle nozzle relief to assure 
maximum water economy, and the gov- 
ernor mechanism mounted integral with 
the nozzle body. 

This type of construction is compact 
yet readily accessible for inspection, and 
reliable under most severe operating con- 
ditions. Full description will be sent on request. 

The Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

2229 Harrison St., 
San Francico, Cal. 

89 We.t St. 
N«w York, N. Y. 


Attorney at Law 

Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds for New York, 
805 Pacific Bdg., Fourth and Market Streets, San Francisco. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1. L916 


When the Buick Motor Company extended their compressed air plant, they 
purchased Laidlaw Corliss Compressors, because by this choice they were able to 
obtain a lower guaranteed cost of their compressed air than that obtainable with any 
Ci the other seven compressors considered; this total cost, including first cost of the 
compressors and the cost of steam capitalized for a period of ten years' operation. 

The remarkable performance thus implied is the result of the superior design of 
the quick-releasing Corliss steam valve and the wonderful efficiency of the 



Light in weight and light in action. 

Absolutely noiseless. 

Seats by contact and not by impact. 


Laidlaw-Dunn-Gordon Plant 

115 Broadway, New York Works: Cincinnati, Ohio 



Jaatuij l 1916 MINING ud Scwntifii PRI ig 


,.,,,,. PAID UP I MM M % I OOO.OOO <»» 

PiPt Tank anp SicO Department 


San Francisco. 
The Successful Mining 4 Hilling Co., 
Erory fining District, 
United State*. 


Dear Sir: 

Ife wieh to thank you for the inquiry you are going to eond us. You will 
be interested in knowing that Remco REDWOOD tanke and pipe are quickly deliver- 
ed from a etock of 40,000,000 feet of air-dried, clear redwood that is at all 
times maintained at our factory. 

Remco tanke and pipe aro not injured by dry, arid climates since they are 
so thoroughly air-dried that no shrinkage is possible. They do not rot in trop- 
ical dampness. Redwood buried in swamp-land for a hundred years has been dug 
up in perfect condition. Alternate wetting or drying has no effect on Remco red- 
wood tanks or pipe. 

Whether you want tanke, vats, or pipe you want Remco Redwood. They are 
not attacked by any insects. The U. S. Government yearly uses millions of feet 
of Redwood as insurance against the destroying white ants of the Philippines. 
Acid or alkaline solutions cannot cause Redwood to deteriorate. Containers for 
flotation oils or for heated liquids are preferably made of Redwood. 

A Redwood container is a fire-insurance policy in itself, since it is 
very hard to ignite and slow burning, as Redwood contains no pitch. And it is 
a seventy-five year policy, for Redwood is good for at least that length of time. 

First coats are low; maintenance is nil. You can erect Remco tanks or 
pipe yourself, or we will do the work for you. 

With these things in mind we hope that you will write to us at once, 
telling us the installations you have in mind of tanks, pipe, or vats. We will 
at once submit specifications, prices, and the guarantee under which all Remco 
work is done. 

Thanking you for your inquiry, and hoping for an early reply to this 
letter, we are, 

Very truly yours, 


1611 Hobart Building, San Francisco. 

Manager Tank and Pipe Dept. 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1. 1916 






Saves Time Relining Saves Time Adjusting 

Saves Freight 

Can Be Used in Place of Stamps 

Saves Cost of Buildings Saves Horse Power 

Saves Labor Saves Repair Cost 


for Protection 
Not tor 

.Iitmuiry I. 1916 

MIMV. iod N,r„l,M. I'KI SS 




For Accurate Data on Operation, ask:— 

Inspiration Con. Copper Co. 
Old Dominion Mining Co. 
Burro Mountain Copper Co. 
Arizona Copper Co. 
Braden Copper Co. 
Chile Copper Co. 
Detriot Copper Co. 
Nevada Con. Copper Co. 
Ray Con. Copper Co. 
Magma Copper Co. 
Mountain Copper Co. 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mng. Co. 

Federal Lead Co. 

American Zinc Co. 

Field Mining & Milling Co. 

Wilbert Mining Co. 

Cusi Mining Co. 

Moctezuma Copper Co. 

Kennecott Mines Co. 

Copper Queen Con. Mng. Co. 

Garfield Smelting Co. 

Du Pont Nitrate Co. 

Manufactured and sold only by 

Chalmers & Williams 

Chicago Heights, 111. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1, 1916 

Who is lie and why 
does he smile *? 

He's a mill manager — a big one or a little one, which- 
ever you will. He smiles because he has just found 
out how he can cut down operating costs. He's 
reading about — 

Wire Clotti 

He has learned that through using a wire 
cloth presenting even wearing surface he 
can make it last longer. 

He has learned that "Perfect" wi r e cloth 
makes it possible for him to be dead sure 
of getting uniform screening. 

And he has learned that there are other 
points about this wire cloth that mean 
less cost. All these facts are in the 
"Screening Book." 

You ought to have a copy. It's free. Write 

The Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 

General Office and Factory : St. Louis, Mo. 

Branch Offices : 
20 But JmeksonBvd.. Chicago. I.. — City, fmli 

Mill-- KM*., i 




FIRST to get ath, then 
to get all of it— that's 

the gospel of making money 
when dredging for gold and other precious 
minerals. And making Dredges that 
•will "get all of it" is our gospel, too. We 
are perfectly willing to let you judge how 
well we have succeeded, by the Marions 
that you will find in operation where 
this kind of work is being done. 

And as to their operation — you need 
only talk with men who know Marion 
Dredges at first hand, to appreciate that 

When a Marion Dredge gets 
on the Job, it Stays Right 
There till the Work is Done 

— the owner of a Marion never needs to make al- 
lowance for "possible breakdowns" — for its regular 
habit is to operate with credit to everybody concerned. 

We are regularly building Dredging Machinery 
(or leading operators and contractors. We would 
welcome an opportunity to figure with you on your 
next piece of equipment, and upon receipt of par- 
ticulars covering the exact conditions under which 
you are operating, will be pleased to submit a detailed 
proposition covering the supplying of Marion Equip- 
ment to do the work. 

Catalog 942, with full particulars, free on request. 

The Marion Steam Shovel Company, 

Established 1884 


Atlanta Chicago New York San Francisco Seattle 
Manufacturers of Excavating Machinery of Every Description. 


Juiuan 1 I 'Mil 

MINING ind Scientific l'KI SS 








Write for Bulletin M60 

Model 60 Denver "Dreadnaught" Drills in an advance 
heading of the Rogers Pass Tunnel. These drills have 
replaced all other makes in the main headings of this 
work and were adopted by Foley Bros., Welch iS: 
Stewart because they demonstrated their superiority 
in actual service. After adopting them, they made 
their record month's progress. 

This is only one of many instances where they have 
proven their greater speed and reliability over other 
and heavier types under the most exacting conditions. 
A refinement of design combined with the sort of 
material and workmanship that made the "Waugh" 
Drills famous has produced in the "Dreadnaught" the 
"ideal" type of rock drill. 


225 RJalto Bldg.. San Francisco, Cal. 
301 San Francisco Street, El Paso, Tex. 
508 First Avenue South. Seattle, Wash. 
34 Queen Street, Melbourne, Australia. 


30 Church Street. New York City 

I 1 5 W. 2nd South Street, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Houghton, Mich. 

Royal Chambers, Johannesburg, South Africa 


MINING and Scientific PRESS January 1, 1916 

p^y>JL frsJbC /UiaX~ th /hjLjJLf 

r> fa , ° 

Goodrich specialists who know where tonnage costs come from and where 
lost power goes, are at your command today — every day — without 
obligation on your part. 

These men are no theorists. They know conveyors and they know mate- 
rials. We have found that this brand of service, coupled with our brands 
of belt, pays us — and it will pan you. 

Goodrich conveyor belts are as carefully built from an engineering stand- 
point as any machine you know. 

Perfect flexibility. Deeded tensile strength, edge that can't tear off, resilient rubber cover 
— all contribute to the perfect balance which means longest service, uninterrupted duly — 
fewest shut-downs — no spillage. 



We could cite hundreds of cases where these great belts have saved customers money on 
their conveyor investment. It will pay you to let the Goodrich man tell you what our 
service means in dollars and cents saving to you. 

Goodrich Products 

Conveyor Belts Transmission Belts Elevator Belts Packing 

Hose — all kinds Valves, etc. 

The B. F. Goodrich Company 

Factories: Akron, Ohio 

"Get in touch with Goodrich" 

.Iiuiuury 1 1916 

MINING ...»l Sdaotifii I'KI » 


The designs of our mining locomotives 

arc the result (if wide experience, ex- 
tending over a period 0. 80 years. 

The material used in their construction is 
thoroughly tested and is the hest of its 

All details'are accurately finished to stand- 
ard gauges and are absolutely interchangeable on all locomotives of the same class and size. 

This cuts out long delays at critical times of the work, as parts liable to wear can be kept 
on hand or shipped promptly from our Works. 

See out Exhibit in Transportation Palace, Panama-Pacific International Exposition, 

San Francisco, California 



McCormick Building, Chicago, Illinois A. Baldwin ^v Company, New Orleans, La. 

Dominion Express Building, Montreal, Canada 

V I:. Liven v ,v Company, San Francisco and L<>* Angeles, California 

Northwestern Equipment Company, Seattle, Wash., and Portland, Oregon 


have won a great race — 

All others distanced. Send for the score. The latest 
customers operating sheets show Marathon Mills 
ground finished product first time through, without 
screening or classifying, at the rate of nineteen and 
one-half tons for each horsepower per da}'. Other 
mills ground only four and one-third tons under 
exactly the same conditions. 

No such great superiority has ever been heard of before. The reason 
is simple. Other mills are one-product machines. Marathon Mills are 
adjustable to grind coarse or medium for jig or table concentration, or 
still finer for flotation, amalgamation, cyaniding, etc., or all two hundred 
mesh slimes if desired. They are equally superior at each kind of work. 

The MARATHON ORE CRUSHER is as great a wonder as the 
Marathon Grinding Mill and combines new inventions with all the best 
already known mechanical principles for a perfect crusher. 


flj Write us at once for copics"of 
jJ comparative tests and full details 
regarding "Marathon" Mills. 




First National Bank Building 

Pacific Coast Office : 

160BealeSt., San Francisco 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1. 1916 

Professional Directory 



RATES: One-half inch, $25 per year, subscription included. Combination rate with The Mining Magazine (London), one-half inch in each, 

$40 per year, subscriptions included. 



Blauvelt. Harrington. 
Bradley, D. H., Jr. 
Burch, H. Kenyon. 
Collins, Edgar A 
DeKalb, Courtenay. 
Eye, Clyde M. 
Smith & Zlesemer. 
Willis. Charles F. 


Abbott, James W. 
Arnold. Ralph. 
Beauchamp, F, A. 
Bradley, Fred W. 
Bretherton. S. E. 
Burch, Albert. 
Burch, Caetani & 

Caetani, Gelaslo. 
Caldwell, Forest B 
Carpenter, Alvin B. 
Chodzko. A. E. 
Clark, Baylies C. 
Clevenger, G. Howell. 
Cranston, Robert E. 
Dennis. Clifford G. 
Farrell, J. H. 
Folsom, D. M_ 
Gester, G. C. 
Gibson. Arthur. 
Grant. Wilbur H. 
Grunsky. C. E . Jr. 

Hamilton, B. M. 

Hanson, Henry. 
Harvey. F. H. 
Hoffmann. Ross B. 
Holland. L. F. S 
Hunt & Co.. Robert W. 
Huston, H. I.. 
Hyde. James M. 
Janln. Charles. 
Jenks. Arthur W. 
Jones. E. L. 
Keegel, P. A 
Klnzle, Robert A. 
Lanagan. W. H. 
Lorlng. W. J. 
Merrill. Charles W. 
Merrill Metallurgical Co 
Morris. F. L. 

I Mudd, Seeley W. 

Munro, C. H. 

Myers, Desalx B. 
I Neil), James W. 

Newman. M. A. 

Nowland, Ralph c. 

Pepperberg, L. J. 

Polluk Co.. The A. J. 

Prlchard. W. A. 

Probert. Frank H. 

Radford, William H. 

Ray, James C. 

Rlckard. T. A. 

Ross, G. McM. 
I Royer, Frank W. 

Scott, Robert, 

Slmonds. Ernest H. 

Sizer. F. L. 

Smith, Howard D. 

Stebblns, Elwyn W. 

Steel. Donald. 

Storms. William H. 

Thomas. E. G. 

Tlmmons. Colin. 

Tolman. Cyrus Fisher. ; 

Turner. H. W. 

von Bernewltz. M. W. 

Wiseman. Philip. 

Woodworth. S. E. 


Dc Wilde, F. J. 
Hollis. H. L. 
Hunt & Co.. Robert W. 
Mussey Co., George B. 


Stanford, Richard B. 


Dickerman. Alton L. 
Richards. Robert H. 
Rogers, Allen Hastings. 


Dickerman, Alton L. 


Argall & Sons, Philip. 
Bancroft, Geo. J. 
Bancroft, Howland. 
Chase, Charles A. 
Chase & Son. Edwin E. 
Collins. George E. 
. Dorr. John V. N. 
Farlsh. John B. 
Finch. John Wellington 
Hills & Willis. 
I, tint. Horace F. 
Radford. Walter J. 
Rlckard. Forbes. 
Worcester. S. A. 


Bowman, Frank A. 
Collins. Edwin James. 
Longyear Co., E. J. 
Wlnchell. Horace V. 


Conklln, H. R. 
Copeland, Durward. 
Hall, R. G. 

Hunt & Co. Robert W. 
Kirby. Edmond B. 
Malcolmson, Jas. W. 
Thornhlll, E. Bryant. 


Bard. D. C. 
Creden. William L. 
Greene. Fred T. 
Valerius. McNutt & 


Anderson & Son, G. 

Easton. Stanly A. 
Hershey, Oscar H. 


Bristol, J. J. 
Cutler. H. C. 
Ferguson. Donald. 
Lakenan, C. B. 
Symmes. Whitman. 


Aldrldge, Walter H. 

Arnold, Ralph. 

Ball, Sydney H. 

Banks, John H. 

Beatty, A. Chester. 

Benedict. Wm. de L. 

Brodie, Walter M. 

Bulkley. J. Norman. 

Canadian Mining & Ex- 
ploration Co., Ltd. 

Channlng, J. Parke. 

Cranston, Robert E. 

Dorr, John V. N. 

Dunster, Carl B. 

Dwlght, Arthur S. 

Erdlets. J. F. B., Jr. 

Farlsh. John B. 

Fearn, Percy L. 

Finch. John Wellington 

Flnlay, J. R. 

Garrey, George H. 

Hassan, A. A 

Henderson, H. P. 

Hendryx, Wilbur A. 

Herzlg, Charles S. 

Hoffmann. Karl F. 

Hunt & Co.. Robert W 

Leggett, Thos. H. 

Lloyd. R. L. 

Mercer, John W. 

Mlnard. Frederick H. 

Olcott & Corning. 

Payne. Henrv Mace. 

Perry. O. B. 

Polllon & Polrier. 

Raymond. Rosslter "W. 

Rlordan, D. M. 

Rogers, Allen Hastings 

Rogers, Edwin M. 

Sharpless. Fred'k. F. 

Simonds & Burns. 

Spllsbury. E. Gybbon. 

Sussman, Otto. 

Thomas. E G. 

Thomas. Kirby. 

Thomson. S. C. 

Von Rosenberg. Leo. 

Wehber. Morton. 

Westervejt. William 

Weekes, Frederic R. 

Wilmot, H. C. 
Yeatman. Pope. 


Hager, Dorsey. 
Valerius. McNutt & 


Miller, Bernard P. 
Morse, Ed. C. 


Ayres, W. S. 
Chance, H. M. 
Clapp. Frederick G. 
DuBols. Mixer & Armas. 
Garrison. F. Lynwood. 
Hunt & Co., Robert W. 
Keeney, Robert M. 
Myers, Desalx B. 
Spurr. J. Edward. 


Eye, Clyde M. 
Hanlon, Russell Yale. 

Klnnon, Wm. H. 
Nicholson. Francis. 


Howard, L. O. 
Jennings. E. P. 
Kirk & Leavell. 
Krumb. Henry. 
Neill, James W. 
Schmidt. F. Sommer. 
Sears, Stanley C. 
Talmage. Sterling B. 
Tlbby. Ben]. F. 
Wlnwood. Job H. 


Bellinger, H. C. 
Keffer & Johns. 


Dixon. Clement. 
Emery, A. B. 


Cole, F. L. 
Collbran, Arthur H. 
Dickson, A. A. C. 
Eardley-Wilmot, S. 
Macnutt, C. H. 
Mills, Edwin W. 
Vallentlne. E. J. 

Ferrier, W. F. 
Fowler. Samuel S. 
Hardman, John E. 
Hughes. A. D. 
Hunt & Co.. Robert W. 
Kirby. A. G. 
Lamb, R. B. 
Levy. Ernest. 
Summerhayes, M. W. 
Tyrrell. J. B. 


Fraser. Colin. 

Grace. William Frank. 

Smith, J D. Audley. 


Hartley, J. H. 

Brewer. Wm. M. 
Dodge. W. R. 


Alexander Hill & 

si -wart. 
Arnold. Ralph. 
Bach. William. 
Bain. H. Foster. 
Banks. Charles A. 

Bayldon, H. C. 
Beadon, W. R. Coleridge 
Botsford, Robert S. 
Brown, R. Oilman. 
Collins. Henry F. 
Curie. J. H. 

de Marny. E. N. Barbot. 
Drucker, A. E. 
Erdlets, J. F. B., Jr. 
Geppert. R. M. 
Holloway, Geo. T. & Co., 

Hoover. H. C. 
Hoover. Theodore J. 
Hunt & Co.. Robert W. 
Hutchlns. John Power. 
Inder & Henderson. 
Inskipp & Bevan. 
Jones. Henry Ewer. 
Jones. T. J. 
Kuehn. A. F. 
Llchtenberg & Mac- 


Lorlng. E. A. 
Mayreis, L. J. 
McCarthy. E. T. 
McDermott, E. D. 
Mlchell, George V. 
Payne & Co., F. W. 
Pearse. Arthur L. 
Perkins. Walter G., & Co 
Purlngton. Chester W. 
Shaler, Millard K. 
Smith, Charles A. 
Smith. Reuben Edward. 
Stephenson. Geo. E. 
Stlnes, Norman C. 
Stockfeld, G. A. 
Tellam, Alfred. 
Thomas, E. G. 
Thorne, w. E. 
Tltcomb. H. A. 
Turner. Scott. 
Weatherbe. D'Arcy. 

Weigall. Arthur R. 
Wright, Charles Will. 


Hoyle. Charles. 
Mines Management Co. 
Nahl. Arthur C. 
Raymond. Robert M. 
Royer, Frank W. 
Simpson, W. E. 
Stevens. Blarney. 
Tweedy, Geo. A. 


Chede & Company. 
Copeland. Durward. 
Couldrey. Paul S. 
Lamb. Mark R. 
Lewis. H. Allman. 
McCann, Ferdinand. 
Strauss. Lester W. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 


ABBOTT, James W„ 

tuning i:u|larrr. 

Ill N Grand A»... U*m Anncl... Cat 

BARD, D. C, 

Mi, .ii.ii (Iroloxl.i. 

P. O. Box 16T. Butt*, 


BROWN. R. Oilman, 

t iHi.ullltiit diglnrrr. 

«2. London Wall, London 
Cable-: Am. U.uitl 

ALDRIDGE, Walter H., 

nine nnd MrlnllMralrnl Knclarrr. 

Car* of Win. U. Thompion, 
14 Wall St.. New York 


Mining I "»-' r. 

Fort. NO. I, Slnlarcnsky Oblaat. 

BULKLEY, J. Norman, 

IH'.i; ifaohnnl— I am! l:lr<-lrlr.l 


Mining Wnik i Specialty. 
180 Broadway. New York • 


i onoiilllaa I ..-l... •'- noil MrlallurKlifM 

< liroad St. Plair. London, EC. 

BEATTY, A. Chester, 

foiiaultlng Mining KnclDrrr. 

jr. Broad Btreet, maw York. 

1, London Wall Bdg.. London. E.C. 

Cable: Granitic. No professional work. 

Buret., » ii.tanl & Herahey. 

BURCH, Albert, 

('iinmildng liinl... . . 
Crocker Bdg.. Ban 
Coble: Burch. Uaual Codea. 




iililnk Ml ill tik; 



Wiiilatt'. Idaho. 

Coeur d'Alene Mines, 


e: McNeill. 

Hamilton, Hcuuehainp, Woodworth. Inc. 



Specialty: Flotation. 
419 EmbftrcndiTo, San Francisco. 

BURCH, H. Kenyon, 

Mechnnlei.1 nnd >l . i nllurK l< mI i. llt in. • r. 
Inspiration Con. Copper Co.. 
Miami, Gila County, Arizona. 

ARGALL & SONS, Philip, 

>l I ■> t ■> u nud Mrlullurulciil Knulnecni. 

First National Bank Bdg.. Denver. 
Cable: Arfrall. Code: Bedford McNeill. 


Metallurgical Engineer. 

Spokane, Wash. 

Burch, Caetanl & Herahey. 

CAETANI, Gelasio, 

Consulting l Engineer. 

Crocker Bdg.. San Francisco. 
Cable: Caetanl. Usual Codes. 

ARNOLD, Ralph, Cable: Ralfarnoll. 

Geologist and I'.-i r..l,-iu,, I Inn Ineer. 
Union Oil Bdg.. Los Angeles. Cal. 
Broadway, New York. 
No. 1. London Wall Bdg.. London. E.C. 

BENEDICT, William de L., 

Mining Engineer. 

19 Cedar St.. New York. 

CALDWELL, Forest B., 

V. P. and Gen. Mgr.. San Dlmas Co., 

San Dlmas, Durango. Mexico. 

Crocker Bdg., San Francisco. 

Cable: Candelarla. Code:McNelll 1908. 

AYRES, W. S., 

Mining nnd Engineer. 

Huzleton, Pa. 

Consultation, Exam., Reports. 

Many years Mgr. Iron and Coal Mines. 

BACH, William, 

i 'Inter Engineer. 

Glyngarth, Beechwood Rd., 

Sanderstead, Surrey, England. 

Code: McNeill, 1908. 

BOTSFORD, Robert S., 

Milling Engineer. 

% F. Riches, 9th Line, No. 44. 

Basil Island, Petrograd, Russia 

BOWMAN, Frank A., 

Mining: Engineer. 

Plans, Surveys, Reports, Management. 
Gilbert. Minn. 



William Wallace Meln, 
Consulting Englucer. 

Mining Properties Purchased 
or Financed. 

43 Exchange Place, New York City. 
Cable: Cameco. New York. 

BAIN, H. Foster, 

Mining Geologist. 

Editor, The Mining Magazine. 

Salisbury House. London, E.C. 

No professional work undertaken. 

BRADLEY, D. H., Jr., 

Mechanical Engineer. 

Specialty: Mining & Milling Machinery. 

Exam. & Equipment of Mexican Mines. 

Crown King. Yavapai Co.. Arizona. 


Mining: Engineer. 

508 Union League Building. 
Los Angeles. 

BALL, Sydney H., 

Mining Geologlat. 

71 Broadway, New York. 

Cable: Sydball. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

BRADLEY, Fred W., 

Mining Engineer. 

Crocker Building, San Francisco. 
Cable: Basalt. Code: Bedford McNeill. 



ConHultlng Mining Engineer. 

837 Drexel Bdg., Philadelphia. 


Consulting Engineer. 

Mining, Metallurgy, Hydraulics. 
Bancroft Blk., 220 Broadway, Denver. 
Cable Address: Bancroft. 


Con. Mining and Met. Engineer. 

Specialty: Smelting of copper and lead 

ores and treatm't of complex zinc ores. 

220 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 

CHANNING, J. Parke, 

Consulting Engineer. 

61 Broadway, New York. 

BANCROFT, Howland, 

Consulting Mining Geologist. 

Suite 730 Symes Building, 

Denver, Colorado. 

Cable: Howban. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

BREWER, Wm. M., 

Mining Engineer and GeologlHt. 

P. O. Box 701. Victoria, B. C. 
Cable: Brewer. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

CHASE, Charles A., 

Mining Engineer. 

812-821 Cooper Bdg.. Denver. 
Liberty Bell G. M. Co.. Teliurlde. Colo. 

BANKS, Charles A., 

Mining nnd Metallurgical Engineer. 

Jewel-Denero Mines. Ltd. 
71 George Street, Edinburgh. Scotland. 


Mining Engineer. 

Reno, Nevada. U. S. A. 

Edwin E. 


It. L. 




& SON, 

Mining E 

Edwin E., 


1450 Williams S 

.. Denver. Colo. 

BANKS, John H., 

(Formerly of Ricketts & Banks) 
Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 

61 Broadway, New York. 

BRODIE, Walter M., 

Mining Engineer and Me.nllurglHt. 

50 Broad St.. New York, N. Y. 


Consulting Mechnnlenl Engineer. 

Specialty: Compressed Air. 
647 Phelan Bdg., San Francisco. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1, 1916 


CLAPP, Frederick G., ' w Gwfcww 

Associated Geological Knglneers. 
Reports on OH. Gas and Mineral 

331 Fourth Ave., Pittshurg. Pa. 

CURLE, J. H., 

Mine Valuer. 

C2, London Wall, London. 


DWIGHT, Arthur S., 

lllnlnic Engineer and Metallurgist. 
29 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Sinterer. 

Code: McNeill: Miners & Smelters 

CLARK, Baylies C, 

Mining and Mechanical Engineer. 

Sutter Creek. California. 

Cable: Baclark. Code: Bedford McNeill. 


Mining Engineer. 

Box 857, Reno. Nevada. 

Code: McNeill. 


Mining Engineer. 

10. Strand Road. Calcutta. India. 

Cable: Warble. Code: McNeill: W. U. 

CLEVENGER, G. Howell, 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

381 Hawthorne Ave.. Palo Alto. Cal. 

DE KALB, Courtenay, 

Consulting Engineer. Pacific Smelting 

& Mining Co.. Tucson, Arizona. 

Cable: Dekalb. Code: McNeill. 

EASTON, Stanly A., 

Mining Engineer. 

Manager Bunker Hill & Sullivan Min- 
ing & Concentrating Company. 

Kellogg. Idaho. 

COLE, F. L., 

Mining; Engineer. 

Shanghai, China. 
Cable: Hanco. 

de MARNEY, E. N. Barbot, 

Mining Engineer. 

W. O. Stredny Prospect. 33 

Petrograd. Rus9la. 

Cable: Barbot de Marney. Code: McN.,'08 

EMERY, A. B., 

Mining Engineer. 

Management and Equipment of Mines. 

Messina, Northern Transvaal, 

South Africa. 

COLLBRAN, Arthur H., 

Mining Engineer. 

General Manager Seoul Mining Co.. 
Pyeng Tang, Korea. 

DENNIS, Clifford G., 

Mining Engineer. 

Crocker Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Sinned. Code: Mel 

ERDLETS, J. F. B., Jr., 

Mining Engineer. 

% H. C. Hoover, No. 1. London Wall 
Bdg.. London. E.C.; 45 Broadway. N. T. 
Cable: Branderlet, New York or London 

COLLINS, Edgar A., 

Mining Engineer. 

Commonwealth Mine, 
Pearce. Arizona. 


Mining Engineer and Geologist. 

Galena, Illinois. 

EYE, Clyde M., 

Mining and Metallurgical Engineer. 

Supt. Benguet Consolidated Mining Co., 
Bagulo, Benguet, P. I. 

COLLINS, Edwin James, 

Mining Engineer. 

Mine Examinations and Management. 
1008-1009 Torrey Bdg.. Duluth. Minn. 


Consulting Mining Engineer. 

70 State St.. Boston. Mass. 
Temporary address: Houghton. Mich. 


Mining Engineer. 

25 Broad St.. New York. 
315 Colorado Bdg., Denver. 
Cable: Farlsh. 

COLLINS, George E., 

Mining Engineer. 

Mine Examinations and Management. 

420 Boston Bdg.. Denver. 
Cable: Colcomac. 

DICKSON, Archibald A. C, 

Mining Engineer. 

Kodarma. E. I. Ry., India. 

Cable: Dickson. Nawada, Usual Codes. 


Mining Geologist. 

Planning and Direction of Development. 
% Yellow Aster M. & M. Co.. Rands- 
burg. Cal. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

COLLINS, Henry F., 

Mining Engineer. 

Huelva Copper & Sulphur Co., Ltd., 

Valdelamusa. Prow de Huelva, Spain. 

Cable: Huelvacop. Code: Broomhall 

DIXON, Clement, 

Mining Engineer. 

P. O. Box 305. Bulawayo. Rhodesia. 
Cable: Clement Dixon. Usual Codes. 

FEARN, Percy L„ 

Mining Engineer. 

17 Battery Place. New York. 


Mining and Electrical Engineer. 

Joplln. Mo. 

DODGE, W. R., 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

Tlmmins, Ont-. Canada. 

FERGUSON, Donald, 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

Cable: Ferg. Box 644, Goldfield, Nev. 

Codes: Morelng & Neal: Bedford McNeill. 

COPELAND, Durward, 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

Missouri School of Mines. Llallagua, 
Rolla, Mo. Bolivia. 

DOLBEAR, Samuel H., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

Specialty: Non-metallic minerals. 
1010 Flatiron Bdg., San Francisco. 


Consulting Mining Engineer and 

204 Lumsden Bdg.. Toronto, Ont. 


Mining Engineer. 

Gen. Mining Supt. Cerro de Pasco Min- 
ing Co., Cerro de Pasco. Peru. S. A. 
Cable: Cerrocop. 

DORR, John V. N., 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

812 Cooper Bdg.. Denver. 

17 Battery Place. New York. 

Cable: Dorr. Code: McNeill. W. U. 

FINCH, John Wellington, 

Mining Geologist and Engineer. 

730 Symes Bdg.. 
Denver, Colorado. 

CRANSTON, Robert E., 

Mining Engineer. 

437 Holbrook Bdg.. San Francisco. 
Room 1408. No. 11 Pine St.. New York. 
Cable: Recrans. Code: McNeill. 1908. 


Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineer. 

Ore Dressing. Cyan 1 ding, and Copper 
Leaching. Testing. Designing and Plant 
Construction. 62 London Wall. London 


Mining Engineer. 

Room 802. 52 William St., 
New York. 

CREDEN, William L., 

Consnltlng Mining Engineer. 

Mine Examination and Management, 

First National Bank Building. 

Butte. Montana. 

DUNSTER, Carl B., 

Mining Engineer. 

11 Pine St.. New York. 

Marquette, Mich. 

Cable: Breltanco. Code: McNelU- 


Mining Engineer. 

Stanford University, California 

< \ 1 I T • I «i 



FOWLER. Samuel S , 

Mining luklnrrr and MrtallursLat. 

Ntlaon, British Columbia, 

■v* i«r. I'sual Codes. 

HANSON, Henry, 

Mrinllurglriil Kimlnrrr. 
Mechanics Institute Bdg., San Francisco. 

HOOVER, Theodore, J., 

.1 lalaaj I :■■!(. nrrr. 

i. London Wall Bdc., London, B.G 
i .loo. 

FRASER, Colin, 

«■<•>•■ <.r..lo«l.l 

% Hunk of New Zealand. 
Sydney. N B \v 

v. N.lll. 190S 

HARDMAN, John E., 

' "liiin. Milling I ntlimr 

112 Bl JomM s... Monti.-iii. Canada 
Cable: .'ml,' llvilfunl M. N.lll 

HOWARD, L. 0., 

Examination, Conaultlnft ntannmnonl 
410 Poll 11,1k. Ball City. Utah. 

GARREY, George H., 

t uu*ullluB Mining] (.rulOKUl iin.1 
I ii t '•■■• i 

US Broadway. New York. 


Mining mill fonnultlng Knalnrrr. 
Gait, California. 

HOYLE, Charles, 

Mlnlna Knglnrri. 
Apartado 8, Kl Oro. Mexico. 

GARRISON, F. Lynwood, 

Mining Engineer. 

»!J Drexel Bdg.. Philadelphia. 
Cable: Aurum. Code: McNeill. 

TT A OS AN A A M,B| "K K .,.l nn,l 

nAssan, a. a.,, ,,„.,,,, i„ t i,„ t i,,.,. r . 

Examination, Management and Opera- 
tion of Mines. 
15 Broad Street. New York City. 
Cable: Asghar. Any Code. 


Ml til ■■»£ I'lllBlnriT. 

Atlln, B. C, Canada. 


Mlnlna* 1 lnuliii'iT. 

Salisbury House, 






tiroloiEical n»d Mining? Engineer. 

604 Charleston Bdg*., 337 San Pedro, 

San Francisco. Cat Lima, Peru. 

Cable: Gester. Lima. 


Mlnlna: Engineer. 

60 Broadway, New York. 

Burch, Caetanl & Hershey. 

HERSHEY, Oscar H., 

Consulting Mlnlna* Geologist. 

Kellogg. Idaho. 
Cable: Hershey. Code: McNeill. 

Robert W. Hunt Jas. C. Hallsted 

Jno. J. Cone D. W. McNaugher 

HUNT & CO., Robert W., 


Bureau of Inspection, Testa & Consultation. 
Chlcagc-San Francl6co-New York-Pittsburgh 
San Francisco Ofllce, 261 Kearny St. 
St. Louis-Montreal-London. 
Consulting, Designing and Supervising En- 
gineers, Inspectors of Railroad, Structural 

and Other Materials and Equipment. 
Chemical, Physical and Cement Laboratories. 

GIBSON, Arthur, 

Mining KukIucit. 

Specialty: Placer Mining. 

1022 Halght St.. San Francisco. 

HERZIG, Charles S., 

Mining Engineer. 

48 West 25th Street. New York. 


Mining Engineer. 

C34 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Haruston. 

GRACE, William Frank, 

Mining Engineer. 

Gen. Mgr. Wathl Grand Junction, 

Waihl, N. Z. 

Cable: Gracefully. Usual Codes. 

Victor G. Hills. Frank W. Willis. 


Mining Engineers. 

Cripple Creek, 415 McPhee Bdg., Denver. 
Cable: Hlllwlll. Usual Codes. 

HUTCHINS, John Power, 

Mining Engineer* 

441, Salisbury House, London, E.C. 
Cable: Getchlns. Code: McNeill 1908. 


Geologic and Mining Engineer. 

437 Holbrook Bdg., San Francisco. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 


Mining Engineer. 

2 Rector St., New York. 

Code: McNeill, 1908. 

HYDE, James M., 

Treatment of Difficult Ores. 
634 Mills Bdg.. San Francisco. 
Cable: Jamehyde. 

GREENE, Fred T., 

Mining Engineer and Geologist. 

Butte, Montana. 


Mining Engineer. 

228 Perry St., Oakland, Cal. 
Cable: Slberhof. 


Consulting Engineers. 

Dredging and Hydraulicklng. 
70, Gracechurch St., London, E.C. 
Cable: Inderdaad. 

GRUNSKY, C. E., Jr., 

Mining Engineer. 

American Engineering Corporation. 
57 Post St.. San Francisco. 


Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 

Examinations and Reports. 

601 H. W. Hellman Bdg., 

Los Angeles. Cal. 

Dudley J. Insklpp. John A. Bevan. 


Mining Engineer.. 

1, Broad St. Place, London, E.C. 
Cable: Monazlte. Usual Codes. 

HAGER, Dorsey, 

Petroleum Geologist and Engineer. 

216 Lynch Building, 
Tulsa, Okla. 


Consulting Mining Engineer 
and Metallurgist. 

1025 Peoples Gas Bdg., Chicago, 111. 

JANIN, Charles, 

Mining Engineer. 

722 Kohl Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Charjan. Code: McNeill. 

HALL, R. G., 

Metallurgical and Chemical Engineer. 

General Manager, 
River Smelting & Refining Co., 
722 Chestnut St.. St. Louis. Mo. 

HOLLOWAY & CO., Geo. T., Ltd. 

Metallurgist and Metallurgical 

13 Emmett St., Limehouse, London, E. 
Cable: Neolithic. Code: McNeill. 

JENKS, Arthur W. f 

Mining Engineer. 

2533 Chilton Way, Berkeley, Cal. 
Cable: Jenksvllle. 

Hamilton, Beauchamp, Woodworth, Inc. 


Metal lurgist. 

Specialty: Cyaniding Gold & Silver Ores. 
419 The Embarcadero. San Francisco. 


Mining Engineer. 

1, London Wall Bdg., London. E.C. 
No professional work entertained. 
Cable: Crevooh. 


Mining Engineers. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Cable: Chalcoclte. Code: McNeill. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1, 1916 


JONES, E. L., 

Electrical and Mechanical Engineer. 

Formerly with U. S. Government. 

Power, Lighting, and Communication. 

53 N. Second St., San Jose, Cal. 

LAMB, R. B., 

Mining Engineer. 

Room 1809. 43 Exchange Place, 

New York City. 

Cable: Boblam. Code: McNeill. 


Mining Engineer. 

Tanalyk-Balmok, Russia. 

JONES, Henry Ewer, 

Mining Engineer. 

Parliament Mansions, Victoria St., 
Westminster, London. 8 W. 
Cahle:Ewerones. CodeiBroomhall's Imp. 


Mining Engineer. 

1057 Monadnock Bdg. 
San Francisco. Code 


McCANN, Ferdinand, 

Consulting Mining nod Metallurgical 

La Cotabambas Aurarla, 
e /r A. Calvo, Cuzco, Peru. S A. 

JONES, T. J., 

Mining En 

No. 1 Nevsky 



LEGGETT, Thos. H., 

CuiiNiiItlng Kimiiu'er. 
149 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Tomleg. 

McCarthy, e. t., 

Mining Engineer. 

10 Austin Friars, London. 

KEENEY, Robert M., 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

Specialty: Electrometallurgy. 

% Standard Chemical Co.. 

Cannonsburg, Pa. 

LEVY, Ernest, 

Mining Engineer. 

Representing Alex. Hill & Stewart, 

Rossland. British Columbia. 

9 OS Old N'at'l Bk. Bdg. Spokane, Wash. 

McDERMOTT, e. d., 

Mining Engineer. 

Zyrlanovsk Roudnlk, 

Tomsk Government. Siberia 

Codes: McNeill, 190S; Morelng & Neal. 


Mining Engineers. 

Examinations, Reports and Manage- 
ment of Mining Properties. 
214 Hutton Bdg.. Spokane, Wash. 

LEWIS, H. Allman, 

Managing Engineer. 

The Porco Tin Utiles, Ltd. 

Casllla 52. Potosl. Bolivia. 

Cable: Porcorama. Code: McNeill (1908) 

MERCER, John W., 

Mining Engineer. 

Gen. Mgr. South American Mines Co. 
Mills Bdg.. Broad St.. New York. 

KINNON, Wm. H., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 

307 San Francisco St., 
El Paso. Texas. 


Robert A., 

Mining engineer. 


National Bank Building. 
San Francisco. 


Exploring Engineers and Geologists. 

Diamond Drill Contractors. 

Manufacturers of Diamond Drills 

and Supplies. 

General Office: 710-722 Security Bank 

Bdg., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Cable: Longco. Code: McNeill. 

MERRILL, Charles W., 


121 Second St., San Francisco. 
Cable: Lurco. Code: Bedford McNeill. 



121 Second St., San Francisco. 
Cable: Lurco. Usual Codes. 

KIRBY, A. G., 


Mill Designing and Construction. 

Specially: Concentration & Cyanldation. 

Dominion Red. Co.. Cobalt. Ont. 

LLOYD, R. L., 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

Specialty: Pyro-Metallurgy of Copper 
and Associated Metals. Cable: Ricloy. 
Code: McNeill. 29 Broadwav. N. Y 

MICHELL, Geo. V., 

Mining Engineer. 

Specialty: Placer Mining. 
15 Great St. Helens. London, E.C. 

KIRBY, Edmund B., 

Mining Engineer nnd Metallurgist. 

918 Security Bdg., St. Louis. 

Specialty: The expert examination of 

mines and metallurgical enterprises. 

Bewick. Morelng & Co. 


Mining Engineer. 

62, London Wall, London, E.C. 
Cable: Rlnglo, Usual Codes. 

MILLER, Bernard P., 

Mining Engineer. 

63% Sixth St.. Portland, Oregon. 


Consulting Engineers. 

Examination, Management, and Opera- 
tion of Mines. Design Equipment. 
N e w bouse Bdg., Salt Lake City. Utah. 


Mining Knglneer. 

734 Bush St.. San Francisco, Cal. 

MILLS, Edwin W., 

Mining Engineer. 

Supt. Tul Mi Chung Mine, 
The Seoul Mining Company, 
Holkol, Chosen (Korea). 

KRUMB, Henry, 

Mining Engineer. 

Felt Bdg.. Salt Ljike City. Utah. 

LUNT, Horace F., 

Mining Engineer. 
Gazette Bdg., Colorado Springs, 

MINARD, Frederick H., 

Mining Engineer. 

Trinity Bdg.. Ill Broadway, New York 

Cable: Frednard. Code: McNeill. 

KUEHN, A. F., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

London. E.C. 
1, London Wall Building, 
Cable: Norite. 


Mining Engineer. 

Care Burma Mines. Ltd., 

Namtu, Northern Shan States, 

Burma. India. 


Mining Engineer. 

1057 Monadnock Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Fredmor. Code: McNeill. 


Mining Engineer. 

Ely, Nevada. 


Consulting Engineer. 

1012 Baltimore Avenue, 
Kansas City. Mo. 






Cyanlding a 



42nd Ave 




LAMB, Mark R., 


Mgr. AUts-Chalmers Co., 
Santiago, Chile. 

MASSEY CO., George B., 

Consulting Excavating Engineers. 

Advice on Equipment and Methods for 

Stripping. Open -Cut Mining Dredging. 

Peoples Gas Bdg.. Chicago. Illinois. 


Seeley W., 

Mining Engineer. 




Los Angeles, 


January,!, ii'it. 

MINING *nd Saaotifc PRESS 



MUNRO, C. H., 

Vllalaa Knalnrrr. 
llohart Hdg.. San Kraiu-i- 
Cabl. urnum M N-lll 

Howard PolUoa. C h Polrlar 


Mining I nalnr, r. 
«S Wall si, N.w v.. ik City. 

ROGERS, Edwin M., 

« Mti»„l,l,iK Mining i:„ tt | U rrr. 

01 k. 
Cable: Bmrog. HMl 

MYERS. Dasaix B., 

Mlalaa: Kxlarrr. 

Ill Story Bdg. Loa Ancelea. Cal 
Philadelphia Addraaa: 1(11 Spruir Si 


Mlulna Knalnrrr. 

* Orovlll- Dredging, l.lmltod. 

Miiia Bdg., S:in Pranolaoo 

ROSS, G. McM., 

Mlulua and < mumuIiIuu Knalnrrr. 

foaamlta Club, Btook California. 

NAHL, Arthur C, 

Mining Knalnrrr. 

Trlunfo. Itaja California. Mexico. 

PROBERT, Frank H., 

< ..ti-iii! in u i . »■ ^ i ii. t - 1- and Milling 


Hobart Building, Sun Frnnclaco. 

Cabl.*: Proh.t i Cod.*: McNeill. 

ROYER, Frank W., 

Mining Knglnrrr. 

Consoli.ini. .' i K -, ix,, Angelas, 

and Apartudo 805. Mexico. D. F. 
Cable: Royo. Coda: McNeill 

NEILL, James W., 

MrtallurKlat and Mining Knalnrrr. 

1(9 Plerpont B1 . Ball Lake. Utah. 

Paaadena. Cal. Smiling, Cal. 

PURINGTON, Chester W., 

Mining .Engineer. 

62. London Wull, London. E.C. 

Cable: Olem-k Usual Codes. 

SCHMIDT, F. Somrner, 

Mining Engineer. 

507 Newhouia Hulldlng, 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 




Mi nt nt tnul 






RADFORD, Walter J., 

Mining; Engineer. 

Placer Testing a Specialty. 
Breckenridge, Colo. 
Cable: Waterford. 

SCOTT, Robert, 

Inventor and Hull. I. -r of the 
Scott tlulcknllver r'urnace. 

498 S. Eleventh St, 
San Jose. California. 

NICHOLSON, Francis, 

Mining Knalnrrr. 

% Rio Grande Valley Bank & Trust Co., 

Kl Paso. Texas. 
Cahle: Nlckhop. Code: McNeill. 1908. 

RADFORD, William H., 

A II it \ la i Mining. 

2360 Broadway, San Francisco. 
Cable: Bandan. 

SEARS, Stanley C, 

Mining Knglneer. 

Reports. Consultation and Management 

706 Walker Bank Building, 
Salt Lake Clly. Utah. Usual Codes. 

NOWLAND, Ralph C, 

Field Engineer, 

Exploration Department of 

D. C. Jackllng & Associates, 

1800 Hobart Bdg., San Francisco. 

RAY, James C, 

Mining Geologist, 

Microscopic Examination of Ores. 
Palo Alto, Cal. 


Mining Geologlat and Engineer. 

t Blshopgate, London, E.C. 


<E. E. Olcott. C. R. Corning.) 
Mining anil Mrlnllurgleat Knglneera. 

36 Wall St. New York. 

RAYMOND, Robert M., 

Mining Engineer. 

The Exploration Co. of England and 

Mexico, Ltd. Mutual Life Bdg., No. 523, 

Mexico, D. F. 








52 Broadway, 
Cable: Fresharp. 

New York. 

Code: McNeill. 

PAYNE, Henry Mace, 

Connultlng Mining Knglneer. 

Woolworth Bdg., New York. 
Cable: % Goflamdev. Usual Codes. 

RAYMOND, Rossiter W., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 

29 W. 39th St.. New York, P. O. Box 223. 

SIMONDS, Ernest H., 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

616 Crocker Bdg., San Francisco. 




Dredging Engineer-*. 

62, London Wall, 



Cable: PanedreJ. 


: McNeill. 

RICHARDS, Robert H., 

Ore DreMttlng. 

Make careful concentrating tests for the 

design of flow-sheets for difficult ores. 

491 Boylston St.. Boston, Mass. 


Mining Engineer**.. 

25 Madison Ave., New York. 

PEARSE, Arthur L., 

Mining Engineer. 

Worcester House, Walbrook, 

London. E.C. 

Cable: Undermined. Usual Codes. 

RICKARD, Forbes, 

Mining Engineer. 

Equitable Building, Denver. 



via Tol 
Cable: Losarcos. 



de Los Arcos 
ca, Mexico. 




Mining Geologlnt. 

Examination of Oil Lands a Specialty. 
651 Howard St.. San Francisco. 


Editor, The Mining and Scientific Press. 
No professional work undertaken. 

SIZER, F. L., 

Conn ul ting Mining Engineer. 

701 First Nat'l Bank Bdg., 
San Francisco. 

PERKINS & CO., Walter G., 

Metallurgical Engineer-*. 

62, London Wall, 
London, E.C, England. 


Consulting Engineer. 

Mining investigations carefully made 
for responsible Intending Investors. 

165 Broadway, New York. 

SMITH, Charles A., 

Design and Construction Metallurgical 


% The Mining and Metallurgical Club, 

3. London Wall Bdg.. London. E C. 

PERRY, 0. B., 

Mining Engineer. 

120 Broadway, New York. 

ROGERS, Allen Hastings, 

Continuing Mining Engineer. 

201 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 
71 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
Cable: Alhasters. ___ 

SMITH, Howard D., 

Mining Engineer. 

Kohl Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Dlorite. Code: Western Union. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January. 1, 1916 


SMITH, J. D. Audley, 

Mining Engineer. 

Dibbs Chambers, 58 1'itl St . 

Sydney. Australia. 

Cable: Jadunand All Codes. 


.Mining IOmk Iiuht, 

Mgr. Porcupine Crown Mines, Ltd., 

Tlmmlns, Ontario, Canada. 

TOLMAN, Cyrus Fisher. Jr., 

Consulting Economic Geologist. 

P. O. Address: 
Stanford University. Cal. 

SMITH, Reuben Edward, 

Mining Engineer. 
% Lenskole G. M. Co., Bodaibo. Siberia. 
Cat le: Resmith, care Lenzoto. 

Code: McNeill. 1908. 


Mining Kutlm-iT. 
61 Broadway, New York. 


Mining Engineer. 

634 Mills Bdg.. San Francisco. 
Cable: Latite. Code: Bedford McNeill. 


(Franklin W. Smith, Ralph A. Zlesemer.) 

Mining Engineers. 
Bisbee. Ariz. Code: McNeill. 

SYMMES, Whitman, 

Mining Engineer. 

Mgr. Mexican Mine, etc. 
Virginia City, Nevada. 

TURNER, Scott, 

Mini off Engineer. 

Tromso, Norway. 

Cable: Arcticcoal. Code: McNeill, 1908. 

SPILSBURY, E. Gybbon, 

Consulting, Mining and Metallurgical 


4 5 Broadway, New York. 

Cable: Spllroe. 

TALMAGE, Sterling B., 

Mining Geologist and Engineer. 

Geologic Maps, Examinations, Reports. 
200 Vermont Bdg.. 
Salt Lake City. Utah. 

TWEEDY, Geo. A., 

Mining Engineer. 

Rosarlo, Sinaloa. Mexico. 

Gen. Mgr. Minas del Tajo, Rosario. 

Mexican Mines Co.. Bolanos. Jalisco. Mex. 

SPURR, J. Edward, 

Mining Geologist. 

Bullitt Bdg.. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Tonopah Mining Company of Nevada. 

TELLAM, Alfred, 

Metallurgist and Ore Dresser. 

1. London Wall Building, 
London, B.C. 
Code: A. B. C. Fifth Edition 


Mining Engineer and Geologist. 

534 Confederation Life Bdg., 

Toronto, Canada. 

Cable: Tyrrell. Usual Codes. 

STANFORD, Richard B., 

Mlnlns Engineer. 

Room 206. Metropolitan Bank Bdg., 

New Orleans, La. 

Cable: Stanford. Code: McNeill. 

STEBBINS, Elwyn W., 

Mining Engineer. 

819 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 


700 Union Oil Bdg.. Los Angeles. 

Ill Broadway, New York. 

6. London Wall Bdg., London. E.C. 

Cable: Duntho. Code: McNeill. 

THOMAS, Kirby, 

Mining Engineer. 

Examination, Valuation and Explora- 
tion of Mining Properties. 
120 Broadway. New York. 


Geologists and Mining Engineers. 

Examination, Purchase and Manage- 
ment of Petroleum and Mining Proper- 

Tulsa, Okla. 

Billings, Mont. 

STEEL, Donald, 

Mining Engineer and Geologist. 

Palo Alto, Cal. 

THOMSON, S. 0., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

120 Broadway. New York. 


Mining Engineer. 

Osborne & Chappel, Ipoh, Perak, 
Malay States. 

Code: McNeill. 


Mining Engineer. 

% E. T. McCarthy, 
10, Austin Friars. London, E.C. 

THORNE, W. E., Mining Engineer. 

% Lenskole Gold Mining Co. 
Nadezhdtnsky, Irkoutsk Govt., Siberia. 
Cable: Wethorne. Bodaibo. 

Code: McNeill. 

von BERNEWITZ, M. W., 


420 Market St., San Francisco. 

STEVENS, Blarney, 

Mining Engineer. 

Temascaltepec, Est. de Mexico, 
% Lane Rlncon Mines. Inc. 

THORNHILL, E. Bryant, 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

Hydro-Metallurgy of Mercury. 
Gray Summit, Missouri. 


Consulting Mining Engineer. 

42 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Porphyry. 

STINES, Norman C, EnSi^r. 

Polefskoy, Mramorskaya Station. 
Perm Government, Russia. 
Cable: Normstines. Ekaterlnberg. 

Code: McNeill .hoth editions) 


Consulting Engineer. 

Egypt House, 36-38 New Broad St, 
London, E.C. 

TIBBY, Benj. F., 

Mining Geologist * Petrologlat. 

Microscopic Analyses of Rocks and 
Ores. Photomicrographs. 

Petrological Reports. 

Geological Reports. 

419 Judge Bdg., Salt Lake City, Utah. 


Mining Engineer. 

14 Copthall Ave., London, E.C. 
Cable: Natchekoo. Code: McNeill. 

WEBBER, Morton, 

Mine Valuation and Development. 

39 Cortland St., New York. 
Cable: Orebacks. 

STORMS, William H., 

Mining Geologist and Engineer. 

Mining Methods a Specialty. 
2437 Hilgard Ave., Berkeley, Cal* 

TIMMONS, Colin, 

Mining Engineer. 

Angels Camp. California. 

WEEKES, Frederic R., 

Mining Engineer. 

71 Broadway New York. 

STRAUSS, Lester W., 

Engineer of Mines. 

Casllla 514, Valparaiso. Chile. S A. 
Cable: Lestra- Valparaiso. Code:McNelll. 


Salisbury House. London. E.C. 
Cable: Tltcomb. Code: McNellL 

WEIGALL, Arthur R., 

Mining Engineer. 

% H. Collbran. 253 Caxton House, 
Westminster. London. S.W. 

January l, 1916 

MINING and Scientifc I'Kl SS 


WESTERVELT, William Young, 

i >>n. lilting MIdIiik KuHlurrr. 

i: Madlaon A\.> (Madlaon Square But) 

Cable: Caaaa Codf: McNeill. 


>1 1 til taic KiiKlnrrr. 

nante] Hunk Bdtf 
Ball Lain City, 


M. .lui ii |, til Milling CnKlftrrr. 
Mill Tt'MtK. Mnn- 
aBomi-iit. Bpecl&l or»-handlln« i 
Victor. Coloi 

WILLIS, Charles F., 

Director, Slate Bureau of Mines. 
University of Arizona, Tucson, Arli 

WISEMAN, Philip, 

.Mining; Knitlnrcr. 
1110 Holllniswortb Bag., Lot Ancalat. 
Cable: Filwlicmu. Codea:W.U„MoNetll, 

WRIGHT, Charles WiU, 

Milling I lltlnr.r. 

Enffurtoau, Sardinia, Italy. 
v7rl(ht Arbus. Code: HoNa.ll. 

WINCHELL, Horace V., 

■ ••iiiiiiiitiic ■*! i ii 1 1* li Goolfrhrt. 
826 Flint Natlonal-Soo Line Bdg.. 

Miiiiu-a|>u!ls, Minn. 
Cable: Racewin. 

Hamilton. Boauohamp, vVoodworth, Inc 


419 The Embarcadero, Ban Francisco. 


Mining Kaulnrrr. 

Room 3533. 120 Broadwuy. New York. 

Cable: lkonii Code: Mi- N, ill 



51st and Telegraph Avenue. Oakland. Cal. 

Established In 1867. 

12 months' course In PRACTICAL ENGINEERING. 

Mining. Mechanical, Civil or Electrical. 

Send for catalogue. 


Van Nenn Ave. and l'oat St., San Franclaeo. 

Special work may be taken In Assaying, Cyanldlng. Metal- 
lurgy, Drafting, Surveyng and General Engineering. 
Kor Information nililrenn C. E. Ill: Mil, Aut. Supt. 


Ideally located In the heart of the Rocky Mountains. 

Complete courses In Mining. Metallurgy, and Geology. 

For catalog and Information address 



An Institution of Technology and Engineering. Full 
degrees, low cost, fine climate, new equipment, accessible 
to mines and smelters. Write for catalogue 
FAYETTE A. JONES. Prmldent. Soeorro. New Mexico. 


Located In the Lake Superior mining district. Mines and. 
mills accessible for college work. For Year Book and 
Booklet of Views, address President or Secretary, 
Houghton, Michigan. 


College of Mines, Seattle, Wnahlngton. 

Coal and Metal Mining. Ore Dressing. Metallurgy, 
Special Courses for Mining Men, January to April. 


A department of the University of Missouri. Established 
In 1871. Four-year courses in Mining Engineering, Met- 
allurgy. Civil Engineering, General Science. 

Address: Missouri School of Mines. Rolla. Missouri. 



Second Edition 172 Pages |1 Postpaid 

Published and for sale by 

MINING and Scientific PRESS, 420 Market Street. San Francisco 

Cyanide Practice— 1910-1913 

Edited by M. W. von BERNEWIT2 

732 pages 7x9 in. 140 illustrations Cloth, $3.00 postpaid 

The leading articles upon current cyanide practice 
which appeared in the Mining and Scientific Press 
during the period from July, 1910, to January, 1913, 
have been reprinted in this volume. It contains 205 
articles under 156 titles. For convenience they have 
been classified and grouped under the following 

Historical. Chemistry of Cyanidation. Special 
Problems. Crushing. Concentration and Treatment 
of Concentrates. Roasting. Agitation. Decantation. 
Filtration. Precipitation and Clean-up. Disposal of 
Residue. Measurement and Estimation of Tonnages. 
Recent Cyanide Practice by Districts. Descriptions 
of Notable Mills. Review of Progress by Years. 


We still have a few copies of Rickard's 'Recent 
Cyanide Practice,' which was the first volume of The 
Cyanide Series. It is a book of permanent value, 
made notable because of the prominence of the con- 
tributors; the list of which includes such names as 
F. L. Bosqui, R, Gilman Brown, L. M. N. Bullock, 
Charles Butters, G. A. Denny, A. E. Drucker, E. M. 
Hamilton, Francis J. Hobson, Bertram Hunt, Alfred 
James, H. Forbes Julian, A. P. Kennedy, Mark R. 
Lamb, E. H. Nutter, T. A. Rickard, E. A. H. Tays, 
Carlos W. Van Law. 

With every cash order for von Bernewitz 'Cyanide 
Practice, 1910-1913,' we will give free a copy of 'Re- 
cent Cyanide Practice,' provided you will pay the 
carriage charges. Send us $3.15 and we will send 
both books. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS, 420 Market St., San Francisco 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1, 1916 

Assayers, Chemists, and Ore-Testing Works 


Cole & Co. 

Hamilton. Beauchamp 
& Woodworth. Inc. 

Smith, Emery & Co. 


Ledoux & Co.. Tnc. 


Critchett & Ferguson. 


Atkins & McRae. 

Hanks, Abbot A. 
James Co., The Geo. A. 

Frost, Oscar J. 
Richards. J. W. 
Zisch, J. H. 


Coghiil. Will H. 


Bardwell. Alonzo F. 
Bird-Cowan Co. 

Baverstock & Payne. 

Luckhardt Co., C. A. 



Co., The. 

Gibson. Walter L. 

Perez, Richard A 

Young. H. W. 

Petrological Laboratory. 

Officer & Co., R. H. 


Assayers. Chemists, and Metallurgists. 

Control and Umpire Annoys. 

Careful Analytical Chemists. 

616 South Olive St.. Los Angeles, Cal. 

BARDWELL, Alonzo F. t 

(Successor to Bettles & Bardwell.) 
Custom Assayer and Chemist. 

158 S. W. Temple St, Salt Lake. Utah. 
Ore Shippers' Agent. 

GENERAL ENGINEERING CO., THE, J. m. callow, President. 


159 Plerpont Avenue, Salt Lake City. Utah. 
Design and Erection of all Classes of Reduction Plants. 
The 3rd edition of our Ore Testing Bulletin Is now ready for mailing. We shall 
be pleased to sent It to you upon request. 


1 iiiliisi rhil ChemlntN and Anaayen*. 

Technical and Chem. Analyses of Ores. 

Mln. r;ils. and All Organic Materials. 

223 W. First St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 


Charles S. Cowan, Manager. 
Custom Assayers and Chemist*. 

Agents for Ore Shippers. 
160 S. W. Temple St., Salt Lake. Utah. 



Flotation of Copper. Lead, Zinc, and Other Minerals. 
Tests Made on Lots of 1 lb. up to 5 Tons. 

Laboratory and Office: 419 The Embarcadero, San Francisco, Cal. 
Telephone: Sutter 5266. Cable address: Hambeau. Codes: West. Union, Bed. McNeill. 

COGHILL, Will H., 

Ore Tenting: Laboratory. 

Temporary address: Corvallis, Oregon. 



Supervision of Ore Sampling. Technical Analysis, Cement Testing. 
No. 28-32 Belden Place (off Bush near Kearny), San Francisco. 

cole & CO., 

Aimrera, Chemists, Ore Buyers. 

Shippers' Representatives. 
Box BB, Douglas. Ariz. 

LEDOUX & CO., Inc., 


Independent samplers at the 

Representatives at all Refineries and S 

Office and Laboratory: 99 John 


port of New York. 

melters on Atlantic 

Street. New York. 



Assayers and Chemists. 

El Paso. Texas. 
Umpire and Controls a Specialty. 


(A. H. Ward, Harold C. Ward.) 


Samplng of Ores at Smelters. 53 Stevenson St., San Francisco. 

Telephone, Kearny 5951. 

FROST, Oscar J., 


420 18th St., Denver. 

SMITH, EMERY & CO., (Ore Testing Plant, Los Angeles.) 


Represent Shippers at Smelters. Test Ores, and Design Mills. 
651 Howard Street, San Francisco. 245 So. Los Angeles Street, Los Angeles. 

GIBSON, Walter L., 

Successor to 

Falkenau Annoying Co., 

Assay Office and Analytical Laboratory, 

School of Assaying. 

824 Washington St.. Oakland. 
Phone 8929. 
Umpire assays and supervision of sam- 
pling. Working tests of ores, analyses. 
Investigations of metallurgical and 
technical processes. 

Professor L. Falkenau. General Man- 
ager and Consulting Specialist. 

HANKS, Abbot A., 

Chemist and Assayer. 

Established 1866. 

630 Sacramento St., San Francisco. 

Control and Umpire Assays, Supervision 

of Sampling at Smelters. ( 
Cable: Hanx. Code: W. U. and Bed. McN. 

OFFICER & CO., R. H., 

A.. aver, and Chemist.. 

169 South West Temple Street. 

Salt Lake City. Otah. 

PEREZ, Richard A., 

Asiayer, Chemist and MetallnrBTl.t. 

(Established 1895.) 
120 N. Main St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 

YOUNG, H. W., 

Chemist and Assayer. 

Prompt attention to samples by mail. 
Box 348. Reno, Nev. 


W. Harold TomHnson, 

Swathmore, Pa. 

Petrographic work. Rock sections made. 

Microscopic examinations of rocks. 

ZISCH, J. H., 

(Successor to Howard E. Burton.) 

605 Harrison Ave.. Leadville, Colo. 

Specialty: Rare Minerals. 


Assayer and Chemist. 

118 Nineteenth St.. Denver. 
Ore Shippers' Agent. Write for terms. 
Representatives at all Colorado smelters. 


500 PAGES, H POSTPAID. Mining and Sclentltlc Prtu 

'T»HE REPRESENTATIVE ENGINEERS of the mining profession 
■*- use these pages to keep their names and correct addresses before 
the public. It is the most effective means of obtaining publicity among 
metal miners and metallurgists and a dignified medium for the use of 
Engineers and Assayers. 

Put your name among the names of the leaders. 

January l 1918 

MINING ami Sciential PRI SS 

Flotation of Gold and Silver Ores 


YOU CAN itinn ronei'iimitcx cnntniniiu; onlj 

-line and rymikling. 

YOU CANNOT ' Rotntion concentrates containing 
■Uvcv "»l> or diver and l-"I<I bj roosting and cyankiing. 

Thf\ I1IUM In- -Inrllol. 



American Sled & Wire Company 'n 

Trenton Bleichcrl System 

Aerial Tramways 

VO matter what the cootonr of the ground, we 
•*■ will construe! ;i tramway thai will transfer 
material at minimum expense; and no grades are 
t.H> strep to surmount; no rivers or valleys too 
wide to cross; anil no grading, bridges or viaducts 
of any kind are required. There is practically no 
limit to the length of these tramways. 

Send for complete descriptive catalogue of 
t nun ways in use. 

American Steel & Wire Company 

Chicago N«-\. York Clrvrlund I'ii t-1. u r tli Worcealer Denver 

Expori Representative : U. S, Steel Product* Co., New York 

Pacific Coait Representative: U. S. Sleel Producta Co. 

Sao Frandaco Loa Anjjcle* Portland Scanle 

New Perkins Hotel 

Fifth and Washington Streets, 
Portland, Ore. 

In Heart of Business and Shopping District. Location 
and environment most favorable to Mining Men. 

European Plan 

Rates : Without bath, $1.00 and up; with bath, $1.50 
and up. 

Moderate priced restaurant in connection. Automo- 
bile bus meets all trains. 

L. Q. SWETLAND, President and Manager 



There is a Deming Pump 
to meet your every pump- 
ing need most efficiently. 
Made in all types (verti- 
cal or horizontal, station- 
ary or portable), and for 
operation by any power. 

A statement of your pumping specifications will enable 
our experts to recommend to you the proper pump. 

The Deming Co., Salem, Ohio 

General Distributing Houses : 
San Francisco, Cal., - - Norman B. Miller. 503 Market Street 

Denver, Colo Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Supply Co. 

Chicago. Dl.. - - - Henion & Hubbell. 217-221 North Jefferson St. 
New York City. - - - - Ralph B. Carter Co.. 152 Chambers St. 

Braun Universal 

Laboratory Sampler 

For accurately and impartially 
sampling dry material — chem- 

I icals in pulverized or crystal 
form, ores, coke, coal, grains, 
fertilizers, and similar material 

"■ MilMAiMH 



Manufacturers of Laboratory Labor Saving Machinery 

Specialists in Laboratory Equipment and Testing Apparatus 

Dealers in Laboratory Glassware and Chemicals 

The prominent features are — 

The separators do not have to be re- 
moved for cleaning — 

It is practically dust proof — 

It is thoroughly and quickly cleaned — 

It delivers an accurate and impartial 
sample not obtainable by hand sampling — 

It eliminates the personal equation. 

Shipping weight, 220 lbs. Price, net $100.00 
Ask for Catalog 50M. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1. 1916 

JEnsUneers' Instruments 


3 Supplies 




were judged at the Paris. Chicago and Saint Louis 
Expositions to be the best in the world because of 
their high heat conductivity. 

They are manufactured by us, and each is stamped 
"Denver F. C. Co." 

Why don't you Judge them for yourself? 

It merely takes a request for shipment. 

The Denver Fire Clay Company 

Denver, Colo. 

The Roessler & Hasslacher 
Chemical Company 

100 William Street, New York 

Works; Perth Amboy, N. J. 


98/99 Per cent. 

Cyanide of Sodium 

128/130 Per Cent. 






Chemicals for Recovery Processes 

Borax Borax Glass 

Lead Acetate 

Zinc Shavings Zinc Dust 



Importers San FranClSCO,Cal. Exporters 


H> CHI \<- ^ I « %XO 
IIIUMtrnteil. Octnvo. -JI7 pages. Clotb, 94.00. 

A mi I work in English by a Chinese outhor is 

unusual, but the author's loi 

in England and other parts of Europe have Cam Hie 
him with ihe language, win i. concerning 

Antlmo ral years enabled U r. 

Wang to write authoritatively. 

O INTENT - toi v ol Uittmony. Th ■ 

of Antimony. Ti ■'->' of Antimony. The Geo- 

s. The Metallurgy of 
ony. The Antlmonj Pi i paratlona and '' 

Th-- Analysis Of Anlin. OUnds. The Prodi 

and Valuation ..f Arm nj Ore. The Principal Mines 

and Smelting Works of Antimony, index. 

For Sale >>> 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


W% ^\^\ ¥f C!* Our catalogue of tech- 
MJ^J^Jm w\3 nical books makes the 
finding of any particular one an easy task. 
We will be glad to send you a copy. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS. 420 Market St.. San Francisco 




• arsons 


♦ U.S.A. ♦ 


Tapes and 

Backed by a record of 26 years Rules 
of dependable service. 

th e /ufxfk Pule fio. % Z\^' 


For twenty years metallurgists and 
assayers have looked upon Thompson 
Balances and Weights as the acme of 

Precision. Made in a style and size 
or every purpose. 

Write for catalog. 

Denver. Colo. 


— r^L 

, A ■• 

January l 1916 

MINING and Sciential I'Kl SS 










Safety, Capacity, Durability, are the elements that govern 

the design of the Lidgerwood Hoist. 

Every part is designed and built to perform its duty when 

the complete hoist is working at maximum capacity. 

Correct design with perfection in every detail insures the 

success of the completed hoist. 

More than 37,000 Steam and Electric Hoists built and used. 


Philadelphia Pittsburgh Chicago Seattle 

N. B. Llvermore 6c Co,, San Francisco and Los Angeles, Cal 

96 Liberty Street, NEW YORK 

London, Eng. 

McKiernan-Terry Drill Co. 


Rock Drills, Hammer Drills, Core Drills, 
Pile Hammers, Atlas Jacks 



Wtite tor Catalog and Data. 


733 First National Bank Bldg., Denver, Coto. Cable Address "Dorr" 

17 Battery Place. New York City. N. Y. Cable Address "Dorrclass" 

16 South 8treet. London. England. Cable Address "Cyandormac" 

Codes: Bedford McNeill and Western Union. 

O roth i? & Carter, Mexico City. General Agents for Mexico. 

N. Guthrfdffe. Ltd.. Sydney, General Agents for Australia. 





Mining Engineers' Examination and Report Book 


In Two Part* $ Porttpnld 

OART I is a handbook covering examination of and reporting upon mineB 
1 and mining property. Part II is a skeleton report, serving three pur- 
poses: First an outline of a model report; Second, a field notebook or 
Third, a blank form on which the final report may be submitted. 

PuliIlHhed .-iinl For Sale by 27 

MINING and Scientific PRESS, 420 Market St., San FrancIflCO 



Yuba Ball Tread Tractors Yuba Centrifugal Pumps 

WORKS: Marysville, Cal. SALES OFFICE: 433 California Si.. San Francisco, Cal. 






604 Mission St., San Francisco, Cal. 





Bucyrus Company 


NATIONAL TANK & PIPE CO. Portland. ore 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1. 1916 

United States Smelting, 
Refining & Mining Co. 

55 Congress St., Boston, Mass. 


Custom Lead and Copper Smellers and Custom 
Lead and Zinc Concentrator at Needles. Cal. Ad- 
dress: Needles. Oil., and 1504 Hobart Building. 582 
Market Street. San Francisco. Cal. 


Custom Copper Smelter <'t Kennett, Cal. Address: 
Kennett. Cal. 


Custom Lead and Copper Smelters and Custom 
Lead and Zinc Concentrating Mills at Midvale. Utah. 
Address: Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Custom Zinc Smelters at Iola, Altoona and La 
Harpe. Kansas. Address. 413 Republic Bdg., Kan- 
sas City, Mo. 


Custom Cyanide Mill at Gold Roads. Arizona. 


Custom Copper Smelter and Electrolytic Copper 
Reflnerv at Chrome, _N. J. Electrolytic _Lead Re- 

finery at Grasselll. Ind. 
New York City, N. T. 

Address: 42 Broadway. 


Mines and Mills at Paehuca and Real del Monte. 
Address: Paehuca. Hidalgo, Mexico. 


For examination and Purchase of Metal Mines. 
Address: 5j Congress St.. Boston. Mass.; 42 Broad- 
way. New York. X. Y.: 1604 Hobart Bldg.. 5S2 Market 
St., San Francisco. Cal.: Newhouse Bldg.. Salt Lake 
City. Utah; Edltlclo La Mutua 111. Mexico. D. F. 


42 Broadway. New York City. N. Y. 


The Consolidated Mining 

and Smelting Co., of 

Canada, Ltd. 


Purchasers of All Classes of Ores. Producers of 

Fine Gold and Silver, Base Bullion, Copper Matte, 

Pig Lead, Lead Pipe, Bluestone, and Electrolytic 

Bearing Metal 

Offices, Smelling and Refining Dept., Trail, British Columbia 


Fully protected by patentN 

Will Enable You to Save All Values Reduced to Solution 

and Recover the Solvent at Minimum Cost. 

We are pioneers in the field. We developed the only 

really successful process, and we are still 

The Leaders in Filter Design 

Send your Specifications or Submit 
Your Problem to \he 

IVIoore Kilter Company 

113 Droadnny. New York Clly. D. S. A. 

"Morefllter" New York 

Bedford McNeill or 
any Standard Code 



Ores, Concentrates, Cyanide Product 




Address correspondenee to 



International Smelting Co. 

New York Office: 42 Broadway 

Purchasers of 

Gold, Silver, Copper and 
Lead Ores 



Rarltan Copper Works. Perth Amboy. N. J. 

International Lead Refining Company. East Chicago. Indiana. 

6C1 Kearns Building, Salt Lake City. Utah. 

■J I. 

Beer, Sondheimer & Co., inc. 

61 BROADWAY, New York City 

_, . Zinc Ores, Concentrates, 

BUVerS Of Copper Ores, Matte, Bul- 
lion, Mixed Ores, Etc. 

QollorQ nf Spelter, Copper, Zinc Dust, 
seller i> U) Q u j c k s ji ver) Etc. 

Own Smelting and Refining Works 


Flotation Cell Bottoms 


( Hir fH-rlV'Cted Cell Bottoms accomplish 

The Proper Distribution of Air 

within the cell. This has been demon- 
strated by the larpe number now in use. 

Made Up in Any Size Prompt Delivery Send us a Sample Order 


Felt Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Januarj I, 1916 

MINING ..nd ScMotitu I'Kl SS 


The Minerals Separation Flotation Process 

As Invented, Perfected and Owned by Minerals Separation, Ltd., 
is a General Method of Separating Sulphide Minerals from Gangue. 


This U particularly important at the prnrni time, when the European war hai ihut off luch a lar{e part of the cyanide supply. 

No Una Owner nr Ulna Manager can Afford to lRnorv the Developments Which Have Been Made in This Method 
of Ore Treatment 

MINKUAI.S BBPARATION, LTD., owns thirty-els patents for the United States alone. OOverlnj Flotation 
Processes and Apparatus, all of which are controlled by the Syndicate. There are also a considerable number of 
applications pending. Tins.' patent! and applications cover practically everything of value In the art, and Include 
those of Fundamental importance. 

TIIK DNITBD BTATB8 BUPREME COURT has granted our petition and will review the derision of the Ninth 
Circuit Court of Appeals in the case Of Minerals Separation, Ltd., and Minerals Separation American Syndicate, Ltd., 
versus .lames M. Hyde. 

Mine Owners. Metallurgists, and Othe/s Interested In Preventing Mineral Losses and Reducing the Cost of 
Treatment are Invited to Semi Their Inquiries to 

Minerals Separation American Syndicate (1913), Ltd. 

Sole Agents Messrs. Beer, Sondheimer 6 Co.. 61 Broadway, NEW YORK 
Chief Engineer: E. H. Nutter, Merchants Exchange Bldg., SAN FRANCISCO 

Notice Is hereby given that no one except our Chief Engineer and the agents named above is authorized to act 
for or represent us, or to Introduce Minerals Separation process or apparatus into the United States, Canada, 
and Mexico. A testing laboratory Is maintained in San Francisco for the purpose of testing ores by flotation, and 
samples sent to our Chief Engineer there will be tested at minimum expense to prospective licensees. No tests made 
by unauthorized persons can be depended upon In determining the amenability of an ore to Minerals Separation Process. 




Chrome. N T . J., and Graselli, Ind. 

Electrolytic Copper and Lead Refiners 

Sole Agents for Speller of American Zinc Lead & Smelting Co. 

Smelters at Caney. Kan., and Dearing, Kan. 

ATKINS, KROLL & CO., San Francisco 








Buyers of Quicksilver and Platinum, also Ores of Antimony, 

Bismuth. Molybdenum, Tungsten, Vanadium, Zinc, etc. 


Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Company 

Gull Point, Fla. 
F. E. MARINER, President 

The Empire Zinc Company 

Buys ZinC Ores Address our Office 

Or write to p»#\o e t»l J 

h. l. wiluams w. e. henry 703 Symes Bldg. 

IOI9Ke.n»Bds:.. 927 Old N.l - I Bank Bds.. r. r- I 

Sail Lake City. Utah Spokane. W«ih. Denver, Colo. 


Edited by T. A. RICKARD 

A compilation of the best and most trustworthy articles on 
the subject by authors that are leaders in this particular 
branch of metallurgy. 51 

350 Pages PUBLISHED BY $2 Postpaid 

MIXING and Scientific PRESS, 420 Market St., Snn Frnnclnco 

The Kelly Filter Press 


Write for Information. 

207 Felt lids.. Salt Lake City, Utah. 

E. E. Lungwitz, 303-E. Hudson Terminal Bldg., New York 

Granby Mining and Smelting Company 

Lead Smelter Zinc Smelter and Acid i'lant Zinc Smelter 

Granby, Mo. East St. Louis, 111. Neodesha, Runs. 

St. Louis, Missouri —Address— New York. N. Y. 

Suite 1710 3rd Nat'l Bank Bldg. Robt. W. Conklin, 166 Broadway 

Smelters of 

"Granby Brand" Pig Lead and Spelter, and 

Manufacturers of Sulphuric Acid. 

Buyers of High-Grade Carbonate. Silicate and Sulphide Zinc Ore. 

For propositions on ore, address St. Louis office. 



Pine Oils— Pine Tar Oils— Coal Tar Oils— Wood Creosotes 

General Naval Stores Co., 175 Front St., New York 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1. 1!U6 


Dryers - - - No. 16 
Screening • - No. 27 
Drop Forged Chain No. 32 
Mining Machinery - No. 41 
Crushers - - - No. 42 
Skip Hoists - - No. 43 


Reduce Your Handling Costs 

Our Automatic 
Skip Hoists 

reduce the cost of 
handling materials lo 
a minimum. 

We make fhe larg- 
est variety of Mech- 
anical Dryers in (he 


SO Church St., New York City 




Iron Cements 

Positively stop all leaks of steam, 
water, fire or oil, in iron, steel or 
concrete. They are easy to apply, 
harden! quickly and make perma- 
nent repairs, proved by years in use. 

Every engineer should have a 
copy of our instruction book. 

Smooth -On Mfg. Co. 

Jersey City, N. J., U. S. A. 

Send for New 
No.15 Illustrated Instruction Book 

/ Sand and Slime Tables 
] Screens— Jigs — Classi- 
( fiers — Ore Feeders, &c. 

Write lor the James Bulletins 




15 Runyon SI. 

_ DEWE Y, STRONG ft CO. ^ 

^ PATENTS * * 

' 911 Crocker Building. San Francisco ' 

established io0o 



Rock Breakers 

Blake Pattern : Dodge Pattern 

Manufactured by 


Send for Catalog. 






Electric Mining Locomotives 

Switches. Frogs, and Equipment. 





Moat extensive and successful manufac- 
turer*. Old plates replated— made equal 
to new, 


1349-51 Mission St, San Francisco E.G.DENMSTON, Prop. 

Get our prices. Catalog sent. 

Telephone Market 2916. 

Turbine PUMPS Centrifu * al 

Where the service is hardest you will find the Jackson. 

Write for Catalog No. tS-x 

Byron Jackson Iron Works, San Francisco 

West Australian Mining Practice 

By E. Davenport Cleland. 268 pages, 110 illustrations. 
14 folding plates. Cloth. $8.00. 

A description of the mining methods followed by the 
principal gold mines of Western Australia. 

For Sale by 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


.I<inuur\ 1 1916 

MIMV. „„d Scientin. I'Kl SS 

A Slime Table with the PROVEN 
highest efficiency 

Constantly being verified by users in every mining district 
in the World. Ask us to send you our customers' opinions. 

Bnlll in both siuffl,. iiti.l Dutible Dock Types. 

The Deister CONCENTRATOR Company 


Manufacturer* of Deister and Overstrom Tables 

DsnvebOfficb: 1718-1720 California 8t. FUn Francisco Office: 75 Fremont St, 

To New York by Rail and Ocean 

Through fare from Son Francisco 
same as All-Rail and includes 
Berth and Meals on Steamer 

"Sunset Limited" — 74 Hours to New Orleans 

Leaves Third Street Station 5.00 P. M 

Connects at New Orleans 


Southern Pacific's Ocean Liners 

Sailing to New York Wednesdays and Saturdays 

The Marvelous "APACHE TRAIL" Auto Trip, Phoenix to Globe, 

Hade by DetOUT Maricopa to Bowie, Arizona. 

For Fares and Berths Ask Agents. 



They Are Valuable 

Back Copies qf MINING and Scientific PRESS 

We will pay fifteen cents each for any of the following issues: 

August 1, 1914 November 7, 1914 

September 12, 1914 November 14, 1914 

We will send you payment in stamps or give you credit on 
your subscription account, just as you desire. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

420 Market Street, San Francisco 

No. 3 Mill partly assembled. Capacity 80 to 120 
tons per 21 hours. Weight 82.000 lbs. H.P. 18 

The Rocks of Ages are easily 
pulverized in a Denver Quartz Mill 

The mill that is trouble proof and fool proof. 

Proven maximum capacity and minimum cost 
of repairs. 

No bolts or nuts in the working parts of the 
mill to come loose and cause trouble. Shut- 
downs mean lost time and lost time is lost 

The ideal mill for amalgamation and concentration. 
Can lx' installed for % the cost of stamps and 
operated with y, the power and cost of upkeep. 

Write lor Catalog No. 12 

The Denver Quartz Mill & Crusher Co. 

216-217 Colorado Building, Denver, Colorado, U. S. A. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1, 1916 



1. ratline manufacturer* and denier* In mn- 
elilu*-ry, "upplle*. and Instrument* arc listed 
here. The*e product * nre recommended for 
your use. since they have been proven de- 
pendable. If you do not find what you want. 
write or wire to MINING and Scientific PRESS 
SERVICE and we will Immediately ndvl*c you. 

Acetylene Lamps 

Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Juetrite Mfg. Co. 

ChalmerB & Williams. 
Dorr Cyanide Machy. Co. 
General Filtration Co., Inc. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Air Brake* 

Alnsworth & Sons, Wm. 

Aninleomated Plates 

Lane Mill & Machy. Co. 
Movie Eng. & Equip. Co., 

E H 
San Francisco Plating Wks. 

Assayers' and Chemist*' 
See page 2R- 

Assayers' and ChcniUt*' 

Braun Corporation. The. 
Braun-Knecht-Helmann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Balance* and Weight* 

Alnsworth & Sons, Wm. 
Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Thompson Balance Co. 

Ball Mills 

(See "Mills") 


Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 


Diamond Rubber Co., The. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Goodrich Co.. The B. F. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Robins Conveying Belt Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

Boiler Graphite 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Union Iron Works Co. 

Brick, Fire 

Atkins. Kroll & Co. 
Braun Corporation. The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Briquet tine; Machinery 

Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

ft Gottfried Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Bru*hr», Motor and tienerntor 

Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph. 
General Electric Co. 
Western Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Electric & 
Mfg. Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Bucyrus Company. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Hendv Iron Works, Joshua. 
I,eschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Robins Conveying Belt Co. 
Union Construction Co. 
Watt Mining Car Wheel Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Burners, OH 

Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Helmann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Cableways. Suspension 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co.. A. 
LJdgerwood Mfg. Co. 
Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 
Sauerman Bros. 
U. S. Steel Products Co. 


Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Hendy iron Works. Joshua. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Union Iron Works Co. 
Wei Iman-Seaver- Morgan Co. 

Carbons, Borts, and Diamonds 

Atkins. Kroll & Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Watt Mining Car WTw I Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 


Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Lunkenheimer Co. 

Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 

B. II. 
Onion Construction Co. 
Union Iron Works Co. 
Yuba Construction Co. 

Bucyrus Company. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Robins Conveying Belt Co. 

Braun Corporation. The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Roessler & Hasslacner Chem- 
ical Co. 

Chilean Mills 

(See "Mills") 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Dorr Cyanide Machy. Co. 
James Ore Concentrator Co. 
Movie Eng. & Equip. Co., 

E. H. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Power & Mining Machv. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Clutches* Friction 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Meese & Gottfried 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Conl Cutters 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
McKlernan-Terry Drill Co. 

Coal Handling Machinery 

Bartlett & Snow Co., C. O. 
]'...lge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Robins Conveying Belt Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Compressors, Air 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
General Electric Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
International Smelting Co. 
Laidlaw-Dunn-Gordon Co. 
McKie man -Terry Drill Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Union Iron Works Co. 

Concentrator Belta 

Chalmers & Williams. 
Diamond Rubber Co., The. 
Goodrich Co., The B. F. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers <& Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
1 telster Concentrator Co. 
ESccleston Machinery Co. 
Hendrle ft Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
James Ore Concentrator Co. 
Lane Mill & Machy. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Minerals Sep. Am. Syn., Ltd. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Union Iron Works Co. 

Concrete Mixers 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Cameron Steam Pump Wks. 

A. S. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Prescott Steam Pump Co., 

Fred M. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Power AL- Mining Machv. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Union Iron Works Co. 

Conveyor*, Belt or Screw 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Goodrich Co., The B. F. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Robins Conveying Belt Co. 
Union Construction Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 


Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bacon, Earle C. 

Bartlett & Snow Co., C. O. 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Denver Quartz Mill & Crush- 
er Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

International Steam Pump 

Johnson Engineering Wks. 

Lane Mill & Machy. Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 

E. H. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Straub Mfg. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Union Iron Works Co. 
Vulcan Iron Works. 


Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Cyanide Plants and Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Butters & Co., Ltd., Charles. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Dorr Cyanide Machy. Co. 
Hamilton, Beauchamp, 

Wood worth. Inc. • 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Kelly Filter Press Co. 
Moore Filter Co. 
Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co.. 

E. H. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Redwood Manufacturers Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Union Iron Works Co. 

Dew at ere rs 

Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Dorr Cyanide Machy. Co. 
General Filtration Co., Inc. 
Moore Filter Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 


Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Movie Eng. & Equip. Co., 

E. H. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Drafting Material 

Alnsworth & Sons, Wm 

Buff & Buff Co. 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 

Dragline Excavators 

Bucyrus Company. 
Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 
Marion Steam Shovel Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Sauerman Bros. 
Union Construction Co. 

Bucyrus Company. 
Marion Steam Shovel Co, 
Xew York Engineering Co. 
Union Construction Co. 
Union Iron Works Co. 
Yuba Construction Co. 

Dredging Machinery 

American Locomotive Co. 

Bucyrus Company. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Marlon Steam Shovel Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Robins Conveying Belt Co. 
Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 
Union Construction Co. 
Union Iron Works Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Yuba Construction Co. 

Drill Hole Compass 

White, E. E. 

(Continued on pagf 44* 

January I. 1 *» 1 •• 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

I : 


n iiiiimnmiriTTiriimnTTTrmTiiiTrT 1 r • a 

Taylor Spiral Riveted Pipe 

346 Pounds Prnture 

Incaoro Mines, near LaPaz, Bolivia, S. A. 

"Tha h. hi. tin 

thmua ol Panama, inln ai Mollmilu 

1 ■• during Hi.- Inland Journey, ending a 

or 110 mttaa on the back! ol muloa In all. • 
'"an twonl ,.r eaoh ihlpmenL yet the material 

nrae ao well packed, and waa Itiell »•> aiihmiintiui (particu- 
larly the Forced Bleel I limn.. i, ilmi there wan no i..»« by 
bi ■ .i K 

Pipe and > r promptneei in •hipping, i can only 

trrorda a great I nyone in a dlatunl country 

and i cannot recommend n t<"> highly. 
"(Signed) D BRICKBR, Oen. Mgr„ 
Gattlojua and Spacfal prion ■■» lean "Inoaoro U 


Chicago, III. 



In several plants during the past year. 
elusions can be Inferred from this fact: 

The following con- 

The equipment In umc did nut jclve Hntlnfnctlon. 
The l.nne HIM niUNt have been thoroughly Invent iKnted. 
The Investigation nitiMt hnve rthou-n the Muperlorlty of the 

No sane man would change his equipment until he had 
received positive proof that it would lower his cost of opera- 
tion, increase his extraction, or improve his plant In some 
way, therefore It Is evident that we were able to conclusively 
demonstrate the superior worth of the L»ane Mill for the 
particular work these people had to do. Perhaps It Is 
better for your work, too. Why not investigate and find 
out? Our Catalog No. 7 will aid you. Send for it. 


422-423 \\ ,sl.-y Roberts Hull. line Loa Angelea, Cat. 


what you want 
when you want it, 

and you get what 
you want when 
vnu pet it from 
The Watt Mining 
Car Wheel Co., 

Mine and Ore Cars, 
Ore Buckets, Skips of 
all kinds. 

The Watt Mining 
Car Wheel Co., 

Denver Office: 

Undroolk & Shubsrt Co. 


San Franclrjco, Cal. 

Why do you want a 

Krogli Slime Pomp? 


It has ring oiling 
bearings and water 
air sealed gland. 

It has removable 
liners made of the 
hardest composi- 
tion, which no tool 
will cut, and ia 
ground to fit. 

Impeller is made 
of the same mate- 
rial and can be 
readily and cheap- 
Note the ease in which liners can be renewed, ly renewed. 
No through rods or bolts are employed. 

Write for Our Bulletin No. 79 
See our exhibit in Machinery Hall, World's Fair, near Fillmore St. entrance 

E>H<!ilili l rhedia57 

ALeifchen 6 Joiur Rope Cb. 

ift.Louu/<, Mo. 

Branch i/W,f , , | 3BBi3MHMf 


Sali lakoOHu-jInFranrij-. 


You know mining and your requirements. We know 
locomotives and how to adapt them most successfully 
to mining conditions. We can get together to our 
mutual satisfaction. Start It by writing for our 


111 W. Second St., Lima, O. 
50 Church St., Hen York. 2 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 


January 1. 1916 

Drill Makeni and Sharpeners 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Wood Drill WorkB. 

DrllU. Air and Steam 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 
Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
McKlernan -Terry Drill Co. 
Mine ft Smelter Supply Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Wood Drill Works. 

Drills, Core 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
McKlernan-Terry Drill Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Union Construction Co. 

Drills, Diamond 

Ineersoll-Rand Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

DrllU, Electric 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

DrllU, Prospecting. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
McKiernan -Terry Drill Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Union Construction Co. 


(See "Generators") 

Employment Bureau 

Business Men's Clearing 

Engineering Agency. 


(See Professional Directory) 

EnR-lnes, On* and Gasollae 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Hendrle A Roithoff Mfg. & 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
Lane Mill ft Machy. Co. 
Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co.. 

E. H. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Engines, OH 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Busch-Sulzer Bros.-Dlesel 

Engine Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Snow Steam Pump Works. 

Engines, Steam 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Union Iron Works Co. 


Du Pont Powder Co. 
Fans, Ventilating 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Chalmers ft Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
General Filtration Co., Inc. 
Moore Filter Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Filler Bags 

Filter Fabrics Co. 

Filter Presses 

Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Kelly Filter Press Co. 
Moore Filter Co. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Fire Brick 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 
Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Fire Extinguishers 

Justrite Mfg. Co. 

First Aid Equipment 

be, Gorman & Co.. Ltd 

Flotation Cell Bottoms 

Filter Fabrics Co. 

Flotation Process 

Rutters & Co.. Ltd.. Charles. 
1 1 a mil ton. Beauchamp, 

Woodwortb, Inc. 
Minerals Sep. Am. Syn., Ltd. 

Foundry Equipment 

Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 


Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. ft 

Supply Co. 
Mine ft Smelter Supply Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Frogs and Switches 

Railway Supplies") 

Furnaces, Assay 

(See Assayers' and Chemists' 

Furnaces* Roasting and 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Hendrle ft Bolthoff Mfg. ft 

Supply Co. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Traylor Eng. ft Mfg. Co. 
Wedge Mechanical Furnace 


Gas Producers 

Atlas Car ft Mfg. Co. 
Pacific Tank ft Pipe Co. 
Power ft Mining Machy. Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 


(See "Packing") 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Goodrich Co.. The B. F. 
Meese ft Gottfried Co. 


Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Hendrle ft Bolthoff Mfg. ft 

Supply Co. 
Western Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Electric ft 

Mfg. Co. 

Giants, Hydraulic 

See Hydraulic Mining Machy. 

Graphite Products 

Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph. 

Heaters, Feed Water 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. ft 

Supply Co. 
International Steam Pump 

Union Iron Works Co. 

Hoists. Electric 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Bartlett ft Snow Co., C. O. 
General Electric Co. 
Hendrie ft Bolthoff Mfg. ft 

Supply Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Lldgerwood Mfg. Co. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Sullivan .\ 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Union Iron Works Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Westinghouse Electric ft 

Mfg. Co. 

Hoists. Steam or Air 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Hendrie ft Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Hendy Iron Work**. Joshua. 
Lldgerwood Mfg. Co. 

A Mining Machy. Co. 
Sullivan Machlner 

a Iron Works Co. 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 
Diamond Rubber Co.. The. 
Goodrich Co.. The B. F. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Hose Couplings 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
National Tube Co. 
Wood Drill Works. 

Hydraulic Mining Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
American Spiral Pipe Wks. 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
International Steam Pump 

Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 

E. H. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

Sacramento Pipe Works. 

Union Iron Works Co. 

Lunkenhelmer Co. 
National Tube Co. 

Iron Cements 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers ft Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
James Ore Concentrator Co. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Union Construction Co. 

Laboratory Supplies 

See Assayers" and Chemists' 

Lamps, Arc and Incandescent 

General Electric Co. 
Western Electric Co. 
AWstinghouse Electric ft 
Mfg. Co. 

Lamps, Miners 

Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Justrite Mfg. Co. 

Lead Joint Pipe 

National Tube Co. 

Locomotives. Electric 

American Locomotive Co. 
Atlas Car ft Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Electric & 
Mfg. Co. 

Locomotives, Steam 

American Locomotive Co. 
Lima Locomotive Corp. 


Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph. 
Roebllng's Sons Co.. John A. 


Bucyrus Company. 
Dodge Sales ft Eng. Co. 
Lunkenheimer Co. 

Machinery, Used 

Morse Bros. Machy. ft Sup. 


Atkins. Kroll & Co. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Metal Buyers and Dealers 

American Metal Co., Ltd. 

Atkins, Kroll ft Co. 

Beer, Sondheimer & Co. 

Chapman Smelting Co. 

Consolidated Mln. ft Smelt- 
ing Co.. of Canada, Ltd. 

Empire Zinc Co. 

Granby Mining & Smelting 

International Smelting Co. 

Selby Smelting & Lead Co. 

U. S. Smelting. Refining ft 
Mining Co. 

Vogelstein ft Co.. L. 

Wildberg Bros. 

Meters-Flow, Air, Gas, Water 

General Electric Co. 
International Steam Pump 

Mills, Ball, Pebble, and Tube 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Chalmers ft Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
■ Bton Machinery Co. 
Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 
Johnson Engineering Wks. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Power ft Mining Machy. Co. 
San Francisco Plating Wks. 
Traylor Eng. ft Mfg. Co. 

Mills, Chilean 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers ft Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Lane Mill & Machy. Co. 
Power ft Mining Machy. Co. 
San Francisco Plating Wks. 
Traylor Eng. ft Mfg. Co. 
Union Iron Works Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers ft Williams. 
General Electric Co. 
Hendrle ft Bolthoff Mfg. ft 

Supply Co. 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Westinghouse Electric ft 

Mfg. Co. 

OH and Grease Cups 

(See "Lubricators") 

Oil Well Supplies 

Diamond Rubber Co., The. 
Hendv Iron Works, Joshua. 
National Tube Co. 
U. S. Steel Products Co. 

OH, Flotation 

General Naval Stores Co. 
Pensacola Tar ft Turpentine 

Ore Buyers 

See Metal Buyers and Deal- 

Oxygen Apparatus 

Siebe. Gorman ft Co., Ltd. 


American Spiral Pipe Wks. 
Diamond Rubber Co., The. 
Goodrich Co., The B. F. 
Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 

Paint, Preservative 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 
Patent Attorney 

Dewey Strong ft Co. 


Atkins. Kroll & Co. 
Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 

Perforated Metals 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Pipe Fittings 

American Metal Co., Ltd. 
Goodrich Co., The B. F. 
Lunkenheimer Co. 
National Tube Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Sacramento Pipe Works. 

Pipe, Riveted 

American Spiral Pipe Wks. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Sacramento Pipe Works. 

Pipe, Steel 

American Spiral Pipe Wks. 
Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 

E. H. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Sacramento Pipe Works. 

Pipe, Wood 

National Tube Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Redwood Manufacturers Co. 

(Continued on page 40) 

January I. l'»li. 

MINING and Sc.cnlihc PRESS 


The Slogan "' , ' i '' Cameron "Character: The Grandest Thing' 




£**&{$ 4| 

The ni"si modern and accurate apiinriKiiB Is used In testing 
cam, inn Centrifugal Pumps, 

snslBtS of weir tanks for accurately measuring the CB- 

pacltlee ol various stae pumps and a torsion dynai 

connected between the motor and the pomp (as shown In 
the Illustration) tor determining the exact horse-power In 

put of the pump. The results obtained arc exceptionally 
accurate, as the operation of this Dynamometer I i atin i 
independent of the motor losses when the pump Is undei 
soing a power driven test. 

Every Cameron Centrifugal is given a rigid test over a 
sufficient period of time to determine Its capacity and 
efficiency for the conditions specified. 

Tests of our Centrifugal Pumps have been witnessed by 
eminent municipal and government engineers, with entire 
satisfaction. Whether the test is witnessed by the pur- 
chaser or not, it is conducted with the greatest care. This 
is one reason why all Cameron Centrifugals now in service 
are giving highly satisfactory results. 

Write for Bulletins — they are free. 

A. S. Cameron Steam Pump Works, 


Offices the 
World Over 


Spiral Pump 


Most Durable — Easiest Running 


Pumping Sand, Crushed Ore, 

Pulp, Tube Mill Products, 

Slime and Tailings. 

No More Pump Box — All Liquid Inside 

the Wheel — No Spattering on 

Bearings or Gearings. 

Latest style with a babbitted bearing 
on each side of wheel. 

Gives entire satisfaction. 
Write for particulars. 

& SON 

Rutland, Vt., U. S. A. 
Agents— Allis-Chalmers Co.. 
Chicago, 111. Stearns - Rogers 
Mfg. Co. Denver, Colo. Harron. 
Rickard *fc McCone. San Fran- 
cisco. Cal. Frank R. Perrot, 
Perth and Sydney, Australia. 
Fraser-Uh aimers, London, Eng. 


Merely Good 

will not always answer. 

Sometimes exceptional condi- 
tions exist, and these must be met 
by the use of wire rope having 
exceptional qualities. 

Such qualities are possessed by 
Blue Center Rope. It should be 
used where the stress and wear 
are too severe for other wire 

Made with a blue hemp center. 

John A. Roebling's Sons Co. 


San Francisco 

Los Angeles 
Portland. Ore. 

The largest stock of Wire Rope 
on the Pacific Coast. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1. 1916 


Placer Mining Machinery 

American Spiral Pipe Wkfl. 
Bucyrus Company. 
Bendy Iron works, Joshua. 
Marion Steam Shovel Co. 
Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co.. 

E. H. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Sauerman Bros. 
Union Construction Co. 
Union Iron Works Co. 
Yuba Construction Co. 


Du Pont Powder Co. 

Pre*ervatlve*. Wood 

General Naval Stores Co. 
Pensacola Tar & Turpentine 

Preservative*, Metal 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 
Prospecting Supplle* 

Braun Corporation, The. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 

E. H. 
New York Engineering Co. 
White, E. E. 

Pulley*, Shafting and Hanger* 

(See "Transmission 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

American Metal Co., Ltd. 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun- Knee ht-Hetmann Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Denver Quartz Mill & Crush- 
er Co. 

Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

Lane Mill & Machy. Co. 

Mine & Smeller Supply Co. 

Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 
E. H. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

SUMub Mfg. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Pump*, Centrifugal 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Cameron Steam Pump Wks. 

A. S. 
Deane Steam Pump Co. 
Deming Co., The. 
General Electric Co. 
H. ndrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
International Steam Pump 

Jackson Iron Works, Byron. 
Jeanesvllle Iron Works. 
Krogh Pump Mfg. Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Prescott Steam Pump Co., 

Fred M. 
Snow Steam Pump Works. 
Yuba Construction Co. 

Pump*, Reciprocating 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Cameron Steam Pump "Wks. 

A. S. 
Deane Steam Pump Co. 
Deming Co., Thi 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Jeanesvllle Iron Works. 
Laidlaw-Dunn-Gordon Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Prescott Steam Pump Co., 

1 M. 
Snow Steam Pump Works. 
Union Iron Works Co. 

Pump*. Air 1,1ft 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 


Atkins. Kroll & Co. 
Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun -K necht-Hei man n Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supplv Co. 

Rail nay Snpplle* and Equip- 

American Locomotive Co. 
Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Lima Locomotive Corp. 
U. S. Steel Products Co. 
Watt Mining Car Wheel Co. 

Roll*. Crushing 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Bacon, Earle C. 
Bartlett & Snow Co., C. O. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Henay Iron Works, Joshua. 
Lane Mill & Machy. Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Power & Mining Machv. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Rope, Manila and Jute 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Rope, Wire 

American Steel & Wire Co. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Robins Conveying Belt Co. 
Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 
Sauerman Bros. 
U. S. Steel Products Co. 

Safety Appliance* 

Stebe, Gorman & Co.. Ltd. 

Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun -Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Min- & Smelter Supply Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Saw Mill Machinery 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 

School* and College* 

(See page 25) 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Bartlett & Snow Co.. C. O. 
Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun -Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Cal. Perforating Screen Co. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
James Ore Concentrator Co. 
Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Movie Eng. & Equip. Co.. 

E. H. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Roebling's Sons Co.. John A. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Second-Hand Machinery 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. 


(See "Transmission Machy.") 

Shoe* and Die* 

Chalmers & Williams. 
Hendv Iron Works, Joshua. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Union Iron Works Co. 

Shovel*, Electric and Steam 

Bucyrus Company. 
Marlon Steam Shovel Co. 

Atkins. Kroll & Co. 
Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 

Smelter* and Refiner* 

Beer, Sondheimer & Co. 

soltdated Min. & Smelt- 
ing Co.. of Canada, Ltd. 

Empire Zinc Co. 

Granby Mining & Smelting 

International Smelting Co. 

Selby Smelting & Lead Co. 

U. & Smelting. Refining & 
Mining Co. 

Vogelstein & Co., L. 
I Wildberg Bros. 

Smelting Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Cfj 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Union Iron Works Co. 
W.-ilge Mechanical Furnace 



American Spiral Pipe Wks. 
Cary Spring Works. 
U. S. Steel Products Co. 

Stump .Mill* 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Cary Spring Works. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
Movie Eng. & Equip. Co., 

E. H. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
San Francisco Plating Wks. 
Straub Mfg. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Union Iron Works Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Steel, Drill and Sheet 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Sacramento Pipe Works. 

Suction Dredge* 

Bucyrus Company. 
Krogh Pump Mfg. Co. 
Marlon Steam Shovel Co. 
Union Construction Co. 
Yuba Construction Co. 

Tank*, Cyanide 

Chalmers & Williams. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Redwood Manufacturers Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Tope*. Measuring 

Lufkin Rule Co. 
Telephone*. Mine 

Western Electric Co. 

Thickener*, Slime 

Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Dorr Cyanide Machy. Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Holt Mfg. Co. 

Tuba Construction Co. 

Tramway*, Aerial 

Holt Mfg. Co. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 

Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 

Sauerman Bros. 

U. S. Steel Products Co. 

Alnsworth & Sons. Wm. 
Buff & Buff Co. 

Trnn*mI**Ion Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
General Electric Co. 

Hendv Iron Works, Joshua. 
Lane Mill & Machy. Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Robins Conveying Belt Co. 

Tube Mill* 
(See "Mills") 

National Tube Co. 
Turbine*. Hydraulic 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

Turbines, Steam 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 


(See "Pipe Fittings") 

(See "Pipe Fittings.") 

Water Wheel* 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Union Iron Works Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Waterproof Coating 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 
Welding Proce** 

General Electric Co. 

Well Drilling Machinery and 

American Well Works. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Union Iron Works Co. 

Wheel*. Car 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Watt Mining Car Wheel Co. 

Wire Cablca 

(See "Rope, Wire") 

Wire Cloth 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 

Wire, Insulated 

American Steel & Wire Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Goodrich Co., The B. F. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 
U. S. Steel Products Co. 
Western Electric Co. 

Zinc Boxes 

Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun- Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 

E. H. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Redwood Manufacturers Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Union Iron Works Co. 

Zinc Du*t and Shaving* 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 
Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun -Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Granby Mining & Smelting 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Rock Excavating and Blasting 

170 Page* 

72 Illustrations Cloth, *2.50 PoMtpnld 

This work was written for the purpose of aiding the 
young engineer, superintendent, rockman, and miner in 
attaining a more thorough knowledge of explosives, how 
to handle them and to get the best results in the various 
kinds of rock excavating. 

For Sale by the 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


.lunuarv I. 1916 

MINING Sdcotifii I'Kl SS 

Meets Every Requirement 
of a Mine Sinker 

Every condition of roonomy and 
■fflclonry In operation an' imi by 

Mine Sinker Pumps 

They occupy smallest space In 
the shaft, and are perfectly bal- 
anced, so that they do not require 

They are suspended by cables and 
sheaves from a hoisting drum at 
the surface, so that they can be 
quickly raised or lowered. 

They are so designed that motors 
will uot be overloaded under vari- 
able head, which Is an important 
feature In a centrifugal pump In 
shaft service. 

Grit-proof bearings are provided 
above and below impellers, so that 
It Is impossible for grit to get Into 
the main bearings. 

They are automatically primed, 
and possess many other features 
which Insure greatest economy in 

Tell us your requirements. 
Ask for Catalog 1SS. 

The American Well Works 

General Office and Works : Aurora, III. 
Chicago Office: First National Bank Uds 


'Victor" Gate Valves 

"For every purpose" 

The -i extensive line ol I ■ 1 1_- 1 1 unule gate 

ValVQfl Inailr. 

The] have a single - • -l •• l wedge disc, «itl> 

guided bj nil* m the bodj ami traveja to 
practically a closed position I- fi 
in contact with the seal ring 

Experience baa proven this to l»- tin 
relia Die and durable form, 
"a the scat ringB, common En double disc 
valves, n here tin- loose pa en -- ih<- 

seal ring faces when the valve is ix-ini; opened 
or closed. 

Bodies are scientificall] proportioni 
heavy, t" resist distortion thai maj bi i 
bv expansion ot strain in me pipe line, 
valves can U' packed while under pressure 
when wide open. 

Made in Bronze, I last lr,.n, "Puddled" Bemi-steel and Cast Steel, 
with or without By-pass, (or working Bteam pressures up to 360 

I mis. 


Write torlCataloft. 


— "QUALITY"— - 
Larget-t Manufacturers of 
6-7-34 High Grade Engineering gpooialttea 

In the world. 
New York I hicago Hoston London 

Awarded MEDAL OF HONOR Panama-Pacific International Exposition. San 
Francisco, and GRAND PRIZE Panama-California Exposition. San Diego. 

Reduce Blasting Costs and 
Accident Risks 




Especially Adapted to Ore Mining 

THESE explosives are the results of investi- 
gations, experimentation and combination 
of materials necessary to produce explo- 
sives whose efficiency is seldom affected by 
low temperatures. 

The extensive use of Du Pont Low-Freezing 
Explosives and their high efficiency under most 
trying conditions are reasons why your blast- 
ing crews should use Du Pont Low-Freezing 

Tell us about your blasting work. There is a 
Du Pont Explosive especially adapted to your 
mining situation. 


E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. 

Wilmington, - - Delaware 






Stipt. Kelly nl' the Mon- 
arch Mine, Leudville, Coin. , 
states: "We ran 1S1 ft. of 
tunnel through very hard 
quartz in one month with 
one Model No. 50 'Clipper' 
Drill operating two shifts. 
I figure we saved the price 
of the drill in two months." 


New York El Paso DENVER, COLO. Seattle Salt Lake 

Saa Francisco Houghton, Midi. Johannesburg Melbourne 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1. 1916 

•w- — ' — — — pi 

Good Cyanide Plants Are Mostly 
Wooden Tanks 

The storage problem is the real problem — the tanks must be 
cheap, easily erected, non- leaking and permanent. Our tanks have 
that patented feature %hich guarantees our all-tight tank regardless 
of the volume stored. Our redwood or Douglas fir tanks have gone 
via muleback Into many parts of the world; been erected without 
depending on a riveting crew from a machine shop. Our cyanide 
paint will make them truly permanent. 

With plenty of modern equipment in three factories located for 
quick rail or ocean shipment, we solicit your business. 

Write for Mining Catalog No. 7 and that attractive booklet, 
■Wooden Pipe: Its Many Advantages.' Sent free to interested parties. 


FACTORIES : San Francisco. Los Angeles 2 
OFFICES : 502 Fifth St., San Francisco. 402 Equitable Bank Bldg., Los Angeles 




Alnawo "-. Win. . . .36 
Allls-Chalmera Mfg. Co 11 

Ameri. i"o. . . 25 

American Metal Co.. Lid... — 
American Spiral Pipe WkB.43 

Amerli'aii E i & Wire Co.. 35 

American Well Worka 47 

Atkins. Kroll & Co 39 

Alias Car & Mfg. Co 10 

Bacon, Earle C 37 

Bartlctt & Snow Co.. ('. O..40 

Beer, Sondhelmei A C 3S 

Blake. Moffit & Towne 40 

Bradley, Brufl A Labarthe.. — 
Braun Corporation, The. ...35 
Braun-Knecht-Hetmann Co. 

nil 36 

Bucyrui 9 

Burt & Burr Co — 

Burr, Win. A 16 

Business Men'a Clearing 

House IT 

Butters .* Co., Ltd., Chai 

Cal. Perforating Screen Co.. — 
mi Steam Pump wks,. 

A. s if. 

Cary Spring Works — 

Chalmers & Williams 

20 ami 2 1 

Chapman smelting Co 16 

Colorado Iron Works Co. ... 8 

ido School of Mini 

Ing Co., ol '.til. .38 

Deane strain Pump Co — 

i tor Co. ... 1 1 

Demlng Co., The 35 

i lenvei Fire • flay Co 36 

II Quartz Mill & I'rush- 

■ 10 41 

! Drill Mfg. Co. 23 

Dewey, Strong A Co 40 

"Diamond Rubber Co., The. . — 

I>Ixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 16 

Sales & Bng. Co — 

Dorr Cyanide Machy. Co... 37 

nil Powder Co 17 

Bccleaton Machinery Co. ...16 

Elmer. H. N — 

Empire Zinc Co 39 

Engineering Agency — 

Kilter Fabrics Co 3S 

Frenler & Son IS 

Oeneral Electric Co 14 

Qener&l Filtration Co., Inc.. — 
Oeneral Naval Stores Co. ..39 

Goodrich Co., The B. F -'I 

Qranby Mining & Smelting 
Co 39 

Hamilton. Beauchamp. 

Woodworth, Inc 34 

Hardinge Conical Mill Co . . . 12 
Harron. Rlckard & McCone. 2 
Heald's School of Mines. ..88 
Mendrie & BolthoB Mfg. & 

Supply Co 15 

Ilendy Iron Works. Joshua. 1 
Holt Mfg. Co — 

Ingeraoll-Rand Co 5 

International Smelting Co.. 38 
International Steam Pump 
Co b 

on Iron Works, Byron. 40 

James Ore Concentrator Co. 10 
Jeanesville Iron Works. . . . — 
Johnson Engineering Wks.SG 
.Instill. Mfg. Co 49 

Kelly Filter Press Co 39 

Krogh Pump Mfg. Co 13 

Lai d la w-LHinn -Gordon Co. .18 

Lane Mill & Machy. Co 43 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 48 

Lldgerwood Mfg. Co 37 

Lima Locomotive Corp.... 43 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co 22 

Lufkln Rule Co 36 

Lunkenheimer Co 4 7 

Marlon Steam Shovel Co. ..22 
McKlernan-Terry Drill Co.. 37 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 
Michigan College of Mines.. 33 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co.. — 
Minerals Sep. Am. Syn.. Ltd. 39 
Missouri School of Mines... 33 

Moore Filter Co 38 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. 

Co 9 and 17 

Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 

E. H is 

National Tank &- Pipe Co 

National Tube Co 37 

New Mexico State School of 

Mines 33 

New York Engineering ■ 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

Front Cover 

Pacific Tank & Pipv Co IS 

Pelton Water Wheel Co.... 1 9 
Pensacola Tar & Turpentine 

Co 39 

Power & -Mining Machy. Co. — 
Prescott Steam Pump Co., 

Fred M _ 

Redwood Mi Cad an rs Co 1 B 

Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 45 
Roessler & Hasslacher Chem- 
ical Co 36 

Sacramento Pipe Works.... — 
San Francisco Plating Wks.40 

Sauerman Bros — 

Selby Smelting & Lead Co.. 38 
Siebe, Gorman & Co., Ltd... — 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co 10 

Snow Steam Pump Works.. — 

Southern Pacific Co 11 

Straub Mfg. Co - — 

Sullivan Machinery Co 7 

Thompson Balance Co 36 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. . . . 6 

Union Construction Co 2 

Union Iron Works Co — 

U. S. Smelting, Relining & 

Mining Co 3S 

U. S. Steel Products Co 35 

University of Washington. .33 

Van der Naillen School, A.. 38 

Vogelstein & Co., L 39 

Vulcan Iron Works 40 

u hi -Mining Car Wheel Co. 43 
Wedge Mechanical Furnace 

Co Ill 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co.49 

Western Electric Co — 

Westinghouse Electric & 

Mfg. Co _ 

White, E. E — 

Wlldberg Bros — 

Wood Drill Works 

Back Cover 

Yuba Construction Co 37 

January I, l!'lt> 

MINING ud Scirnufic PRESS 

"A practical carbide lamp 
that meets the needs of 
metal mines" — 

Coal mioii of mlnlni men. Any carbide lamp nndei 

i thorn .1 i.iru.- saving over oandlea, bui onlj the "i""i proof" 
trouble-prool lamp will give those savings every day o( the year, 
Thie wring is about $10 per man each year. ?ou gel it with the 


The Jnatrlte is essentially trouble-proof. No parts can loosen or 
be broken off and lost. Every part Is strong, compact, and built to 
withstand bard usage. Clogging is impossible — ordinary care "ill 
keep it clean. The flame can be adjusted to and maintained at the 
point that gives the most brilliant light. It does not waste carbide. 
Self-lighting attachment does away with the need for matches. 
Burns 4 hours on a charge. 

We will sand >->u descriptive literature end black and white figures 
Of tli-- Mtviiik* y ■ m ,-nti make Willi Justrite Iiiiiii». Writ,- today. 

Justrite Manufacturing Company 

546 W. Van Buren St. 

Chicago, Illinois 

No. 108 "HALF-SHIFT" $1.50 







Underwriters have approved 


the JUSTRITE. Tills ex- 

tinguisher is an ever ready 

mlnlmizer of (ire loss and 

of Insurance rates. Harm- 


less to user or equipment. 

Safe to use on electrical 

fires. Ask for details when 

™ you write. 


Where Safety and 
Efficiency Meet 

The first motion hoist on the left in the 
picture is in successful operation, handling 
a 5-ton balanced skip load at 1500 feet per 
minute, with motor speed of only 60 R. P. M. 
Equipped with approved safety overwinding 
appliances; also Tachograph for registering 
signals, time and duration of trip. 

The hoist at the right is for handling men 
and timber and is operated through single 
reduction of herring-bone steel gears. Also 
equipped with complete safety appliances 
and Tachograph. Both hoists operated 
through one common fly-wheel balancer set 
of Ilgner System. 

Electric Hoists atXleveland Cliffs Iron Company's Mines. Negaunee. Mich. 



NEW YORK— Hudson Terminal 


DENVER— €11 Ideal Building 

MEXICO, D. F.— Apartado 1220 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1, 1916 

Are the drills YOU now use 
backed by such a guarantee ? 

Are they guaranteed by their makers to be lower in operat- 
ing cost and higher in point of service than any other on 
market? Of course, they are NOT for that is the guarantee 
under which you buy — 

nab lock Irill 

The Drill with the Vanadium Tungsten Iron 
Cylinder, Chest and Air Head 

The Wood Kock Drill is built by experts 
to be manned bv careless workmen and still 
do the most work and last the longest. 

Vanadium Tungsten Iron is used in the 
parts most subject to wear or breakage. It 
never crystallizes or pits up with continued 
use, but wears as smooth as plate glass. 

The maximum of steam or air power 
goes right into the drilling instead of Deing 
lost in useless friction. 

On account of the simple way it is 
made, with all parts interchangeable and 
the best of materials used, the Wood Rock 
Drill is free from serious breakdowns and 
the most quickly repaired when necessary. 

Not using the Wood 
now? You will after 
reading our catalog. 
Sent on request. 

IWti Brill Works 

30 Dale Ave. Pateraon, N. J. 

Hammond Manufacturing Company, - ... Portland. Ore. 

Fairbanks, Morse & Company, - Spokane and Seattle. Wash. 

Joshua Hendy Iron Works, - - 75 Fremont -^t., San Francisco, Cal. 

TheChas. Bangster Machinery Co.. 1022 Metropolitan Rldg.. Vancouver. B. C. 
The Western Machinery & Miff. Co., - ... Denver. Colo. 

for 1916 

That our standards in Conveying, Elevating, 
Screening, and Mechanical Power Transmission 
Machinery will be exactly as they were in 1915— 


Must $c dnttfefc Gtompattg 

Engineers and Manufacturers 


660 Mission St. 


558 First Ave. So. 


67 Front St. 


130 No. Los Angeles St. 

Send for 500-Page Catalog 



Edited by 



Number 2 

.hliiiiiiila!iiliiiui:;ii>:i::i|i!:'i!H:|:ii;i ■ I 

ANTIMONY is much in demand now on account of the 
Z_\ large consumption of it in the hard lead of shrapnel 
bullets. Normally it is used for the peaceful purpose 
of making type metal, babbitt and pewter. The search for 
deposits of antimonial ore has caused a revival of several old 
mining districts, more particularly in Alaska, California, 
Idaho, and Nevada. We publish an article on the subject. 




MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8, 1916 

Standard Ball Mills 

Capacity, tons per hour 
Diameter mill, feet . . 
Width mill, feet .... 
Revolutions per minute 


Balls to charge, pounds 




































9000 6000 7000 6500 6000 5000 2500 2300 


• ~<— - 

at a 



Lining made of 
semi-steel, self- 
locking, no 
bolts through 
shell. Scoop 
feed, trunnions, 
equipped with 
spiral feed and 
reverse spiral on 
discharge end. 

Delivery from Stock, 5x4 Size 

The capacity and horsepower can be varied from above, 
depending on the steel ball charge, and is based on 
iyi to 2 inch feed, and product 12-mesh and finer. 

The Morse Bros. Machinery & Supply Co. 

Denver, Colorado 





I 51 1M IMIf li | - 
I'uljshnl .1 420 M.ikrt SL, S«» Fun t>T *' Drwr, Puhlahini Co 


Issued Kvery S.ilurdsy 

13 per Year — 10 Cents per Copy 

San Francisco, January 8, 1916 


l B, Austin 

■ tan I 

• lb. 

a <lui I 
!• i Jutilli 
Jumcs 1' K 
l\ II Prober! 
C W, Purintton. 
Horn ■ v Wlnohi n 

The Buyer's Oulde — Page M 
Advertisers Index — Last Page 


. 34 




N"Ct - 


A review of the sources of this metal and the In- 
creased consumption of It. Outline of the metal- 
lurgy, and a description of the method In vogue at the 
smelter In San Francisco. 

Tl mim: fur Flotation 

An appreciation of a timely article that gives to en- 
gineers and mill-men exactly the Information that 
they would like to have on flotation. 

Last Year's Minino 

Statistical data, indicating the remarkable expansion 
of the American mining Industry as a whole in 1915. 
and the particular growth of copper and zinc produc- 
tion, by reason of the demands created by the War. 

WHO Owns a Report? 

By J. A. Burgess 37 

An analysis of the relations of a consulting engineer 
with his clients who are seeking information and who 
pay for it; the relation is contractual though much 
of the detail is assumed. 
The Alaska Gold Minks. 

By J oh n Warden 39 

The return of capital used for speculating in gold 
mines, as applied to the case of the Alaska Gold 
Mines: what the shares of this company should sell 
for when considered on a mining basis. 
Colorado-Gilpin Gold & Radium. 

By Forbes Richard 39 

A Colorado engineer denies that he has any connec- 
tion with a company the prospectus of which has been 
issued from 1005 Drexel building. Philadelphia. 


Tiik Relation of Employer and Employee. 

By John P. Irish 40 

An address before the Oakland branch of the Mer- 
chants and Manufacturers' Association, arguing 
against recent manifestations by labor unions of 
methods repugnant to American believers in liberty. 

Scheelite Mining and Grading. 

By P. B. McDonald 41 

The occurrence of scheelite in gold-quartz ore in a 
mine at Grass Valley. California, describing the geo- 
logical features. How the scheelite is graded by eye 
according to the proportion of tungstic acid, giving 
the computation of the mine-superintendent to effect 

Safety in Using Explosives 42 

A short note from South Africa. 

Flotation at Humboldt. Arizona 42 

In the mill of the Consolidated Arizona Smelting Co. 

Botatlon has increased the concentration of copper 
80%; acid is not employed, nor Is the temperature of 
the pulp raised. 

iiFiiniMM. i\ Mozambique 1 43 

In Portuguese East Africa a dredge was set to work 
In 1914 on ground averaging cents per cubic 
yard; the total cost including Paris and London ex- 
pense was 9.4 cents per cubic yard; ten white nun 
were paid an average of $175 per month, forty oat 
were paid 25 to 75 cents per day and food. 

TESTING Ores for the Flotation Process — II. 

By O. C. Ralston and Glenn L. Allen 44 

The second half of a comprehensive and practical 
article on flotation: the Elmore and Callow machines; 
what to test on a given ore: fineness, frothing agent, 
acidity, temperature, agitation, addition-agents. 

Treatment of MOLYBDENITE Ore in Australia 50 

A plant costing $5000 in New South Wales treats 5 
tons of ore per day; this ore contains %% of bismuth 
and molybdenite; a peculiar method of concentration 
used at Sydney employing oil. 

Flotation-Tests in Separating Finnei 50 

The effect of alkalinity; record of eight tests with 
various amounts of lime; acid, neutral, and alkaline 

Mining in Alaska in 1915. 

Compiled by Alfred H. Brooks 5! 

The total mineral output for 1915 is estimated at $32.- 
000,000, compared to less than $20,000,000 in 1914. 
Copper production was 83.S50.000 lb. valued at $14.- 
400,000; gold production was $16,900,000. Placers, lode 
mining, copper, tin, antimony. Southeastern Alaska, 
Copper River, Prince William Sound, Kenai peninsula 
and Susitna, the Yukon, Seward peninsula. 

Cyanide CONSUMPTION on the Rand 57 

An abstract from the Journal of the Chemical. Metal- 
lurgical, and Mining Society of South Africa. For 
the treatment of 25,701,954 tons of ore in 1914, there 
was purchased for consumption 10,518.009 lb. of cya- 
nide, and 8,543,014 lb. of zinc. Considerable ex- 
perimental work was done to find where the losses 
of cyanide were made. One of the greatest was the 
effect of the atmosphere on solutions. A 'closed' 
system of treatment is suggested to reduce this. 


Concentrates 59 

Recent Patents 60 

Review of Mining 62 

Special correspondence from Atolia, California: Wash- 
ington, D. C; Houghton. Michigan; Toronto, Ontario; 
Rand, Nevada. 

The Mining Summary 65 

Personal 70 

The Metal Market 71 

Eastern Metal Market 72 

Mineral Production in 1915 73 

Commercial Paragraphs 74 

Established May 24, 1860. as The Scientific Prens: nam? 
changed October 20 of the same year to Mining nnd Sclcntlflc 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class mat- 
ter. Cable address: Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago. 300 Fisher Bdg.; New York, 130S-10 
Woolworth Bdg.; London. 724 Salisbury House. E.C. 

Price, 10 cents per copy. Annual subscription: United States 
and Mexico, $3; Canada," $4; other countries in postal union, 
21s. or ?5 per annum. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8, 1916 

3000 gal. G-E Motor Driven Pumps, Chapin Mine, Iron Mountain, Mich. 

Reduce Your Operating Expenses 
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Address Nearest Office 

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For Michigan business 
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Motor Agencies in all 
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January \ 1916 

MININl. ud Sdntifu I'KI SS 


T. A. RICKARD. Editor 

STATISTICS iamied by the State Mining Bureau in- 
dioate a remarkable increase of irinc production in 
California, fron in 1914 to (1,620,000 in 1915. 
On the other hand, the output of petroleum has dimin- 
ished in value from (47,000, > to (40,000,000, the yield 

having decreased by nearly 11 million barrels, although 
340 new wells weiv drilled, increasing the total to 6500. 
mid production is given as (22,850,000. the highest 
since 1870 and the largest of any state in the Union. 
Increased activity in the mining of tungsten, antimony, 
mairiiesite. and manganese is reported. In value of total 
output, Shasta county is tirst. The total mineral output 
is estimated at (95,211,000 for the year. 

17 OR some months past various brokers have been ex- 
-*- ceedingly active in the purchase of aluminum; first 
they bought scrap, and when that stock became exhausted 
they began to bid for aluminum electrical conductors in 
position, at prices that made it profitable to take down 
the aluminum and to replace it by copper of equivalent 
conductivity. Lately they have been purchasing such 
stock before it has been strung. If any owner of 
aluminum conductors, either in service or in the ware- 
house, still has an\ r of it. either he has escaped the search 
of speculators or he is holding it for speculation on his 
own account. Where is it all going? Present evidence 
indicates that a complete answer may be found in the 
chemical literature of about four or five years ago, when 
a French chemist announced his discovery of an un- 
usually powerful explosive, which he called 'ammonal.' 
the name being a combination of the chemical symbols of 
its component parts, ammonium nitrate and aluminum. 
A letter received recently from a German officer who was 
in the battle at Loos stated that in an examination of a 
position out of which the Germans were driven and which 
they afterward recovered, he counted some 640 dead in a 
space of about one hectare, of which less than 10% 
showed signs of mutilation. "The others were killed by 
that new terrible French explosive." 

r T , UNGSTEX is in tremendous demand for the making 
-*- of high-speed tool-steel. We take pleasure therefore 
in publishing a short account of the mining of scheelite, 
the tungstate of lime, in association with gold-bearing 
quartz at the Union Hill mine, in the Grass Valley dis- 
trict. In our 'Review of Mining' we also give notes con- 
cerning the Atolia mines. These have been worked for 
scheelite during the last ten years, but not with any re- 
markable profit until lately. Just now the output is at 
the rate of three carloads per month, say, 90 tons, of ore 
containing 30 to 50% tungstic acid. The few leases on 

the property lapsed at the end of 1915 and will not be re 
newed, as th mpany intends to re-organize its opera 

lions, which are under the direct' t Atkins. Kn, II A 

Co., although the directors are four well-known t'ali- 

fornian mining engineers. As high B] I tool steel ia 

worth (3 per pound and tungsten ore is selling at the 
rate of (45 per unit, it is obvious why the search for the 

principal tungsten minerals wolframite, hiilinerite. and 

scheelite- has been intensified lately. It is likely t n 

linue unless manufacturers elect to use molybdenum 
steel, as they might do, for it has much the same quali- 
ties as tungsten steel. It would seem probable therefore 
that the price of molybdenum may rise shortly at the 
c.\| se of tungsten. 

/~\N New Year's day the principal mining companies 
^ at Douglas and Bisbee announced a voluntary in- 
crease in wages based on the recent rise in the price of 
copper. This is both just and sagacious. In the Clifton- 
Morenci district a sincere effort has been made by a 
Citizens Mediation Committee to arrange the settlement 
of the strike affecting the Arizona, Detroit, and Shannon 
copper companies and their employees. The strike has 
lasted now for four months. A concession as to higher 
wages was made by the mine managers, provided the men 
would surrender their charter of membership in the 
Western Federation, and this offer was presented by the 
citizens committee to the executive committee of the 
miners and through them to a mass meeting. The offer 
was rejected. It is reported that the American miners 
were for acceptance, but the Italians voted against it, 
as also many of the Mexicans, who are in a big majority. 
The committee of citizens, however, is still hopeful of 
settling the trouble, believing that the proposal was not 
thoroughly understood by the miners. We shall be glad 
to see this effort successful, for it will accomplish two 
worthy purposes: (1) to give the miners a share in the 
prosperity caused by 22-cent copper and (2) to help in 
eliminating an anarchistic organization that has done 
so much harm in the West and South-west. 

MARANON PLACERS is a name familiar to our 
readers in association with an unsavory mining 
enterprise in Peru. In April 191-4 the promoter, Mr. 
Raymond McCune, was arrested on the charge of using 
the mails to defraud the public by the sale of $200,000 
worth of stock in the scheme. A number of persons of 
high standing in Delaware had been lured by Mr. Mc- 
Cune 's talk concerning his discovery of "the treasure- 
house of the Incas." The action taken by the Post-Office 
department to stop this imposition was most commend- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8, 1916 

able, but its later efforts to secure evidence are not nearly 
so praiseworthy. An inspector. Mr. Harry A. Barber, 
was sent by the Post-Office department to Peru to in- 
vestigate .Met 'mic's alleged prospecting operations. This 

ins| tor was accompanied by two official companions, 

one of whom is versed in placer mining. Thus a con- 
siderable sum of public money was spent on what sec-ins 
to us a wild-goose chase, for. whether McCune sank few 
or many shafts, and whether he actually found gold at 
given spots or not, it is impossible to disprove it now, 
after a lapse of three or four years. If no gold were 
found by the investigating expedition, he could retort 
that they had examined the wrong spots. Moreover. 
most of the holes would now be filled up and overgrown. 
We consider the whole procedure foreign to the Depart- 
ment 's duty in such matters. To stop the use of the mails 
for impudent circularizing and to warn the public is well 
within its functions, but if the Department is to under- 
take the examination of mines it should retain an en- 
gineer of high standing and act on his advice, which, in 
this case, would have prevented a fiasco. 

the proportion of the war consumption that goes per- 
manently out of use: in other words, how much of the 
copper in shells and cartridges is saved by the bellig- 
erents.' It' saved for future use. it will represent such 
an increase to the stock of metal as to endanger the 

/"^OPPER is making new records. Just before Christ- 
^-^ mas the British Government signed a contract for 
the purchase of 1:15.000,000 pounds of copper in New 
York at 21 cents per pound, making $28,350,000. This 
order is to be filled within the ensuing twelve months. 
We understand that the business was done mainly with 
the Anaconda Copper Company, although the American 
Smelting & Refining Company and the Tennessee Copper 
Company participated. On December 22 the total sales 
of copper are estimated to have reached 200,000,000 
pounds, representing a gross value of over $40,000,000, 
this being the record for a single day. The war demand 
for copper is estimated at 750. OHO. 000 pounds per an- 
num. That is in this country only, in the making of 
munitions for the Allies. Including the Germanic group, 
the present rate of consumption for use in the War is 
put at 1.200,000,000 pounds. This represents a little 
over one-half the total world production in 1913. The 
average annual consumption of copper in the United 
St.-ites during the tive years from 1909 to 1913 inclusive 
was 365,000 tons. At the present time domestic produc- 
tion is about 900,000 tons. Allowing 400,000 tons for 
normal domestic requirements and 350.000 tons for nor- 
mal export, we have an excess production at the present 
time of about 150.000 tons per annum. As the ordinary 
rate of increase in the world's consumption of copper is 
7', . equal to 70,000 tons per annum, the present output 
is not so overwhelming. In 1907. when copper reached a 
price of 25 cents, the world's production increased only 
18,610 tons over 1906. the average price in 1907 being 
20 as against 19.2 cents per pound in 1906. For the 
last 15 years the average has beeji a little over 15 cents. 
During that period the world's production has increased 
from 486.500 to 1.100.000 short tons. On the whole, 
lore, while the present price is decidedly high, it 
does not represent a figure so unreasonable as is feared 
by many mining operators. The main question is as to 


Tin- average price of antimony in 1913 was 8.73 cents 
per pound for Cookson's brand, in 1914 it was 10.73 
cents, and the present quotation is nearly 40 cents. The 
War is responsible for this high price. In 1914 China 
produced 13.313 metric tons. France 5406 tons, and 
Hungary 859 tons. Large quantities of metal are now 
required in the making of ammunition and explosives. 
As the supply from France and Hungary is cut off. 
as well as the production in Mexico, that from China 
has to take care of an abnormal demand for war pur- 
poses, and the domestic needs of the United States. 
Imports into this country during a normal period, 
such as 1913. were 7667 tons of metal or regulus, also 
25 tons in ore. and 50 tons in type metal. The pro- 
duction from domestic leady ores in that year was 2204 
tons, from imported ore 304 tons, and from old alloys, 
scrap, etc., 2705 tons. No purely antimonial ores were 
mined in 1913. according to the U. S. Geological Survey, 
this being due to low prices and lack of railroad facilities 
to the mines. The Survey's bulletin on antimony for 
1914 is not yet available. For several years the produc- 
tion in this country from domestic ores has been confined 
to that contained in antimonial lead and small quantities 
recovered in the electrolytic refining of copper and lead. 
The antimonial lead is mostly a by-product in the smelt- 
ing of the precious metals. The high price has led to the 
search for, development of, and production of antimony 
from American deposits. At present the Alaskan (Fair- 
banks). Californian (Inyo and Kern), Idaho (Coeur 
d'Alcnei. and Nevada (Humboldt county), deposits are 
being exploited actively. Several mills are producing 
concentrate, and smelters are in operation at Los An- 
geles, San Francisco, and Seattle. The output of the 
United States in 1915 should show a big increase. 

Little has been published on the metallurgy of anti- 
mony. The best work on the subject is that by Mr. C. Y. 
Wang, whose book, however, is a summary from French. 
Italian, and German publications and reports, as far as 
the metallurgical data are concerned. The descrip- 
tion of the Herrensehmidt processes and appliances plays 
a disproportionate part in this interesting volume. 
Without going into details in regard to the claim set 
forward as to the sublimation treatment applied to anti- 
mony ores, it would appear from the facts that the first 
to obtain soluble oxide (Sb„0.,) direct from the ores was 
Mr. Emmanuel Chatillon, of Brioude. in the Haute 
Loire, France. Prior to his invention or discovery, this 
product was obtained by subliming the metal and con- 
densing the fume. In 1888 Mr. Chatillon patented his 
process in France under the title. 'Pour un procede (h 

Januar) s |,,1,; 


condensation it* vapturt milalUqueM,' and from tl.i.t 
timr forward the principal French and Italian smelters 
have a do pted similar appliances for treating low-grade 
ores, ruiiiiiii»r from 1" t<> •'!■">', Tliis led to a long law- 
mil between Mr ChatiUon and Qirand & Cie., Brioude, 
lasting from 1896 to 1900, when it was decided in favor 
of tin' fanner, bnl nol until his patent had almost as 
pired. In 1898 an Italian company erected a large sub 
timation plant iii Tuscany; this is not described in Mr. 
Wang 'a book. Be states that dry methods arc generally 
adopted tor the extraction of the metal, or of the metal 
in different combinations, while the proposals tor the use 
of wet processes or of electro-metallurgies] methods have 
nut \vt tunnel practical application. 

The different processes for treating antimony ores may 
be briefly described as follows: (1) Liquation of rich 
ores, assaying 40 to 65 < i . in furnaces or pots for the pro- 
duction of crude antimony, the product being sulphide 
containing 71.4' J antimony. (2) Direct smelting of 
high-grade stihnitc and crude ore in furnaces or pots 
using iron as a desulphurizing agent, the product being 
antimony metal, ui i Sublimation process for the treat- 
ment of either sulphide or oxide ores, especially adapted 
to low-grade ores, yielding antimony oxide. (4) Reduc- 
tion of oxide from the preceding process by smelting 
with fluxes and carbon, producing 'star' metal. 

Crude metal is largely used in the making of fire- 
works, Safety-matches, vulcanizing rubber, etc. Oxide of 
antimony is used for the manufacture of paints, enamels, 
in glass and crystal, and the preparation of antimony 
Baits. Antimony metal is used for hard lead, type-metal, 
anti-friction compounds, and other alloys. It is sold as 
'starred' metal, and the market not only demands a 
product assaying 99%, but also that each slab should 
have the fern-like crystallized surface known as the 
'star,' although this does not indicate that it is chem- 
ically pure. 

There are several furnace methods of reduction, that 
shown on the front cover of this issue of our paper being 
a part of the plant owned by the Chapman Smelting 
Company, in San Francisco, where smelting is being 
done by what is commonly called the English method. 
Here the furnaces and general working conditions are 
practically the same as those of Hallett & Fry, near 
London. The process comes under the second of those 
classified above, the different stages being: the melting 
of rich ore or crude in a crucible with fluxes and iron, 
the metal thus obtained being known as 'singles' and 
containing over 90% antimony, 7 to 8% iron, and 0.3 to 
0.5% sulphur. It is poured into conical molds and the 
metal is detached from the slag — iron sulphide and 
silica — by hammering. Then four or more 'singles' are 
broken in pieces and melted in another crucible with a 
small addition of potash or soda. The metal from this 
second melt should only contain traces of iron and sul- 
phur, less than 1%. Next the 'doubles' are broken and 
re-melted in a crucible together with antimony flux or 
antimony glass, known as 'toppings'; the metal is 
brought to a bright cherry-red heat and is poured into 

square molds, car.- being taken to gel enough ol the 
'toppings' to cover completely the surface of the molten 
metal and tu prevent volatilisation, forming the required 

star' iiinlcr a gentle cooling action Willi ;lli tires thin 
plant reduces 260 tons of OW yielding about 120 tot 
'Star, 1 'VI. .V , , per month. [tS capacity is limited by the 

amount of ore obtainable. More labor is required than 
is omonlj supposed; when working full time 82 men 

are employed. The process is crude yr\ effective, and 
considerable physical strength and intelligence are re 
quired. Losses in reduction arc high, more than in BUM 
smelting. Blast-furnaces are not satisfactory, and make 
larger losses. No. (ill plumbago crucibles arc used, their 

life being 20 melts. Coke is the fuel, but oil is used in 
a new battery of furnaces for the tirst redaction, as the 

heat would cause too much loss in volatilization for the 
Subsequent melts, namely, the 'doubling' and 'starring.' 
The maintenance of a proper temperature throughout 
the whole treatment plays an important part, as does 
also the manipulation, which requires skill and experi- 
ence. On page 61 of this issue is a brief description of 
the treatment of antimony-gold ore by the canst to soda 
process, as now used in Rhodesia, and tried some time 
ago in Australia. 

Antimony smelting in the United States has many dis- 
advantages compared with the work done in China in 
respect to labor, freight, and other charges. It is only 
the sudden increase of price that has justified the re- 
vival of prospecting for antimony, but it is possible that 
before the War is over the improvement, of facilities in 
regard to transport and reduction of the ores may lay 
the foundations of a new industry. 

Testing for Flotation 

In this issue and in the one immediately preceding we 
have been able to publish an article that must prove of 
immediate usefulness to a large number of readers. We 
refer to the detailed description of the apparatus for 
making flotation tests. For this the profession will, we 
are confident, be deeply grateful to the authors, Messrs. 
Oliver C. Ralston and Glenn L. Allen. The senior 
author. Mr. Ralston, has enriched our columns on sev- 
eral previous occasions. He is assistant metallurgist of 
the U. S. Bureau of Mines and has been assisting Mr. 
D. A. Lyon in making the Salt Lake station of the Bu- 
reau a centre of useful service to the mining industry. 
In this article the reader will find not only a detached 
and unprejudiced description of the various machines 
designed to ascertain the amenability of ores to the 
frothing process of flotation, but he will also find a dis- 
criminating analysis of the suitability of the individual 
machines for various experiments and a number of prac- 
tical suggestions in regard to the manipulation of them. 
Indeed, we can hardly imagine any information more 
timely. The article is based on personal experience in 
the laboratory at Salt Lake City in the testing of a great 
diversity of ores from the surrounding region. It will 
be noted that in making such tests the experimenter 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8, 1916 

must not expect a high percentage of extraction and a 
high-grade concentrate at the same time; in practice that 
final result is only attained by a repetition of the process 
in supplementary cells. The authors give the names of 
the makers of the several machines, with prices, and we 
have given supplementary information in two notes, 
realizing that many of our readers will be asking for 
such information as soon as they have been prompted, 
by reading the article, to make some tests on their own 
account. We hope they will. While the process has not 
the universality of application nor the comprehensive- 
ness of scope that some of its more enthusiastic advocates 
may claim, it is yet certain that there are few mills in 
which it cannot play a useful part in one way or another. 
Among the hints contained in the article we may draw 
attention to the convenience of separatory funnels in 
making preliminary' tests, as well as the glass tube de- 
signed for testing oils, illustrated by Pig. 19. It will 
be gratifying to the novice to know that large-scale 
operations in flotation generally do better than the 
laboratory experiment indicates. But of all the sug- 
gestions proffered the one that impresses us most is the 
statement that a rational method of devising proper 
tests must be based on some theory of flotation. Of 
course. Any metallurgical work, to be productive of re- 
sult, must be illuminated by sound theory, by a rational 
conception of the scientific principles involved. It is 
the absence of sound theory that has retarded the prog- 
ress of flotation during the 30 years in which the use of 
oil for concentration has been known and it is the pat- 
enting of methods without knowledge of first principles 
that has produced a pestilential crop of litigation. So 
far, most of the work done in connection with flotation 
has proceeded by trial and error, by a crude empiricism 
unillumined by scientific comprehension of the forces 
involved, by a succession of fortuitous discoveries the 
meaning of which has been obscured by the exigencies of 
litigation. We hope that the publication of this informa- 
tion concerning testing machines will be accompanied by 
such a study of essential principles as will yield a rich 
harvest of careful observation and logical theory. On 
that basis the practical application of the process can be 
extended confidently. 

Last Year's Mining 

The preliminary reports of the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey provide an excellent summary of mining conditions 
in 1915. Last week we reproduced the summaries dealing 
with Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New 
Mexico, and South Dakota; this week we give an ab- 
stract of the reports on California, Oregon, and Utah ; 
and we reproduce, almost in full, the account of Alaskan 
mining. As a rule we care but little for last year's 
almanac, preferring to look forward, but the Director of 
the Survey should receive the thanks of the community 
for giving this interesting information promptly and 
therefore usefully. The record is superb. In the West- 
ern States alone the increased value of the metal pro- 

duction is $130,000,000 as compared with the previous 
year, and for the whole country the increment of output 
of the principal metals during the twelve months repre- 
sents $250,000,000. It is probable that complete statis- 
tics will show that 1915 was the most productive year in 
the mining industry of the United States, the total reach- 
ing $2,500,000,000, which is a lordly sum even in these 
days of war finance. Copper mining, of course, has re- 
sponded to the intensified demand and the higher price. 
In 1915 the output of this metal was worth $236,000,000, 
which is an increase of $83,000,000 over 1914. It is 
estimated that the production of blister and Lake during 
the year reached a total of 1,365,500,000 pounds, or 
1 20,000,000 pounds in excess of the largest previous pro- 
duction. The increase over 1914 was 18%. All zinc- 
records have been broken. The output from domestic 
ores was 425,000 tons, worth $120,000,000 as compared 
witli 343,418 tons, worth $35,000,000, in 1914; thus the 
increase was 82,000 in tonnage, $85,000,000 in value, and 
25% in quantity. As regards the increase in lead, the 
figures are not so remarkable. The output of pig-lead 
from domestic ores was 515,000 tons, worth $48,500,000, 
as compared with 512,794 tons, worth $40,000,000, so 
that the increase in tonnage was only 2500, but the gain 
in value was $8,500,000, equivalent to 20% more. Anti- 
monial lead increased from 16,668 to 20,550 tons, the 
gain representing $2,000,000. In regard to the precious 
metals, the Survey and the Mint join in estimating an 
increase of $4,359,300 in gold, principally from Colorado, 
California, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho, while the silver 
production has advanced by 4,000,000 ounces, chiefly 
from Montana, Utah, and Arizona. The increase in the 
yield of gold brings the total to $98,891,100, as compared 
with $94,451,800 in 1914. Quicksilver also has seen its 
best year in 1915, the quantity produced increasing 
25%, while the value of the output was more than 
doubled, owing to the price having averaged higher than 
at any time in the last 40 years. The estimate is 20,681 
flasks of 75 pounds each, worth $1,768,225. In value 
this is the best since 1881 ; in quantity it is the best since 
the year 1912. 

In several states the past year was the best on record 
as regards metal mining. In Arizona, which is first in 
copper, even the 1913 record has been beaten. Cali- 
fornia is still at the head of the gold-producing states, 
with an output of $23,005,800, which is the biggest in 
45 years. Colorado comes second with $22,191,200, 
Alaska third with $16,626,700, and Nevada fourth with 
$11,314,700. In Montana and Arizona the increased by- 
production of silver has been noteworthy, but Nevada 
is still the largest producer, with 13,793,000 ounces, as 
against Montana's output of 12,690,200 ounces and 
Utah's output of 11,168,500 ounces. Idaho produced 
10,595,300 ounces of silver. In Alaska the intensified 
production of copper has joined with the yield of gold 
in making a year more prosperous than even the halcyon 
period of bonanza alluvial mining in 1906, when both 
Nome and Fairbanks were at their best. In fine, 1915 
was a great year; and 1916 promises to be even better. 

.laiimirv 8, 1916 

MINING and Surnlinc I'K! SS 


i lur rtadtn .ire Invited la ».,■ i/m> department for the ditcunton of technical and other mold i 

i'i 4 '" muUnl '""I metallurgy, ["he Editor nwlcoma the ,,„,,. to Inn own, b» 

Katrine; i/i.n careful .mi, itm it more valuable rliun carnal complimmt. 

Who Owns a Report? 

The Editor: 

sir Vour recent editorial on this Bubject brings for- 
ward a question of particular importance to the young 
engineer in the earlier stages of his professional work, 
and of great interest and practical significance to the 
older practitioner. Vour request for a general discussion 
of the question shows a recognition on your part that 
"all opinions, properly so-called, are stages on the road 
to truth." In a young profession like ours, the code of 
ethics is still in the making, and I believe that a thorough 
discussion of it would he of general benefit. I therefore 
endorse your hope that there will be a wide response to 
your invitation. 

The problem may be considered both from the legal 
and from the ethical standpoint. From the legal point 
of view the ownership of a report would probably be 
decided hy a consideration of the customary practice, 
and of legal decisions, if such exist; but this phase of 
the question is better left to the lawyers or those in touch 
with the authorities, for while most of us think we know 
what our legal rights are, in many cases a close analysis 
of our ideas is apt to show them to be based, not so much 
on an actual knowledge of the law, as on the principles of 
fair play and justice. From the latter standpoint the 
question may be stated as follows: should a mining en- 
gineer communicate to one client, or use for his benefit, 
information obtained for and at the expense of another 
client; and what circumstances, if any, would justify a 
course of this kind ? How far may a client insist on an 
engineer's secrecy concerning the report? In answer- 
ing these questions it may be well to first consider the 
relationship between the engineer and his client. 

The circumstances that usually bring the client into 
touch with the consulting engineer are that the one 
wishes special information and advice to guide him in 
the spending of money on a mining property, and the 
other is in a position to secure and furnish such guid- 
ance. An agreement is reached under which the engi- 
neer is to furnish the desired information for a money 
compensation. The relation is contractual, and an ele- 
ment vital to a contract is a mutual understanding 
between the parties to it; a distinct common intention as 
to the part each shall play in it. In order to reach a 
fair decision in the matter it is, therefore, of importance 
to examine further the mental attitude of the parties to 
the agreement. 

To this end it is pertinent to inquire what the client 

wants and what he expects to x<-\ when he retains an 
engineer to examine a mine, it may be assumed that 
he desires a written report containing a description of 
the property, an appraisal of its value, a statement con- 
cerning its probable future, and mention of any facts or 
conditions that may have a bearing on these subjects. 
Frequently he desires advice as to the purchase of the 
property at a particular price. It may further be 
assumed that he expects to secure the engineer's loyalty 
to his interests for as long a time as his exclusive knowl- 
edge of the property is reasonably of use to him. Also 
he may expect non-intercourse on the engineer's part 
with conflicting interests, inasfar as such intercouse 
might injure his business. He wants the examination 
and report for the purpose of furthering his pecuniary 

The engineer, in accepting the commission, implies an 
agreement to furnish, to the best of his ability, the re- 
quired information and advice as far as it is possible 
within the limitations of the time and expense allowed. 
Tacitly he agrees that the quality of his work shall be 
commensurate with the breadth of his experience. 

Without speaking from a legal standpoint, we have in 
these mutual considerations all the elements that go to 
make up what is ordinarily meant by an agreement or a 
contract. One feature of the contract I would especially 
emphasize : that the client enters into it for the purpose 
of making money, and that he employs the engineer as a 
precautionary means of safeguarding his investment. 
Presumably the engineer is fully aware of this phase of 
the contract and agrees to it. 

Since the report is for the purpose of promoting a 
matter of business, its value to the client is often depend- 
ent on his exclusive possession of its contents. Its con- 
fidential features are : first those that are private from 
their very nature and remain so for a long time, and 
second those that are private as long as they may affect 
the client's negotiations for the property, or the other 
business with which the report may be concerned. In 
my opinion the former class includes the terms of the 
proposed deal, the specific advice offered, and perhaps 
the report itself as a whole, or even the bare fact that a 
report has been made. All of these may be essentially 
concerned with the client's private business operations 
and are only to be given out at his pleasure. The latter 
class includes geological, metallurgical, statistical, or 
engineering facts; things that could be as well secured 
by other equally competent engineers for other clients. 
They need be regarded as confidential only as long as the 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8, 1916 

client retains sufficient control of the property to prevent 
others from searching for them. Possibly they have al- 
ready become known to others through previous examin- 
ations, and are not. so very private alter all. The drop- 
ping of the business, as through the failure to exercise 
an option, would immediately make the same tarts avail- 
able to the next prospective buyer. What good reason 
would there be, in a case of this kind for an engineer to 
deny himself the patronage of a second client who wish- 
ed him to report on the same mine? In most cases there 
would be none. But exceptional cases may exist : the 
engineer may not be informed on all the provisions of 
the deal ; unknown to him there may have been provi- 
sions for the renewal of the option, such as would be 
affected in a way injurious to the client by the divulging 
of information, even after the expiration of the orig- 
inal option. Obviously, the client is in the better posi- 
tion to pass on this question, and the only way in which 
the engineer can be safe in letting down the bars of sec- 
recy is to refer the question to him. 

The limit of time, within which secrecy should be ob- 
served, decreases with the client's interest in the prop- 
erty in a business way. This variation may be judged 
by direct information from the client himself, by signif- 
icant events, or by the passage of time. A definite state- 
ment from the client to the effect that the property is no 
longer of interest to him. or permission to make use of 
the original report for the benefit of a second client, 
would, of course, be sufficient. A request from a second 
party for an examination, or the intervention of a later 
option and examination by another engineer, would at 
least indicate the lapse of the original client's interest. 
Under certain circumstances, the spread of information 
concerning the mine might justify the engineer in con- 
sidering himself to some extent released from secrecy. 
For instance, an engineer might be sent to report on a 
new strike of tungsten ore in a district where its exist- 
ence had not previously been known to others than his 
client and the discoverer. In this case it might be of 
particular interest to the client that the nature of the ore. 
or even the fact that a deposit of any kind had been 
found, should be withheld: but certainly after the dis- 
covery had become common knowledge, there would be 
no breach of faith in the engineer speaking of it. An- 
other circumstance that might tend to loosen the bonds 
of secrecy would be the further development of the mine 
to such an extent that, practically, it had become a new 
mine; the later disclosures being such that the earlier 
report had lost its significance. Still another situation 
in which the client could hardly claim the exclusive right 
to a report, would be where the mine was first brought to 
his attention by the examining engineer, but where the 
option was not exercised. The engineer obviously would 
be privileged to mention it to another client, although 
the propriety of exhibiting the first client's report might 
be questioned. 

To summarize the matter, the engineer, in making an 
examination, may wish to use data secured in making a 
previous report. His experience and general knowledge. 

by which his client hopes to profit, were obtained largely 
in doing work of a confidential nature for others. Some 
important part of it may have been done in the same 
district, or perhaps in the same mine, where the exam- 
ination is to be made: and under circumstances that 
make it of particular importance to the case in hand ; 
and although of a confidential nature when it was done, 
perhaps the work might no longer be considered in that 
light. Possibly it was for these reasons that this par- 
ticular engineer was chosen for the work. Now then — 
and here is an important point in my argument — if the 
client expects to profit by data resulting from the engi- 
neer's previous work, the confidential nature of which 
has lapsed, it seems that as a matter of justice, of com- 
mon every-day fair-play, he thereby obligates himself to 
surrender similar information when his interest in it 
ceases. In deciding when such data are available for 
second use, the engineer must use tact and common- 
sense. Facts within his knowledge, or direct permission 
from the former client, will usually make these data 
honorably available. If such facts are lacking, and it" 
the former client is thought to he unreasonable, it is best 
to submit to his wishes; and if the refusal appears to be 
due to 'pure cussedness, ' to abstain from further rela- 
tions with him. But it should he remembered that the 
client is in the better position to judge of how his own 
interest might be affected. It would he better to get 
along without such data than to be accused of using them 
to a client's detriment. 

The engineer's standard of professional conduct 
should be high. He should he particularly careful not 
to permit the possession of valuable information to over- 
shadow his knowledge of the former client's object in 
securing it. In doubtful cases the test should be, not the 
letter of the law alone, but that of fairness and regard 
for the client's interest. 

What rules should guide an engineer, in the employ 
of a company, when writing about the technical details 
of the work he is doing, or has done, for his employer? 
I think the answer to this question should be governed 
by the same principles that control the reply to 'Who 
Owns a Report?' namely: those of fairness and regard 
for the employer's interest. There is this difference be- 
tween the two situations; that where a client depends 
for protection on the consulting engineer's honesty, and 
where he would be practically at the mercy of an un- 
scrupulous engineer, with doubtful means of redress in 
case of a breach of faith ; an employer has a much more 
effective means of enforcing his will over the engineer 
on his staff. But aside from this phase of the question, 
no engineer of good judgment should be tactless enough 
to publish, without his employer's consent, an article 
that might be considered as bearing on the company's 
business affairs. Even where the article consisted of a 
description of technical methods as applied in the com- 
pany's operations, the product of the engineer's own 
brain, it would at least be in good taste to first submit it 
for the employer's approval. I think this would be. in 
most cases, largely a matter of form, as the engineer 

January \ 1016 

MINING and Scientific PRPSS 

should in- able in gauge fairly accurately the limits 
beyond which he might not go. *>u the other hand, since 
must miii are reasonable if properly approached, I think 
it will be only in exceptional oaaea that the publication 
of articles on purely technical operations will be denied. 
A broad-minded employer will surely sympathize with 
the engineer's desire for such recognition from liis fellow 
engineers as may be Becured from writing on technical 
matters; and, if he gives the matter sufficient thought, 
will perceive that he, through the medium of the engi 
neer's reading, is receiving the hem-tit of the technical 
experience of others. Here, again, we have run the nui's- 
tion down to the principle that a fair exchange is uo 

.1 A. HtmiEss. 
Wonder, Nevada, December 14. 1915. 

The Alaska Gold Mines 

The Editor: 

sir in your editorial on the Alaska Gold Mines, in 
the issue of November 20, you estimate that it will take 
18 years to return the capital invested, provided that 

5A', is set aside for that purpose annually. Ami in a 
recent editorial in the Engineering and Mining Journal 
(one Hi' your contemporaries) it is stated thai "A mine 
with a delimited orebody figured upon as lasting 20 years 
ought to pay about 'H'i gross in order to afford 6% 
net." As the valuation of these shares has been so much 
discussed it seems as if an examination of the question 
from an actuarial standpoint may be of interest. 

You evidently arrive at the term of 18 years for re- 
demption of capital at the rate of 5A% annually by di- 
viding 100 by 51. which gives practically 18 ; however, 
you have neglected to take into account the fact that the 
shareholder who applies a portion of his dividend to re- 
deeming, or amortizing, his capital does not put the 
money received in his safe-deposit box, but invests it in 
other securities. At present he can safely invest these 
sums in Government bonds to net nearly 5£%, and at 
this rate it will require but 13 years to recoup his capital 
instead of the 18 of your estimate. 

The fact, however, that it will only take 13 years to 
repay the capital does not interfere with your conclu- 
sion that the price of $40 per share seems unreasonably 
high. Not enough information has been given to allow 
of an exact valuation of the shares, but the maximum 
statement of resources seems to be that made by the 
management that the mines will last for a generation 
and will produce 8000 tons daily at a profit of 75 cents 
per ton. The buyer of the shares at $40 is paying at 
the rate of $30,000,000 for the property (750.000 shares) 
and if 2.800,000 tons are worked yearly the annual 
profit will be $2.] 00.000, or 7% on the $30,000,000. 
Taking the life of the mine at 30 years and the rate on 
the sinking-fund for redemption of capital at 4% (to be 
on the safe side) it works out that the shareholder will 
receive about 5.25% for his investment, an entirely in- 
adequate return for capital invested, or, speaking more 
:accurately, used for speculating in gold mines. On the 

I.;. sis suggested by yon tii«i the shareholder ought to 
have in', net mi ins money, the value of the shares 
works out at about +2 1. in view of the fact that a 
huge horse of barren materia] has cut tie' profits to 16 
cents per ton it would seem as if the price of 124 per 

share wns fully high enough. 

Although these problems of valuation of shares are 
fully understood by most engineers, yet thsy an- not 

treated with any great detail in the ordinary engii r'a 

pocket book. The most complete set of tables tot a 
reasonable price is to !»• found in Hurst's 'Architectural 
Surveyor's Handbook,' published by Spon & Co., Lon- 
don. This is often bound with Molesworth's 'Pocket 

Book of Engineering Formulas.' One of the most r nt 

books on the subject is "I'he mathematical Theory of 

Investment.' by lv B. Skii r. published by Cum & 

Co.. at $2.25. On pages 160-Ki:! is round an article on 
the valuation of mining properties, the general problem 

being stilted as follows: "To find the value of a mine 

when the rate to be received by the investor differs from 

the rate lit which the redemption fund Can be accumu- 
lated." The formula for this is: 


where V„ = value of the mine; It = the net annual in- 
come ; i' the rate of interest the shareholder expects on 
his investment; i the rate at which the dividends can be 
re-invested; n, the time to elapse before the mine is ex- 
hausted. £„ denotes the amount of an annuity of $1 per 
annum, payable annually for n years, at the rate i. 

John Worden. 
Salt Lake City, December 10. 

Colorado-Gilpin Gold and Radium 

The Editor: 

Sir — Noting publication in your Mining Summary 
columns of December 18 of the notice of organization 
of the Colorado-Gilpin Gold & Radium Mining Co., in 
which I am named as consulting engineer, I desire to 
say that I am not connected with this company and that 
my name has been used without authority. 

Further, I take occasion to disclaim any connection 
with or responsibility for the prospectus of this com- 
pany, issued from 1005 Drexel building, Philadelphia. 
Also, for my own part and on the part of others, T wish 
to protest against the use in this prospectus of letters 
bearing no dates and published in such a way that they 
are calculated to give a false impression of their real 

Forbes Rickard. 

Denver, December 30, 1915. 

Montana has an area of 146,080 square miles, which 
is over twice that of Missouri. Its population is less than 
half a million, which is smaller than that of Rhode 
Island, a territory of less than one-hundredth the size. 
Montana's output of metals in 1915 was $87,000,000. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8, 1916 

Scheelite Mining and Grading 

By P. B. McDonald 

r T~'IIE Atolia district in southern California, near the J 'apparent' scheelite contains 35% of W0 3 ; that } 
line between San Bernardino and Kern counties, 'apparent' scheelite contains 28% of tungstic acid, 
has become an important producer of scheelite. These figures seem high, but the apparent discrepancy 
Both lode and placer mining are in progress, and lessees is due to the high specific gravity of scheelite as corn- 
are active in many operations of small scale but high pared with that of quartz, it being remembered that the 
profits. Prices of over a dollar per pound for concentrate sorting is done by volume. 

of 60% WO, have stimulated the prospecting and min- In the first lot that was shipped, the mine estimate of 

ing of tungsten ores to an unusual degree. But the oc- its No. 1 grade as averaging 65% of WO, checked closely 

currence of scheelite in California is not confined to the with the analysis of the buyer, which was 65.4%. The 

Atolia district. second grade, which was judged at the mine to be 50% 

In the Union Hill gold mine at Grass Valley some of W0 3 , proved to be 45.7%. The third grade, estimated 

scheelite is found associated witli the quartz veins, and at the mine at 25% of WO a , ran 26.2%. In the sorting 

several shipments of picked ore have been made to a for shipment at the Onion Hill mine the No. 1 grade is 

buyer in Colorado, the Wolf Tongue Mining Co. at usually ma. 1.- up of apparently pure scheelite ; the No. 2 
Nederland in Boulder count v. and to Atkins. Kroll & Co. 


of San Francisco. A. D. Cox. the mine superintend- — -r-r->-~-r-i^->— — __ ^^ „ _ ^ sw 

ent, has noted that the scheelite is found where the ' / / / / // x Y'VAir j 

quartz veins traverse a wide sedimentary series of black /, ^/YX'\Ofc' '■•/?■' -A •'' /'J° 

slate, quartzite, and intermediate phases. The accom- ^''V'tt'Vvi 

panying sketch shows the four narrow veins cutting , / '//', ^/ /VVvv' '.?.» 

amphibolite schist at surface, in which no scheelite is ' /'////x\ 

noted; but in the 500-ft. thickness of sedimentaries / //,// / , / / : \P\/\ 

(where the presence of lime may be a factor in the for- , / //.■■■ '/'a/A 

mation of the tungstate of lime scheelite appears likely '// y/' • • :/■'■': \ , 

to be found liberally. It is not known whether or not // 1 

there is scheelite in the altered diabase below the sedi- '/■ ■ 

mentaries, as the mine-workings have not yet reached /k ■■ '■ .■/■',■ '•/ ... ■'■/.., 

that depth. It was at first thought that the scheelite '"■/?*'•»/ ■'.'■'/ VV" v " „" 

would onlv be found bordering the lenses of quartz, ■'/.*'>■ ■'/.■ '■'■■/■* * " \ " " * 

particularly where the vein changed in width. How- ' '-/?.^/ *" ■'v vv ^*** 

ever, later developments in the lowest vein, called the {/^Jschist |..-..| seoimeistary 

Georgia, have not confirmed this idea, as the scheelite [7^] diabase. 

tliere is found in various parts of the vein. ,_... „ 


Mr. Cox's method of grading the scheelite for ship- 
ment to the buyer is as follows: The scheelite ore is gra de embraces the picked ore between apparently pure 
dried, cobbed, and picked. As is usual with most scheelite and 4 apparent scheelite by volume. The pro- 
scheelite ores, what is apparently pure scheelite will be portions of the No. 2 grade would "thus lie between 46 
seen, if examined closely, to contain minute stringers of an d 67.6% WO, : the final percentage is adjudged after 
quartz. The specific gravity of chemically pure scheelite looking it over carefully and would be probably nearer 
(containing 80.5% of WO,) is 6. that of quartz about t o 46 than to 67.6%. rather than the numerical average, 
2*. The specific gravity of a piece of apparently pure because there is usually more ore slightly above 46% than 
scheelite was determined by test and found to be 5.42. there is slig]Mv below 67 6% The No 3 grade is be _ 
showing the presence of a small amount of quartz as tween ^ and * apparent scheelite judged by volume. The 
an impurity. usual ^^^ sn j pped are . lst 6 5% ; 2nd, 50% ; 3rd, 25%. 

By proportioning the specific gravities of scheelite and ■»«-,. rv^'o «^,,-„„ „ -e •*.• j i 

' . , f , , ,. Mr. (_ ox s figures on specific gravities and volumes are 

quartz, it was computed that 'pure' scheelite. as found in as f ]] mvs . 

this mine, contains 84% scheelite and 16% quartz, which TO , ' t ^^ fa wej h ^ Qther { ag _ 

means an estimated amount of 67.6$ f WO,. Con- gamed to be Z; 

tinuing this computation, it was determined that ore 

that looked to be j (by volume) of 'apparent' scheelite. °.ll * If «* % appa ™ nt scheelite) = *•«« 

.,,,., . . _„„ , _,« 0.25X2.5 (sp. gr. quartz) = 0.63 

as .indged by the man sorting it. contains 58$ of AVO ; 

that 4 'apparent' scheelite contains 46% of WO, : that Specific gravity ot specimen = 4.69 

Junarj B, 1916 

MINING and Scicntifu I'KI S> 


Proportion of apparent seheallta t>> weight. -'_ =87% 

t • . '.• 

Proportion .if WO, = O.ST X 0.670 (percentage 

of WO, lii apparent MbMllU )., = ."■- 

With i apparent seheelite by volume (other '. assumed 
to be quart 


0.33 I KO = 0.82 

-;r. specimen = 4.45 

Proportion apparent seheelite by weight = 81.5% 

Proportion WO, In specimen = 0.818 \ 0.676 = 55.1% 

With J apparent ooheelite by volume, etc.: 

0.5 X 5.-C = 2.73 

0.5 X 2.60 = 1.25 

Sp. gr. specimen = 3.96 

Proportion apparent scheellte by weight = 

Proportion WO, In specimen = 0.683 X 0.676 = 46.2% 

With J apparent scheellte the proportion of WO, = 35% 

With 1 apparent scheellte the proportion of WO, = 28% 

With i apparent seheelite the proportion of WO, = 24% 

With i apparent scheellte the proportion of WO, = 20.8% 

With i apparent scheellte the proportion of WO, = 16% 

Phosphorus, sulphur, and arsenic, although not of 
consequence in the Onion Hill ore, are deleterious im- 
purities in the seheelite because harmful to the steel to 
which the tungsten is added; one buyer of seheelite im- 
poses a penalty on more than 5% of these elements. The 
occurrence of seheelite in gold ore raises a question as 
to the line at which the tungsten becomes more valuable 
tlian the gold. If the ore is treated for its gold content, 
the seheelite slimes so readily, on account of its friability. 
that it becomes difficult to separate. The most practi- 
cable way seems to be to pick the high-grade seheelite 
and grade it by hand methods. A fine intimate mix- 
ture of seheelite and other heavy minerals is difficult to 
separate ; fortunately seheelite is usually found in par- 
ticles of ] inch, or over, while the accompanying pyrite 
is generally less than -fe inch. Cases where seheelite 
occurs with gold are increasing ; they include besides the 
Union Hill mine, the Wasp No. 2 mine of South Dakota, 
the Suan Concession in Korea, and several gold mines in 
New Zealand. 

Safety in Using Explosives. In a discussion of the 
above subject at a meeting of the Chemical, Metal- 
lurgical, and Mining Society of South Africa, the points 
of importance considered by eight members were as 
follows : 

Fractional re-blasting of cut, saliva in detonators, plac- 
ing the detonator well down the charge, crimping the 
fuse causing misfires, electric blasting, tearing off paper 
at ends of cartridge, slitting cartridge longitudinally, 
frozen explosives, use of cheap fuse of irregular burning 
speed, deterioration of fuse on storage, rate of burning 
speed of fuse, tying of fuse with detonator to primer 
cartridge, primer cartridge at bottom of charge with 
water tamping, Nowag clip. No. 6 and 8 detonators, 
weak detonators, damp detonators, saw-dust in deton- 
ators, working ends of detonators pointing wrong way. 
stacking of cases of explosives, excessive coiling of fuse, 

Clipper sheathed tamping-rods, qualits of fn 
Bring holes, out out shots, and lig dyn pr 

Flotation at Humboldt, 

•Tin- flotation process baa been introduced into the 
mil] of the Consolidated Arizona Smelting Co., at Hum 
imlili, Arizona, with such success as to increase the con 
centration of cupper 20% above the best work done pre 

vioualy with jigs, tables, and vanners. Tl re treated 

in this mill consists of pyrite and chalcopyrite in a 
gangue of quartz and schist, starting with a '■'■', cup 
per ore, a tabic concentrate assaying "', and a table 
tailing assaying 2.1% are obtained. This table-tailing 

I" nes the flotation-feed, which, after treatment, yields 

a 14% concentrate and a 0.395 tailing. In September 
1915 the mill treated 7173 tons of 2.65% copper ore for 
a recovery of 90.9% of the copper, 68% of the gold, and 
72% of the silver. The ore contains 0.03 oz. gold and 
1.3 oz. silver per ton. The ratio of concentration in the 
mill as a whole was 4: 1 and in the flotation department 
74:1. By the old method — with jigs, tables, and van- 
ners — the recovery of copper was only 70%. 

The friable copper mineral made a slime that eluded 
water concentration but is readily amenable to flota- 
tion. About 60% of the flotation product is finer than 
200 mesh. Wilfley tables are used now only for the 
rough work, the flotation machines being responsible for 
the major part of the recovery. The Minerals Separa- 
tion apparatus is used. Acid is not employed. Nor is 
the temperature of the pulp raised. . 

When oxidized ore finds its way to the mill, the ex- 
traction suffers. Decomposition products such as iron 
oxide and magnesium carbonate 'kill' the froth in the 

The total cost of concentration, including coarse 
crushing and flotation royalty, is slightly over $1 per 
ton. In September it was $1.03. Exclusive of royalty, 
the cost of the flotation part of the treatment has been 
27 cents per ton during a period of six months. The 
cost for oil is 2.8c. per pound, on a consumption of a 
little less than one pound of oil per ton of crude ore. 
The power consumed by the flotation machine is 32.7 kw. 
per 24 hours. The improvements made in the metal- 
lurgical treatment are due to G. M. Colvocoresses, the 
general manager, and J. N. D. Gray, the mill superin- 

Ecuador has an area of 116,000 square miles, being 
larger than Arizona, and a population of 1,500,000, which 
is six times that of Arizona. Quito, the capital, situated 
practically on the Equator, has 60,000 people. Three 
railroad companies operate, with a total of 360 miles of 
track. Guayaquil is the leading port of that section of 
the coast. 

•A precis of an article appearing in Metallurgical & Chemical 
Engineering, December 1, 1915. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8, 1916 

The Relation of Employer and 


By John P. Irish 

^11 K relations of employfa and employee have un- 
dergone great changes, affecting both classes. 
Before organized labor was known the work- 
man of exceptional skill and industry commanded not 
only steady employment, bnt a premium on his skill, 
in the form of higher wages than were paid to the less 
skillful and less industrious. This acted as an incentive 
to all ambitious workmen to acquire skill in their trade 
and apply themselves to it with industry. In that time 
the American mechanic ranked high and advanced 
rapidly to a position of independence. It was our 
patriot i, • boast that a President of the United States had 
been a tailor, and that D. S. Senators who left a great 
work in the history of this republic had started in life 
as skilled cabinet makers, coopers, and harness makers. 
All thai is so far past that it. is forgotten. The labor 
union system permits no premium on special skill, and 
it checks industry by limitation of output. Ambition 
is not merely smothered. It is discredited. Workmen 
no longer depend upon their skill and quality for em- 
ployment, but upon the power of the union. They afe 
commanded to work or to cease by the walking delegate 
or the business agent. The employer is no longer per- 
mitted to pick his employees from the members of a 
union. The business agent does that, for him, and orders 
whom he pleases to work and whom to lie idle. That this 
power is liable to abuse goes without saying, since the 
power to favor some members by detailing them to jobs 
includes the power of the business agent to get a rake- 
off from the wages of his favorites. 

There is no logical nor economic objection to the 
union organization of labor: The objection runs against 
its use of power. The unions are extra-legal bodies. 
They refuse to incorporate and so incur legal obligations, 
and Hie right I" sue and be sued in civil actions. I'.ut 
they impose lines upon thnr members and collect them 
under penalty in denial to the delinquent of the right to 
work, which is a denial of the right, to live, since nature 
endowed man with wants upon which his life depends 
and which can be satislied only by the labor of his hands. 
Thus denial of his right to work is a sentence to death or 
dishonesty. This is a power that, the State cannot exer- 
cise. The government of the United States cannot deny 
to tie- weakest of its citizens tin' right to live by his 

The exercise of that power by labor unions, extra legal 
bodies, with no standing in the courts, and no right to 
sue or liability to be sued in a civil action, is one of the 
most alarming manifestations of irresponsible power 
that the mind can conceive. 

One of the avowed principles of labor unions is the 
right of collective bargaining. The individual workman 

•An address before the Oakland branch of the Merchants 
and Manufacturers' Association. 

no longer makes his contract with the employer for 
wages, hours, and conditions of labor. The contract is 
made tor him by the business agent or other authority of 
the union. Now a contract, to be just, must be bi-lateral, 
equal in the responsibility of both its parties for its 
enforcement fiid observance. But a contract between a 
labor union and an employer cannot be enforced by the 
employer against the union, for the union is a legally 
irresponsible body. But the union can enforce the con- 
tract against the employer, if not by damages against 
his property in the courts of equity, by calling a strike, 
putting him under boycott, picketing his property, de- 
nying to his customers the right to trade with him, and 
throwing him into bankruptcy and ruin. 

The history of these affairs shows that these things 
have been done when the employer has not violated any 
part of the contract, but because he has violated some 
"union rule" that was not part of the contract and of 
which h>' knew nothing. 

The public has become accustomed and callous to 
these things. The courts, under terror of the recall, are 
cowardly or indifferent to their duty to protect the rights 
of properly and under these circumstances the em- 
ployer finds himself the powerless victim of union power 
and vengeance in matters not involved in contract, and 
which do not. concern w^ages, hours, or conditions of 

The streets of Oakland for months have been incum- 
bered by union pickets, sporting a red sash and march- 
ing in front of boycotted business houses, and for what 
reason ? 

The statement of one case answers for all. A large 
confectionery store and ice-cream parlor on Broadway 
is owned and operated by a widow. She has had the 
same teamsters in her employ for years, paying them the 
union scab' and more. I'.ut they were non-union men. 
and the business agent of the union demanded that they 
join. They stubbornly refused. Then the business agent 
demanded of their employer that she make them join 
or discharge them. She replied that they were free to 
join or refuse, and she would not discharge them in 
either event. Therefore the union put her place under 
boycott and picket, and has in every way annoyed and 
threatened her customers and injured her business. 

Now can you imagine a more defiant and impudent 
denial of the common right, of men than that? Can you 
imagine a more brutal impairment of the rights of em- 
ployer and employee alike? Can you imagine anything 
more repugnant to American citizens, to a lover of 
liberty, to a believer in our system of government .' 

Yet it goes on unchecked by the courts, permitted by 
the municipal government, which asks employers for sup- 
port, while denying to them the protection of their rights 
for which they pay taxes. And yet there is no question 
of hours or wages involved ; none of those things called 
by the unions "the rights of labor." 

Surely it is time that the business men of the country 
organize and demand that labor unions accept legal 
civil liability or be treated as organizations injurious to 
the State, and forbidden by law. 

.Uliunrv 8, 1918 

MINING ud Seitnli6< I'KI SS 


Dredging in Mozambique 

Til K general manager for the Andrada Mines, Ltd., 
1. C. di> l;i Maliere, has communicated to us the 
results of the tirsl year's work of the dredge 
.l//)/i«/. which is working in the Mozambique territory 
( Africa), near the Rhodesian border. 

After a trial, the dredge was set to work on February 
10, 1914 ; from then to December 31, 1914, it worked out 
a surface of 19$ hectares or approximately 48 acres, dig- 
ging a depth of 14 ft, 8 inches. During this period it 
treated 1.149,798 cubic yards, yielding gold worth 11,- 
076,239 francs,* equivalent to 18.6 cents per cubic yard. 
The expenses, including all the general charges, in Mo- 
zambique, at Paris, and Loudon were 545,090 francs, 
excluding amortization. The cost therefore was equiv- 
alent to 9.4 cents per cubic yard. The dredge worked 
5407 hours, being stopped for repairs during 1912 hours, 
and for lack of power during 483 hours, equivalent to 
2395 hours of lost time. This total is distributed as 

follows : _. 


For repairs and improvements 39 

For lack of power 27 

For boulders 20 

For moving the dredge and stepping ahead 14 

The average working-time per day, counting the loss 
from lack of power, was 16 hr. 40 minutes. The yardage 
treated per month averaged 100,000. This was unsatis- 
factory and was due to shortage of power, caused by the 
dry season, which lasts nearly three months. The com- 
pany has erected an auxiliary Diesel oil-engine plant to 
remedy this defect. 

The average expenses per month have been : 

Francs. Francs. 

Realizing gold 1,000 

Sundries 1,400 

General expense 14,000 

White men 13,400 

Natives 1,600 


Material 12,500 

Power 5,500 

Total ...$10,000 or 49,400 

•A franc may be taken at 20 cents U. S. 

As this one dredge had to bear all the general expenses, 
the cost is very high, for it includes all the expenditure 
in prospecting, to prepare ground for additional dredges. 

Per month. 

1 Dredge-master $200 to 250 

3 Winch-men (each) 175 to 200 

3 Oilers (each) 150 

1 Fitter 200 

1 Blacksmith 175 

1 Shore-man 125 

40 Natives 25 to 75c. per day and food 

An average of 3 Americans has been employed, their 
board being paid by the company. The two features of 
this dredging operation are: 

1. The blasting of the boulders in the buckets, 5625 
blastings in 11 months 20 days. 

2. The swinging of the boat in a pond about 1000 ft. 
wide, sometimes 1200 ft. This wide pond helps to render 
the monthly outputs less irregular, especially in patchy 
ground. Wear and tear of the principal parts of the 
dredge was distributed as follows: 

Notwithstanding about 8000 blastings, the buckets 
have not been changed until August 1915, after 19 
months work. The lips could serve two months more, 
50% of the hoods were cracked or pierced, the bottoms 
and eyes were in very good shape and will serve for an- 
other 18 months, with new lips and hoods. 

Pins have lasted 18 months. 

Bushings have lasted 9 months. 

Screen-plates have lasted 18 months. 

Conveyor-belts have lasted 10 months. 

Wire cables have lasted 8 months. 

The cast-iron idlers, for the conveyor-belt, were all 
broken in a month's time, on account of boulders. They 
are now made of cast-steel and resist much better. Dur- 
ing the first six months in 1915, the output has been 
673,256 francs for a treatment of 781,253 eu. yd., that 
is, an average of $22,441 per month for 130,209 cu. yd. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8, 1916 

Testing Ores for the Flotation Process— II 

By O. C. Ralston and Glenn L.^Ulan 

SEPARATORS' FUNNELS. During the past year 
an article on practice in Mexico'' mentioned the tad 
that much of the preliminary testing on the on- was 
done in Beparatory funnels, in which the charges of pulp, 
oil, etc.. were shaken, after which the cock at the bottom 

of the funnel was opened and the tailing run into a sec- 
ond separator?' funnel for farther flotation tests, the cock 
being closed in time to catch the froth. The versatility 
of experiment permissible with the use of such apparatus 
(Fig. 13) is commendable. Obviously, this arrangement 
is open to the same objections as is the slide machine ex- 
cepl that separatory funnels are simple and inexpensive. 

square glass candy-jars (Fig. 14) with a motor-driven 
impeller have been used to show flotation phenomena in 
court. In a recent U. S. Patent (No. 1,155,8:-!G taken 
out by T. M. Owen, one of the engineers of the Minerals 
Separation Co.. is a sketch of a simple test-machine 
made of an ordinary 2i-litre acid-bottle. (See Fig. 14A I. 


: ^-6lass Jar. 

■ ,^--4 Baffles. 

■ Impeller. 

Wooden Cork. 
— Pipe Nipple. 
\^Check Valve. 

/■Air Inlet. 

Fig. 13. skparatory funnel. 


Elmore Machine. As far as we know, no small test- 
machine for the Elmore process has come into common 
use on account of the fact that the pulp must be lifted 
through a tube corresponding in length to the column of 
water equivalent to barometric pressure. This makes an 
awkward laboratory machine. Mr. Hoover (2nd edition, 
page 98), describes "illustrative" experiments with the 
pulp in a bottle connected with a water-pump for pro- 
ducing a vacuum, but no quantitative method of this 
kind has been developed. 

Other miscellaneous frothing tests are in the literature 
but most of them are merely "illustrative." Putting a 
charge into a soda-water siphon, pumping in air to dis- 
solve the water, and then releasing the charge into a 
beaker gives nice-looking froth. In some of the lawsuits 

•-M. & S. P.. Vol. CXI, page 122 (July 24, 1915). 

This corresponds to the sub-aeration type of machine and 
is recommended by Mr. Owen for test-work when such 
a type of machine seems necessary, as in differential 
flotation. Air is led into the pulp through the stopper in 
tlie bottom and beaten into the pulp by the impeller. 
The four large baffles above the impeller prevent the 
swirling of the pulp from rising through them, so that 
there is a quiet zone in the top of the machine where the 
froth can collect. One great beauty of such a machine 
is that any froth formed will rise immediately to the 
discharge. However, we believe that the Janney and 
Hoover machines are the most useful of the mechanically- 
agitated type. 

Pneumatic Flotation. Among the different pneu- 
matic machines, as far as we are acquainted, the Callow 
test-machine is the only one of laboratory size that has 

January B, 1916 

MINING »nd Scirniiftc PRESS 

Ih-.ii bums developed it li merely the oommereia] Cal- 
ls* machine reduced In il - Pig i; ' "•■ '"" l '" 
. |. \,u ip in. in in th>' laboratory of the General Bo 
gineering Co., i" Salt Lake t'ity. haa rantlted in the 
reprodnetion of t It*- whole planl in miniature (see Pig. 
17 iin.i lTu . with Paohnoa mixer, ronghing-oell, clean- 
bag '.11. vii.-iuimtilt.T. and sand-pump to return mid- 
dling i" the Paohnoa mixer. As seen in the drawing, the 

AlK Conncctiow 

■ueh it i ■ us then are " number of thii 
be kepi in operation at the lame time, The mixtui 
ore, water, oil, and any other reagenta is fed either into 

'Air Holcs 
flo. 14. the square glass jar machine. 

pulp is mixed well in a Pachuca tank of small size, over- 
flowing into the rougher flotation-cell. The tailing from 
this rougher goes to a sand-pump and is returned to the 
Pachuca. The froth is treated in a second and smaller 
pneumatic-flotation unit, giving a concentrate that over- 
flows into an ordinary laboratory vacuum-filter actuated 
by a water or aspirating pump. The tailing from the 
'cleaner-cell' consists of a middling that likewise flows to 
the sand-pump and back to the Pachuca. 
A novice will have no small difficulty in operating 

Fig. 17. CALLOW tksting-mai mine WITH PACHUCA MIXES. 

Fig. 17A. callow rougher and cleaner in miniature. 

the suction of the sand-pump or into the top of the 
Pachuca after air has been started into the various ma- 
chines. The overflow from the Pachuca into the rougher- 
cell accumulates until a nice froth is coming up and 
nearly overflowing. Then the tailing-discharge valve on 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8. 1916 

the rougher is gradually opened and froth allowed to 
overflow from the cell into the 'cleaner '-cell. It is best 
to get most of the charge circulating before much con- 
centrate-froth is allowed to overflow, the overflow of 
froth being controlled by the main air-valves leading to 
each unit. After the valves into the individual wind- 
boxes beneath the machine have been once adjusted they 
should never be disturbed, and all control of air supplied 
should be at the valves in the main pipes. When every- 
thing is going well, the air-pressure in the cleaner can 
be increased until concentrate-froth is overflowing into 
the vacuum-filter. A wooden paddle to stir any settled 
material in the flotation cells is of value, as well as a small 
jet of water from a rubber hose for washing concentrate 
along the froth-launders and for beating down froth 
when occasional too-violent rushes of froth from the cells 
take place. After a test is complete the pulp should be 
drained completely from all parts of the machine while 
the air is still blowing, so that solids will not settle in 
passages or clog the canvas blanket in the cells. Only 
practice will allow anyone to get reliable results with this 
machine. A watch-glass for catching and panning occa- 
sional samples of froth is another necessary auxiliary to 
this equipment. The cost of installing such a set of 
apparatus is from $100 to $150. At least 1000 grams of 
ore is required for a test and about 30 minutes to 1 hour 
is spent. It can be seen that nothing but a finished con- 
centrate and a tailing are obtained. The machine is 
said to give results closely paralleling those obtained with 
larger-scale apparatus. A source of supply of com- 
pressed air at 3 to 5 lb. per sq. in. is necessary and the 
main valves on the air-pipe leading to each machine 
should be some type of needle-valve in order to ensure 
exact control. 

Laboratory Manipulations. Turning from the de- 
scription of the machines used to the operations on the 
ore before and after the flotation operation, we have in 
general the problems of crushing the ore and of drying 
tin- froth-concentrate. 

As a rule laboratory machinery for the pulverization 
of ore is of the dry-grinding type, with the exception of 
small hall-mills that can crush from 1 to 100 lb. charges 
in the wet. Consequently, most people start with weighed 
charges of finely-ground dry ore. a known quantity of 
water, of oil, and of acid or alkali. Our experience has 
been that most dry-ground ore must be treated in an 
acidified pulp to get good flotation. Doubtless the sur- 
faces of sulphide particles become somewhat oxidized in, 
or shortly after, dry grinding and the function of the acid 
would be to clean the slightly oxidized surfaces. Wet 
grinding usually does not call for so much acid. In 
nearly all laboratory work finer grinding than is used in 
practice seems to be necessary. This may possibly be due 
to the smaller amounts of froth that are formed. Such 
small quantities of froth cannot form layers as deep as 
those made in the large machines. If a big particle of 
sulphide can be entrained with a number of smaller 
particles, it can be floated, but with a thin froth the 
.chance of such entrainment would seem to be less. Some 

experimenters have informed us that they were able to 
float even as large as 30-mesh material, but our own ex- 
perience is that 60-mesh material is often hard to float 
with any chance of getting a high extraction, while the 
operation is performed with much more ease and expedi- 
tion when ^ie ore is crushed somewhat finer. 

Wet grinding is more desirable, as it parallels condi- 
tions in practice, where most of the finer grinding of ore 
is in Chilean, tube, and other mills. However, wet grind- 
ing is harder to manipulate in a small laboratory and re- 
quires more time. The dry weight of the feed to the 
flotation machine must be known; hence a weighed 
charge of dry ore crushed to about 10-mesh can be in- 
troduced into a porcelain or iron pebble-mill for grind- 
ing and ground for the length of time found necessarj - 
to reduce the pulp to sufficient fineness — 15 minutes to 24 
hours. The charge can then be poured and washed 
through a coarse screen (to retain the pebbles) into a 
bucket and thence into the flotation machine. The oxida- 
tion of sulphide surfaces is thus avoided, but separate 
grinding of each charge, in order to know its exact 
weight, is rather tedious and requires a number of small 
mills if many tests are being run, on account of slow- 
speed in grinding. A mill with iron balls rather than 
pebbles is of greater service. It is possible to introduce 
the flotation-oil before grinding, to be sure that it will be 
thoroughly mixed. For thick viscous oils this is highly 
beneficial, as a ball-mill gives about the best conditions 
for agitation and mixing. Usually 1 to 2 lb. charges are 
used and a small laboratory mill of the Abbe type serves 
well, although a good mill can be made with a 10-inch 
length of 8-in. iron pipe and two heavy iron caps for 
the same. 

Practice in our laboratory has been standardized to a 
laboratory-gyratory crushing to 10-mesh, splitting into 
weighed samples kept in paper bags and reduced to 
smaller size by either wet or dry grinding as occasion 

A short-stemmed tin funnel about 6 inches in diameter 
with a one-inch opening is found to be about the most 
convenient means of pouring a charge of ore into a 
laboratory flotation-machine. 

The measuring and testing of flotation-oils in the 
laboratory has been very inexact in many instances wit- 
nessed by us. It is common practice to count the number 
of drops of oil falling from a small piece of glass tubing. 
We are using a Mohr pipette of 1 c.c. total capacity for 
measurement of the amount of oil used in each test. 
Such a pipette is shown in full size in Pig. 18. It will be 
seen that this pipette allows measurement of the oil to 
the nearest 0.01 c.c., which is as close as will ever be de- 
sired. If the density of the oil is known, the volume as 
measured by this method is quickly converted into the 
weight of oil used. 

The testing of oil samples for flotative power is a 
matter that needs standardizing. It is desirable to 
classify oils according to flotative power, but just how to 
do this is not exactly clear. A unit of 'flotativeness' 
might be established and each oil referred to that unit 

.laiinitrv x. 1916 

MINING ,.r,d Sc.cntinc PR I SS 


in i.rii.s of percentage, Mm it has bo be reman 
that the befJ oil for one ore may not prove to be the bait 
•>il for another, although two nefa aeriea of oila might 
roughly parallel aaeh other, for any given ore, it would 

rible to nuke raoh a meaanremenl on 
afla and group them according to aome definite standard. 
a atandard oU mighl be ehoaan and the value of a second 
oil expreaaed in pereentagea of the flotative power of the 
tirst as determined by usinp equal quantities of the two 
oils in teata on an ore under identical conditions. This 

Fig. 15. the callow cell. 

test could not be fair for the reason that different 
amounts of two different oils are necessary to accomplish 
the same results. Further, the conditions of acidity or 
alkalinity might favor one oil and handicap another. If 
we measured the amount of oil necessary to give a fixed 
percentage of extraction the first of the above objections 
would be satisfied but conditions of acidity or alkalinity 
could make the test unfair for some oils. Hence the 
dilemma as to a standardized test of a flotation-oil. 

No single test could definitely place an oil in any 
scheme of classification and nothing can be done but run 
a series of tests using varying amounts of the oil to be 
tested and with varying acidity or alkalinity. The 
temperature of the pulp must be kept constant although 
it has a minor effect. 

i .mils givea aboul tin- on}} directiona on oil i 
thai are to be (bund in the literature of the nib 
He itatea rightly that the tir*t thing to do with an oil la 



Fig. 16. cm i ra 1 1 -i Bl r. 
to measure its density, for future calculations. 

as it will be measured by volume in the labora- 
tory and must later be reduced to weights. He 
recommends the use of a burette for measuring 
the oil. but we favor the Mohr pipette men- 
tioned above. He chooses a standard ore on 
which all tests are to be run and classifies three 
different kinds of standard tests: (1) for 
mixed sulphides, (2) differential separation, 
and (3) flotation of copper and iron sulphides. 
He states that oils high in phlanderene have 
proved best for differential separation of zinc- 
lead sulphide ores. While this is helpful, he 
does not state just how the oils are to be classi- 
fied after the tests have been made. 

Much work with oils is needed in order to 
determine if there are any definite constitu- 
ents in oils that give them flotation power. 
Research is also needed in the preparation of 
oils from the wood, coal, and mineral oils in 
such a manner that they will have maximum 
efficiency in flotation. Work on this subject 
has been initiated in our own laboratory and it 
is known that several of the 
larger companies have em- 
ployed oil chemists to look 
into such problems. We un- 
derstand that most excellent 
work is being done on meth- 
ods of modifying and recon- 
structing oils that can be had 
cheaply. By this we mean 

Fig. 19. callow 

qualitative tester. 










Flo. 18. 


more than mere mixing of a good flotation oil with a 
cheaper non-selective oil. Sulphonating the oils, dis- 
solving them in acids, dissolving modifying substances 
in the oils, etc., are some of the ideas being tested with 
varying success. It is on account of all this oil testing 
e J. Coutts. E. & M. J., Vol. XCIX, page 1079 (1915). 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8, 1916 

that considerable progress has been made in flotation 
during the past year, so that now most of the larger 
companies are using cheaper oils than they were a 
yea]' ago. 

When starting to work with a new ore, there is needed 
a rapid qualitative method of choosing an oil that seems 
well adapted to the flotation of the ore in question. Such 
a scheme is in use in the laboratory of the General En- 
gineering Company in Salt Lake City. Their qualitative 
tester is designed to test oils for use in the Callow 
pneumatic flotation cell and consists of a glass tube of 
about two inches diameter and two feet long. (Fig. 19). 
This can be Bet on end and closed at the bottom with a 
one-hole rubber stopper through which passes a glass 
tube- into a small canvas bag. The small bubbles of air 
coming through the canvas are similar to those used in 
large-scale machines and can be observed through the 
glass walls of the tube. With some pulp in the tube, 
oils, aeids. salts, etc., may be added in very short tests 
until the proper appearance is obtained. An overflow lip 
is provided in case it is desired to examine the mineral 
in th«' troth. A slight adjustment of the air will provide 
an ample overflow of froth. 

DISPOSAL of the Froth. The handling of the flota- 
tion froth in the laboratory finds difficulties which are 
reflected in practice. It is often very slow to settle and 
filters with difficulty. A vacuum-filter, connected with 
a laboratory aspirating pump, is a very convenient 
m< thod of getting the concentrate out of the froth. A 
large porcelain Bueehner funnel fitted into a filtering 
flask, as shown in Fig. 7, is used at present in our labor- 
atory. A copper vacuum-filter of much the same type, 
provided with a porous false bottom of acid-proof wire 
cloth, resting on a punched plate, is shown in Fig. 17 of 
the Callow test set. Filter-papers can be laid over the 
bottom of either of these funnels to collect the concen- 
trates and the vanillin beneath sucks out the water and 
oil of the froth. Such a filter can be placed under the 
froth-discharge of a flotation machine so that a fairly 
dry cake of concentrate is ready for further drying at 
the end of the flotation test. By loosening the outer rim 
of the filter-paper and then turning the funnel upside 
down over a pan. the filter-paper with the concentrate 
can be dropped into the drying-pan by gently blowing in- 
to the Stem of the funnel. This is set aside in a warm 
place to dry and later weighed against a filter-paper tare. 

If it is desired, the froth can be collected in a glass 
beaker or other vessel and allowed to stand over-night. 
A layer of clear water can then be siphoned off and the 
thick pulp remaining filtered or dried direct. In some 
laboratories the froth is dumped onto a shallow pan on a 
hot plate and the water evaporated. Occasionally such a 
sample of froth will be left too long, and will be ignited 
and roasted. We once used a numbered set of shallow 
pans for such evaporations but prefer filtering before 
drying the precipitate. A numbered tag is now put in 
each pan along with the cake. 

The products coming from the flotation machine should 
he watched closely and occasionally panned or examined 

with the microscope to see what kind of work is being 
done. This is fairly easy to determine as the sulphides 
are most of them distinguished easily from the gangue 
under the iniscroscope, and likewise gangue particles in 
the froth concentrate can often be distinguished. A 
microscope is a most useful adjunct in a flotation labora- 
tory or milff 

General Considerations. We have mentioned at 
various places the relation of the laboratory tests to the 
large-scale operations and now repeat that in almost 
every instance the laboratory results are somewhat pes- 
simistic as compared to large-scale work. The reasons 
are made apparent by the smallness of the machine and 
the shallower layer of froth often formed under these 
conditions. Moreover, laboratory operations seem to call 
for greater amounts of oil, acid, etc., than do the large- 
scale operations. 

Only one of the above machines is adapted to 'rough- 
ing' and 'cleaning' operations in a single test. Present- 
day practice tends toward re-treatment of at least part 
of the froth in order to make cleaner and higher-grade 
concentrates. Consequently, it may be desirable to col- 
lect enough froth from a series of tests to be re-treated 
in a 'cleaning' test. Of course, this is provided for in 
the Callow test set, where only 'cleaned' concentrate is 
discharged from the machine. It is further found de- 
sirable to weigh and analyze some of the successive frac- 
tions of the froth being discharged from a flotation ma- 
chine, as the tailing becomes leaner, and determine at 
what point it may be desirable to re-treat such froth. 

Many reports of flotation test- work with mechanical- 
agitation machines give the speed of the rotation of the 
agitating-blades. We have found that it was possible to 
get much the same work done with quite a variation of 
speeds, the only effect being to lengthen or shorten the 
time of treatment. We feel that the importance of this 
matter has been much exaggerated. Some means of 
speed-control is necessary and the speed can be adjusted 
in each case until the froth presents the proper appear- 
ance as to depth, size of bubbles, color, etc. Speeding 
toward the end of a test in order to give a deeper froth 
with a faint line of concentrate on the very top is often 
advisable. We recommend adjusting the speed in each 
test to suit the other conditions, rather than running a 
series of tests with different speeds. Only in the slide 
machine, where operation of the impeller must be sus- 
pended in order to allow froth to collect, is the speed of 
much importance. Here we recommend agitation for a 
definite length of time, and then a period of settling. The 
effect of variation of speed during a definite length of 
time may be a considerable variation in the amount of 
froth collected during the quiet period. Hence we are 
prejudiced against the use of the slide machine except 
for oil-testing. 

When a good set of conditions has been found for the 
flotation treatment of an ore, it is best to recover the 
water from each test to see what effect a closed circuit 
of the mill-water will have. Some oil and chemicals are 
thus recovered, cutting down the amounts necessary for 

Jhiiuhm 8. 1 * • 1 1; 

MINING and Scientific PKI SS 

operation. In fart, a carboy or two of lbs water to ba 

D the luriff null should Im' UBSd U) uiak rtnin 

tlmt do deleteriona imnttminat*"" «>H ensue from tins 

none Under these condition! Bltration of the oon 

and tailing tor recovery of the water is neoeasary, 
Such conditions are provided for in the Callow appa 
ratua, above deaoribed, and ean !»■ applied easily to any 

Of tli<' "tier mithin— 

i >il samples tor teal purposes can be obtained from the 
various wood-distilling companies now advertising in the 

Fig. 20. the case machine. 

technical press, from gas companies and from petroleum- 
refining companies. 

In attacking refractory ores, there are a number of 
ingenious things that can he done to the pulp both in and 
out of the machine. The trouble may be due to deleter- 
ious substances, which sometimes can be washed out, 
rendered harmless by boiling, or by acidifying, or by 
making alkaline with lime before entering the machine. 
Occasionally, the ore will not work well under ordinary 
conditions but will yield beautifully after finer grinding. 

Sometimes extra reagents tarj im b as powder- 

ed charcoal, modified oil, argol, soap, calcium sulphate, 
alum, etc A rational method of devising the pi 

testa in such cases musl I"- based on si theory of Sots 

tion. Colloid chemiatrj is a branch of knowledge thai 

we believe to l"- very a ssary tor such work, as it has 

facilitated a i -e intelligent control of our teats and has 

given wonderful results in a number of instances. 

Finally, it is well to be prodigal in the amount of 
analytical work connected with flotation testing in order 
to discover interesting differences in gangue-conatituents 
carried into the concentrate, as will as to find the l»-si 
conditions for leaving out some gangu istituent that 

is less desirable than the rest. If an expert liter dues 

his own analytical work he ean be expected to spend 
three-fourths of his time analyzing what has hecn done 
during the other fourth. 

Summarizing the st important points to be tested 

on a given ore with any given notation machine, we have: 

Method of grinding. 

Fineness of grinding. 

Kind of frothing agent used. 

Amount of frothing agent. 

Acidity or alkalinity. 


Necessity of preliminary agitation. 

Effect of addition-agents in flocculating gangue- 

It can be seen that there may he a certain best combina- 
tion of the above variables that will be entirely missed 
if a great many tests are not carried out ; hence the desir- 
ability of doing the testing in a small laboratory-ma- 
chine where many trials can be made in a short time. 

After the best conditions have seemingly been estab- 
lished, they should be further tried in a larger-sized 
machine before they are incorporated into the general 
practice of a mill. The test-work on this scale need 
hardly be described, as, for the most part, it is a ques- 
tion of translation of laboratory results into large-scale 

[We have added an illustration of the Case machine, 
evidently a modified Hoover apparatus, made by the 
Denver Fire Clay Co. — Editor.] 

Secondary Copper. As contrasted with lead and zinc, 
the uses for which copper is principally employed are 
such that a large percentage of the metal can be eventu- 
ally recovered and returned to the trade. According to 
J. P. Dunlop, of the U. S. Geological Survey, ' ' the pro- 
duction of copper from secondary sources in 1913 was 
equal to about 17% of the refinery output of primary 
copper in the United States from all sources, or about 
22.4% of the primary copper smelted from domestic 
ores." It is difficult to determine the amount of second- 
ary copper, but apparently 200,000,000 lb. is recovered 
annually in the United States from material that has 
been actually used and scrapped. Copper probably 
shows less depreciation from corrosion, disintegration, 
burning, abrasive action, etc., than any other metal . 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8. 1916 

Treatment of Molybdenite Ore 
in Australia 

NEW SOUTH WALES and Queensland are the 
world's principal sources of molybdenite, and as 
an embargo has been placed on its export to for- 
eign countries, and as there is a good demand combined 
with high prices (now $1.50 per pound for 90% prod- 
uct), diligent search is being made for deposits in the 
United States, while in Arizona and Colorado some ore is 
extracted. In the Press of February 6, 1915, molyb- 
denum was discussed editorially. 

The geological department of the New South Wales 
Department of Mines is preparing a report on molyb- 
denite mining and treatment, and in an advance note 
one of the staff, E. C. Andrews, makes the following 
remarks : 

Methods in this State are more or less crude even at 
present, and consist, in the main, of crushing and screen- 
ing dry. Experiments in water and oil flotation are 
being carried out in various places in the State, but no 
large quantities have yet been treated by such processes. 

Methods. (1) Small deposits containing molybdenite 
flakes of moderate size in quartz. The ore is crushed 
either by means of bucking-hammers or by hand-rolls. 
The larger flakes arc hand-picked, while the smaller 
flakes are saved by hand-sieving, the undersize being 
mainly of the nature of quartz grains. 

(2) Large deposits such as at Kingsgate, containing 
molybdenite and bismuth in a clean gangue of quartz or 
silieiouB granite. 

The following description is of one of the several plants 
at Kingsgate, 20 miles east of Glen Innes. The capacity 
is about 5 tons per day, and the cost of the plant erected 
was about $5000. Two men and a boy are employed. 
Ore with an average content of 3% bismuth and molyb- 
denite is hand-fed from a plant to a No. 2 Dodge rock- 
breaker, and there crushed to pieces about 1-in. diameter. 
From the crusher the ore passes through two sets of 
rollers, each set having screens to save the large flakes 
of molybdenite as over-size. This product is re-rolled 
to further reduce the quartz. Underneath the second 
pair of rolls is a shaking-screen. The holes in this shak- 
ing-screen are about 1/12-in. diameter. The under-size 
passes onto a Wilfley table to save the bismuth, the tail- 
ing being stored pending probable improvements in 
treatment, such as some form of oil concentration. 

The over-size from the 1/12-in. screen is carried to a 
third set of rolls, where it is crushed to 1/20-in. gauge 
and screened. Much of the over-size from this process 
is cleaned by hand-sieving. The first part of the over- 
size, however, is re-crushed in rolls set close together, 
and passed over screens of 1/32-in. mesh. The over-size 
from this varies from 92 to 95%, molybdenite. The 
under-size is a product rich in molybdenite, but con- 
siderably below the required 90% standard. 

Some method of water or oil concentration for saving 
the molybdenite, after treatment of the crushed ore on a 

table for recovery of the bismuth, is obviously the proper 
method of treating this ore. 

The most satisfactory method known of saving molyb- 
denite up to the present is that practised at Irvinebank 
in north Queensland. 

Some small plants have been made in New South 
Wales with the idea of concentrating molybdenite ores 
wet. These, however, have not treated large quantities 
so far. Of these the plant erected by M. Charles Poulot 
at Sheehy's wharf, Greenwich. Sydney, presents some 
interesting features: The ore, after fine-crushing, is 
pumped to the top of the building into a de-watering 
tank. Thence the water returns to the pump, while the 
ore drops into a small centrifugal pump situated below 
the de-waterer. The centrifugal mixes the pulp with oil 
fed from a tank by drops. From taps, this oiled mixture 
is dropped into horizontal shaking-troughs pierced with 
holes and discharging into boxes filled with water. The 
molybdenite floats, and is discharged into launders lead- 
ing by tubes to a screen of 180-mesh, and then dried. 
The boxes are arranged in four tiers vertically above each 
other. As soon as a certain amount of pulp has been 
treated in the upper tier, taps are opened in these boxes 
and the material, which has sunk to the bottom is led 
into the horizontal shaking-troughs attached to the 
second tier, and the whole process is repeated; similarly 
for No. 3 and 4 tiers of boxes. The process is thus a 
four-fold one. 

[American mining men will be interested to know that 
at Denver, Colorado, H. E. Wood has a plant for the 
: i '■.-,' nient of molybdenite ores, in which film-flotation is 
used. — Editor.] 


Effect of Alkalinity. 
100 grams of 200-mesh mill-heads, assaying Au. 0.17, 
Ag. 29.53, frothed 6 times in 400 cc. mill-water, with 
0.44 lb. S. S. oil and 0.44 lb. cresylic acid per ton of ore, 
at a temperature of 80°. 

Lime lb. per ton 

Test At At ^-Concentrate-Assay—, - — Tailing - Assay — • 

No. start. end. Gm. Au. Ag. Au. Ag. 

1. 0.08 0.02 Acid 17.562 0.46 90.0 0.12 16.1 Acid 

2. 0.01 Xeutral 15.859 0.60 110.6 0.10 12.4 

3. 0.15 " 15.350 0.82 164.6 0.06 5.1 

4. 0.25 0.01 Alk. 13.470 1.00 192.1 0.06 4.1 

5. 0.34 0.02 " 14.20 0.85 184.2 0.06 3.8 

6. 0.43 0.04 " 15.05 1.00 166.4 0.06 4.9 

7. 0.70 0.12 " 26.95 0.52 89.3 0.03 6.4 

8. 1.00 0.25 " 31.56 0.34 60.3 0.09 12.9 

In separatory-funnel tests, assays of concentrate are 
much lower than in plant-practice. Tailing-assays are 
practically the same. 

When frothing in mill-water, the best alkalinity, both 
as regards extraction and grade of concentrate, is from 
0.01 to 0.02 lb. per ton of water. 

The U. S. assay office in New York, for the first time 
in 18 years, has more gold on hand than it has room for ; 
the overflow has been taken to the sub-treasury vault ; 
the total recently was $235,000,000. 

Januarj B, L916 

MINING and Scirnlihc PRESS 


Mining in Alaska in 1915 

Adnnct Statamant by V. M. Geological Surrey, CompUad by Alfred H. Brooks 

GENERAL. The Alaska mining industry aa n 
whole waa more proaperona in 1916 than in any 
pr.'vious year. This is indicated by the value of 
the total mineral output, which is estimated to have been 
0,000, compared with $19,064,968 tor 1914. The 
highest value tor any previous year was in 1906, when 
Alaska produced (23,378,428 worth of minerals, but tins 
was at a time when the bonanza placers of Fairbanks ami 
Nome were yielding their greatest returns. 

The high value of the mineral output in 1915 was due 
in large measure to the extraordinary amount of copper 
that was mined. Preliminary estimates indicate this to 
X50.000 pounds, valued at $14,400,000. In 1914 
21,460,628 lb. of copper was mined, valued at $2,852,- 
934. The gold production also increased in 1915, when 
the value was about $16,900,000, against $15,626,813 for 
the output of 1914. This is the largest gold production 
since 1912, when the output was valued at $17,145,951. 
As the production of silver is incidental to gold and 
copper mining, this also increased. It is estimated that 
$400,000 worth of silver was mined in 1915, against 
$218,327 worth in 1914. 

The output of other minerals, including tin, antimony, 
marble, gypsum, coal, and petroleum, in 1915 had a 
value of about $300,000, compared with $222,802 in 1914. 

In addition to the productive mining a large amount 
of dead-work was accomplished during 1915 on proper- 
ties that made no output. Therefore the abnormally 
large value of the total mineral production must not be 
considered as simply a temporary expansion of the min- 
ing industry, due to the high price of copper. The 
developments made during the year give assurance of 
continued large operations in both copper and gold-lode 
mining. Placer mining has been less prosperous, for 
this industry has not yet reacted to the stimulus of the 
Government railway, which will make available for 
profitable exploitation large bodies of low-grade gravel. 
The same is true of the coal-mining industry, which also 
must await railway transportation. 

The first gold mining in Alaska was done in 1880, and 
since that time gold to the value of about $261,050,000 
has been produced. Of this about $186,200,000 has been 
won from placers. Copper mining began in 1901, and 
the total copper output of Alaska is now about 217,250,- 
000 lb., valued at $34,150,000. The value of the total 
silver production to date is about $2,650,000. Coal, 
petroleum, tin, lead, quicksilver, antimony, marble, gyp- 
sum, and other minerals have been produced to the value 
of about $2,150,000. Therefore, the value of the total 
mineral production during 36 years of mining in Alaska 
has been $300,000,000. 

<!"i i, l'i u nc .Minim;. The data in hand indicate that 

the value of plaoer gold produced in L916 was $10,600, 
000, compared with $lo,7:i().ooo in i!M4. This decrease 

of output, if borne out by the final ligures. is chargeable 
to the falling off in the output of BOme of tin- Yukon 

camps. <>n the other hand, the developments in the 
Tolovana district, where gold was diseovered in the 


autumn of 1914, indicate that this will become of some 

About 42 dredges were operated in Alaska during 
1915, the same number as in 1914. From the informa- 
tion at hand it appears, however, that the value of the 
gold recovered by dredges was less than $2,000,000 in 
1915, compared with $2,350,000 in 1914. This decrease 
is chargeable to the Seward Peninsula districts, where 
about 37 of the dredges are at work. There can be no 
question that this decrease of dredge output is but a 
temporary check to the industry as a whole and is due to 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8, 1916 

certain local conditions. Several new dredges will be 
operated in 1916. 

Gold-Lode Mining. About 23 gold-lode mines were 
operated on a productive basis in 1915, compared with 
28 in 1914. On the other hand, the value of their out- 
put has increased from $4,863,028 in 1914 to about $6,- 
200,000 in 1915. This increase is to be credited to the 
Juneau district, where large developments were con- 
tinued throughout the year. There can be no question 
that the gold-lode output will increase at a rapid rate. 
This will be due not only to large-scale operations in 
southeastern Alaska, but also to the encouragement given 
to lode mining by the railway under construction from 
Seward to Fairbanks. 

(iipi'er. The tremendous increase in copper output 
during 1915 has already been noted. Nearly four times 
as much copper was produced as in the previous year, 
and the value was nearly five times as much. The copper 
was taken from 14 mines, of which seven were in the 
Ketchikan district, four on Prince William Sound, and 
three in the Chitina district. Though the high price of 
copper led to the re-opening of some of the smaller mines 
in the Coast region, yet it should be noted that the in- 
creased output was possible only because of the large 
developments that have been under way for several 
years. The advance of the Alaska copper-mining in- 
dustry during the year may therefore be said to have 
been a normal development of the industry. It is of 
course true, however, that if it had not been for the high 
price of the metal, the output would have been con- 
siderably less. It augurs well for the future of flic in- 
dustry that (lie Ala.ska copper mines are now sufficiently 
developed to produce so large a tonnage. 

Tin. It is estimated that about 200 tons of stream-tin 
was produced in Alaska during 1915. Much the larger 
part of the tin came from the York district of Seward 
Peninsula. Here one dredge was operated throughout 
the season on Buck creek. A new dredge was installed 
on the same creek during the summer and operated for a 
part of the season. No returns have yet been received 
from the two dredges operated in 1914 on the Anikovik 
iiver. in the same district. These two are working on 
placers carrying both tin and gold. Developments were 
continued on the Lost River lode-tin mine, and there was 
also some prospecting of other lode-tin deposits. There 
was. however, no production of lode-tin. 

The only other tin mining in Alaska during 1915 was 
done in the Hot Springs district of the lower Tanana 
basin. Here considerable tin is recovered incidental to 
gold-placer mining. 

Antimony. The high price of antimony in 1915 led 
to the mining of over 800 tons of stibnite ore in Alaska. 
Nearly 700 tons of this output came from the Fairbanks 
district, and the rest from Se*vard Peninsula. It is 
difficult to obtain any exact valuation of the stibnite 
ore shipped from Alaska. The evidence in hand in- 
dicates that the producer received from $1.25 to $1.75 
per unit of stibnite. It is reasonable to estimate that the 

Alaska shipments sold for $85 per ton in San Francisco. 
This indicates a value of about $70,000 for the total ship- 
ments made in 1915. 

Four antimony properties were operated in the Fair- 
banks district during 1915: the Scrafford, in the Treas- 
ure Creek basin; the Stibnite, in the Eva Creek basin; 
the Gilmer, in the Vault Creek basin ; and the Chatham 
Creek mine. All the operations were on a small scale. 
The mining consisted chiefly of making open-cuts and 
digging out the ore, which occurs in shoots, kidneys, and 
irregular masses along zones of Assuring. Most of the 
ore was broken and hand-sorted, and no ore of less than 
"in', antimony was shipped. The average content of 
the ore was probably 58%. Considerable prospecting 
was also done on a number of other stibnite lodes in the 
Fairbanks district. 

The ore was hauled to the railway by wagons and then 
sent by rail to Fairbanks and over the all-water route to 
San Francisco. The transportation companies offered 
a low freight-rate to encourage the new industry. 

Developments were continued on the Sliscovitch mine. 
in the Nome district. The ore from this property carries 
some gold, and the mine has been worked for gold. In 
1915, however, the energies of the operators were directed 
toward getting out stibnite ore. Some stibnite was also 
mined at the Hed & Strand property, a few miles north 
of the Sliscovitch mine. The total ore shipped from 
Nome is reported to be 132 tons, but there is reason to 
believe that a considerably greater quantity was mined. 

Stibnite is not an uncommon mineral in Alaska. The 
recent demand for antimony has led to the prospecting of 
a number of stibnite deposits within the Territory. Such 
work is reported in the Kantishna district, on Prince 
William Sound, and on Kenai Peninsula. 

Here follows a review by districts. 

Southeastern Alaska. About 12 gold-lode mines and 
4 copper mines were operated in southeastern Alaska 
during 1915. Preliminary estimates indicate that the 
gold production of this region, including the output of 
the placer mines in the Porcupine district, had a value 
of about $5,500,000. The estimated copper production 
from this field, all of which came from the Ketchikan 
district, was 4,500,000 lb., valued at about $800,000. 

The Rush & Brown was the only copper mine operated 
in the Ketchikan district throughout the year. Opera- 
tions were resumed at the It. Mamie, and Mount Andrew- 
mines in the spring and continued on a large scale for 
the rest of the year. Work was resumed on the Jumbo 
mine early in summer, and the mine was again put on a 
productive basis. Some ore was shipped from the Goodro 
and Cymru mines, and developments continued on the 
Big Harbor and on other properties. The Ready Bul- 
lion, Dutton, and Valparaiso gold-quartz mines were 
operated, and some output was also made from the Gold 
Standard, Googoo, and Snowdrift claims. Marble 
quarrying continued in the Ketchikan district, as in pre- 
vious years. 

Considerable work was done on both copper and silver- 

January 8, 1916 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

i in the Wrangall district Borne ship- 

- 'i harita nn inailf tram a deposit mnr Wrangell. 

Iii the Jnnau district the tour mines of the TreadwelJ 

itmup were operated on the nine scale ae last year An 

• lit in the central hoist curtailed the ««u! put for 

hiring the mmmar, The construction of 

30 additional stumps to the Beady Bullion mill is under 

A mill saving ■ daily eapacitj of about 6000 tons 

unpleted in February at the Alaaka-Qastineau mine 

and operated for the rest of the year. Power is furniahed 

by n hydro-electric plant on Salmon greek. Another 

plant, the Anna power project, is under construction on 

Juneau and al the Enterprise, on Linuat Inlet, w.mii 

of Juneau. 

In the It. in, is Bay refton the -111111111 mine «as pro 
ductive daring the year, and the Installation of ■ no* 
power-house was Dearly completed. Sydro-eleolric 
power is to I"- used, supplemented by an oil burning 
plant. A group of olaima, innlmting ii„. old Kensington, 
Bear, and Cornel mines, in the Berners Bay region, lias 

1 n consolidated, and the installation of equipment was 


The old Punter's Hay mine; on Admiralty island, has 
Imtii rv-opi-m-it ami was operated on a productive basis in 

Taku Arm. The mill of the Alaska-Juneau was oper- 
ated during the year. The construction of a larger mill 
— a part of the original plan for the equipment of this 
property — has been begun. This mill includes four 
units, each having a daily capacity of 2000 tons. Hydro- 
electric power is to be used, supplemented by an oil- 
burning plant. Developments were continued on the 
properties of the Alaska Gold Belt, Alaska Taku, and 
Alaska Treasure mining companies, all of which are near 

The Eagle River mine was operated during the year, 
and a little productive mining was also done on the 
Peterson properties. Developments were continued on 
the Yankee and Montana and other properties north of 

1915. The plant of the Chicagof mine, in the Sitka dis- 
trict, was enlarged and the mine was operated through- 
out the year. Gypsum mining continued at Iyoukeen 
Cove, on Chicagof island. 

Three hydraulic plants were operated in the Porcu- 
pine placer district. In the Yakataga district beach rain- 
ing continued and one hydraulic plant was operated. 

Copper River. The enormous output of copper from 
the Bonanza and Jumbo mines, in the Chitina district, 
overshadowed all other operations. The adjacent Mother 
Lode mine was, however, also operated throughout the 
year. Its actual shipments are as yet limited to the 
winter season, as the ore is sledded to the railway, a dis- 
tance of 14 miles. Ore shipments from this district were- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8, 1916 

interrupted for several weeks during the summer on ac- 
count of the burning of several railway bridges. Work 
was continued on a number of other copper properties, 
but they made no output and details regarding develop- 
ment are yet lacking. The Nizina placer district had a 
prosperous season. Five hydraulic mines were operated, 
in addition to some smaller plants. Some placer mining 
was also done in the Bremner River region, and, so far 
as now known, placer mining was continued in the 
< histoehina district on about the same scale as in pre- 
vious years. 

Prince William Sound. The operation of four or 
five copper mines and four gold mines constituted the 
principal mining activity of the year in this region. 
The value of the total product was about .$1,400,000, 
against $1,198,742 in 1914. The Ellamar copper mine 
was operated on about the same scale as in the past. 
Operations were also resumed in 1915 at the Three 
Friends, and copper ore was shipped. The Mcintosh 
mine, on Pidalgo bay, made some copper production, and 
it is reported that some ore was taken at the nearby 
Dickey mine, although no shipments were made. Large 
operations were continued at the Beatson copper mine, 
on Latouche island. The tram connecting the Midas 
copper mine with Port Valdez was completed in October, 
and since that time productive mining has been under- 
taken. In addition to the productive copper mines noted 
above, there were developments on many other proper- 

The Granite mine, at Port Wells, was the largest gold 
producer on the Sound in 1915. In the Valdez district 
the Ramsay & Rutherford mill was operated during the 
summer, and underground work was continued. The 
same is true of the Gold King, where the mill was, how- 
ever, operated for only about a month. At the Cliff mine 
another vein was found, and the mill was run intermit- 
tently daring the summer. In the aggregate much other 
work was done during the year on the gold veins of 
Prince William Sound, but these operations are too 
numerous to be listed here. 

Kenai Peninsula and Susttna Region. The produc- 
tive mining region that will be rendered accessible from 
Seward by the Government railway now under construc- 
tion includes the gold lode and placer mines of Kenai 
peninsula, the Willow Creek lode district, the Yentna 
placer district, and the placers of Valdez creek. Latent 
mineral wealth is also found in the high-grade coals of 
the Matanuska fields and the lodes reported to occur in 
the Broad Pass region. This province has naturally been 
the scene of much mining activity during the season of 
1915. While the large developments planned have not 
yet reached a productive stage, the preliminary estimates 
indicate that this field produced nearly $500,000 worth 
of gold in 1915. which is about $100,000 more than the 
value of the output for 1914. 

In the Kenai peninsula there was much more placer 
mining than in any previous year. Among the impor- 
tant operations was the installation of a dredge on Six- 
mile creek. Much work was done on the auriferous lodes 

of the peninsula, but it was chiefly prospecting and dead 
work, though incidentally several properties produced 
some gold. In the Willow Creek district three lode mines 
were operated during the open season, and developments 
were continued on several other properties. The hydrau- 
lic plant on Valdez creek was operated, and placer min- 
ing in the Yentna district continued on about the same 
scale as in 1914. 

Southwestern Alaska. There were no important de- 
velopments in southwestern Alaska. Development work 
was continued on the copper-lode claims in the Iliamna 
region. Some work was done at the Aniak lode mine, on 
Kodiak island. Beach mining continued as in the past 
on Kodiak and Popof islands. 

The Yukon. The Alaska camps of the Yukon basin 
are believed to have produced gold to the value of 
$7,300,000 in 1915, against $7,795,421 in 1914. The 
value of the output of the Fairbanks district was about 
the same in 1915 as in 1914, that is, $2,725,000. Pre- 
liminary estimates indicate that the gold output of the 
Ruby and Hot Springs districts was less in 1915 than in 
1914. On the other hand, the Circle gold output was 
greater in 1915 than in the previous year. 

No new placers were discovered in the Fairbanks dis- 
trict in 1915. The largest gold production, as in pre- 
vious years, was from the mines of Cleary, Ester, Gold- 
stream, Fairbanks, and Dome creeks, and their tribu- 
taries, this order being about the relative value of the 
output from each creek. One dredge was operated on 
Fairbanks creek. On Goldstream creek and its tribu- 
taries. Pedro, Gilmore, and Fairbanks creeks, mining 
was done chiefly by the use of the steam-scraper, which 
lias been found an economical method of handling gravel. 
.Must of the other large operations in the district are 
those of deep mining — a method that is becoming in- 
creasingly expensive, because of the increasing price of 
the wood used as fuel. 

Of the $2,450,000 worth of gold recovered from the 
Fairbanks placers in 1915 about $50,000 was taken out 
during tlic winter. The most extensive winter operations 
were those in the Chatanika flats. About 115 placer 
mines were operated at Fairbanks during the summer, 
employing 1200 men. 

Little progress was made in the development of gold 
lodes in the Fairbanks district during 1915. Most of the 
lode miners have decided to await railway communica- 
tion before embarking in any new ventures, because the 
present operating costs are prohibitive. In spite of these 
conditions, the value of the lode-gold production was 
about $250,000, or nearly the same as in 1914. 

The most productive gold-lode mines of the district are 
the Rhoads & Hall, operated until September, and the 
Crites & Feldman, operated throughout the year. In the 
autumn a 5-stamp mill was installed on the Gilmore- 
Stevens property, on Fairbanks creek. This mill was 
operated from about the first of September to the end of 
the year. Gold ore was also produced from a number of 
other properties and treated in one of the many mills of 
the district. The production of nearly 700 tons of anti- 

.Iiiimnt.\ - L916 

MINING ....d Scientific 1'KI SS 

many on tram tour properties in the Fairbanks diatriet 
Iiha already ben noted It is reported thai ■ vein oar 
rying tonga icheelita irai (bond near the head 

of Qilmore ereek in the autumn of 1915 

ii. wlv diseovered Tolovana district ii>-> about 50 
milea north-weel of Fairbanks It ia oonneeted with 
Olnea, ■ station on the Tanana Valley railroad, by a 

winter road about 56 milea long. This road baa also I d 

used for peek honaa in nunmer. Another route of aoeeaa 

launch Dp Tolovana river to a log-jam. around 
which a tnim has been built The dis- 
tan..- to the log-jam by the windings of 
the river from the Tanana is abort -i" 1 
milea Above the log-jam a launch ran 
be naed tor another 20 milea to the head 
.it' navigation; thenoe » wagon can go up 
the river-bara to Livengood, the princi- 
pal settlement ot* the district, where are 
a post-office and a wireless station. 

The gold placers of the district that 
have actually been developed are nearly 
all on Livengood ereek and its tribu- 
taries. Of these the richest deposits are 
the so-called 'bench gravels,' which have 
been traced as a deep channel for two 
or three miles. Probably a dozen shafts 
have been sunk to bedrock on this deep 
channel, which lies on the north side of 
the ereek. At Discovery claim the deep 
placers are about 100 ft. below the sur- 
face. The overburden thickens rapidly 
downstream and becomes thinner up- 

Plaeer gold has also been found in the 
gravel of Livengood creek. These de- 
posits are said to be from 10 to 20 ft. 
deep and to carry some gold, but they 
have not been developed. Besides the 
work on the deep placers, mining has 
also been done in the comparatively 
shallow gravels of several tributaries of 
Livengood creek and on Olive creek, in 
the same district. There were probably 
in all not over half-a-dozen plants in- 
stalled in time for operation during the 
summer of 1915. These produced gold 
to the value of about $60,000. There was, however, a 
good deal of prospecting, and the results were encour- 
aging. Late in the summer some promising prospects 
were found on the south fork of Mike Hess creek and its 

About half of the gold output of the Ruby district 
came from the mines on Long creek and its tributaries. 
This locality contained not only the largest producers, 
but also the greatest number of plants. The output was 
somewhat curtailed by a dispute between the operators 
and miners in midsummer, when the 8-hour law for all 
underground mine-workers went into effect. Poorman 
creek and its tributaries was the second largest producer 

of gold in 1916, Placer mining ».i^ also ■! on i 

Trail. Tamarack, Spruce, and Flat 
prospecting waa done on Greens* 
dredge is t.. be installed in 1916. 

The value of the gold produced in the Iditarod dis- 
trict in 1915 ia estimated at (2,060,000, or practically the 
same as in 1914. In all. :il pla.-er mines were operated, 
employing from 350 to MM men. Two dredges, one on 

Kbit ereek and nn i Otter creek, wen- in operation 

throughout the season. One dragline excavator, the 

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firet to be used for placer mining in Alaska, was in- 
stalled on Willow creek during the summer. The prin- 
cipal centres of gold production were at Discovery claim 
on Otter creek, on the upper part of Flat creek, and at 
the heads of Happy and Chicken creeks. 

Complete returns have not yet been received from the 
Circle district, but the data at hand indicate a larger 
production than in 1914. The installation and operation 
of a dredge on Mastodon creek formed the most impor- 
tant event of the season. A number of hydraulic plants 
were also operated, as well as a larger number of smaller 
placer mines. 

In the Hot Springs district about 30 placer mines, em- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8, L916 

ploying 300 men, were in operation during 1915. The 
largest plants were near the mouth of Woodchopper 
creek, where some rich placers were developed. The 
value of the gold output is estimated to be between 
$500,000 and $600,000. There was also some production 
of stream-tin incidental to gold mining. 

Preliminary estimates indicate that gold to the value 
of about $135,000 was recovered from the Chisana dis- 
trict. The value of the output in 1914 was $250,000. 
About 25 placer mines were worked during the summer 
"a ill the principal operations were on Bonanza creek. 
New discoveries of placet gold are reported to have been 
made on Dry gulch, a tributary of Johnson creek. 

The Koyukuk district is estimated to have produced 
gold to the value of nearly $300,000 in 1915, compared 
with $260,000 in 1914. A large part of this was taken 
out of one or two mines on Hammond river as a result 
of winter deep mining. The next largest producers were 
the mines on Nolan creek. A new discovery of placer 
gold was made on Jay creek, a tributary of Wild creek, 
and here considerable gold was mined. 

It is estimated that the value of the gold output of the 
Innoko district in 1915 is $190,000, or about the same as 
that of 1914. About 22 mines were operated in the win- 
ter and 38 in the summer. Yankee creek was the largest 
producer, and here two steam-scraping plants were in- 
stalled. The second largest producer was Spruce creek, 
and mining was also done on Little, Ganes, Ophir, and 
Cripple creeks. 

No important developments are reported from the 
other Yukon districts. The value of the gold output of 
the Fortymile, Eagle, Rampart, and other smaller dis- 
tricts was probably about the same in 1915 as in 1914. 
In the Kantishna district some work was done on gold 
and stibnite bearing veins. 

The Wade Hampton placer district is situated on the 
lower Yukon, and Marshall is the name of the recording 
office. Placer gold was first discovered in the district in 
1912 on Wilson creek. In 1915 gold placers were also 
found on Willow creek, in this district. Four mines 
were operated during the summer, and some high values 
were reported. Some prospective dredging ground was 
tested on Elephant creek with a hand-churn drill, with 
results that appear to have justified the installation of a 
power-drill. Some work was done on an auriferous 
quartz vein on Willow creek, and a sample was shipped 
for a mill-test. 

Kuskokwim. Placer mining was carried on during 
1915 in the Candle Creek, Aniak-Kwethluk, and Good- 
news Bay districts. The value of the total production is 
estimated at about $110,000. At Candle Creek a hydrau- 
lic plant was installed and operated during the later part 
of the season. About 40 men were engaged in mining in 
the Aniak-Kwethluk district. Most of the gold from this 
district was taken from the placers of Canyon creek. 
About a dozen men were engaged in placer mining in 
the Goodnews Bay district. 

Seward Peninsula. It is estimated that the Seward 
Peninsula mines produced gold to the value of $2,900,000 

in 1915, against $2,700,000 in 1915. About 37 dredges 
were operated in 1915, against 39 in 1914. It appears 
that the dredge production, for which data are not yet 
complete, decreased much more than is accounted for 
by the smaller number of dredges. The reason for this 
decrease is net clear, but it is probably in part due 
to the fact that as yet there has been but little attempt 
made to dredge the placers that require artificial thaw- 
ing. This is in contrast to the operation of the dredges 
in the Yukon basin, which are practically all on ground 
that is permanently frozen. 

The data available indicate that about $1,500,000 
worth of gold was taken from the region immediately 
tributary to Nome and about $700,000 from the Council 
district. The other districts, named in order of the value 
of their output, are Solomon, Kougarok, Fairhaven, and 
Port Clarence. One of the most important features of 
the year's operations was a marked revival of under- 
ground mining during the winter. It is estimated that 
about 36 deep mines were operated near Nome in the 
winter of 1914-15. There was also a little deep winter 
mining in other districts of the peninsula. The value of 
the gold produced in this winter work was probably 
about $300,000. Besides the dredging and deep mining, 
there were many large open-cut operations, some with 
the use of hydraulic methods. There were also more 
small operations than in the previous year, and a good 
deal of mining on the present beach. 

The continuation of stream-tin mining and of lode-tin 
development in the York district has already been re- 
ferred to. It has also been noted that antimony ore was 
mined and shipped from two properties in the Nome 
River basin. There was considerable prospecting of 
auriferous lodes in this district, but so far as learned no 
gold was produced from this source. 

Northwestern Alaska. No important developments 
arc reported from the Kobuk basin. Placer mining con- 
tinued in a small way on Squirrel river and Dahl creek. 
No returns of production have yet been received, but it 
is probable that the value of the gold output was about 
the same as that of 1914, namely, $33,000. The dis- 
covery of the petroleum seepage near Wainwright inlet 
has already been noted. 

The San Francisco Mint reports the following trans- 
actions, bullion received, for November: 

Gold. Fine ounces. Value. 

English coin 296,912.416 $6,137,724.41 

Chinese bars 2,517.923 52.050.10 

Australian bare 101,446.077 2,097,076.51 

Other sources 209,299.861 4,326.612.12 

Total 610,176.277 $12,613,463.14 

Silver 58,935.27 $29,797.25 

Coinage consisted of $152,000 in half-dollars. $76,000 
in quarter-dollars, and 1*4000 in Philippine one-centavos. 
Coin, bullion, etc., on hand at the end of the month 
totaled $360,219,025.78. A feature of 1915 was the large 
quantity of foreign coin and bullion received. 

.Innniiry >, lulii 

MINING and Sc.cni.hc PRESS 

Cyanide Consumption on the Rand 


N tin- treatment of 26,701,954 ions of ore in 1914, 
than ra purehaaed tor consumption a total of 
10,618,009 H>. of eyanide and 6,543,01 1 lb. zinc. Thia 
.in average of 0.4 and : >- lb.. reapeotiTely, per ton. 
Phe preaenl annual requirement of Bodinm oyanide is 
6000 tons, ooating at eurrenl prices about $2,400,000. The 
poaaibilitiea of aoonomiiing in the consumption of eya- 
oide waa lirst investigated by the Buyers Committee of 
the Chamber of Mines and the consulting metallurgists 
of the Band The latter agreed thai no application of 
known methods could be relied on to reduce the consump- 
tion materially in an economic manner. Special trials 
madr a year ago showed a loss of gold more than balanc- 
ing any saving in oyanide, Later, experiments were 
made under the control of a sub-committee consisting of 
\v. A. Caldecott, K. L. Graham, E. II. Johnson, and II. 
A. White. These were mostly done in the laboratory of 
the Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa by C. A. 
Ifeiklejohn, and were presented at the Society's meet- 
ing by U. A. White. 

A theoretical limit to the minimum consumption of 
cyanide is Bet by the fact that the ore. crushed in water, 
carries into the collected charges a large amount of 
moisture; this water must be brought up to the cyanide 
Strength required for extraction. For example: assume 
.'iii', sand at 15% moisture with a strength of 0.05% 
K( !N, and 50^{ slime at 40% moisture with 0.01% KCN ; 
this would give a loss of 0.12 lb. KCN per ton of crushed 
ore, and the exact figure will depend on the propor- 
tion between sand and slime and the moisture with each. 

Another way of looking at this is to note that as the 
solution in stock is always kept at a certain average 
strength, the water brought into the plant as moisture 
must be brought up to that strength by the addition of 
cyanide, one way or another, and this cyanide must go 
to the residue or be dissipated elsewhere. This dilution 
effect is, of course, minimized by crushing in solution. 

If to this is added the cyanide converted by contact to 
KCN'S. K,Fe(CN)„, etc., a limit is reached which can- 
not be improved upon in practice, and to it must be 
added the self-decomposition of the solution while stand- 
ing in sumps. 

The cyanide going to the residue-dumps in various 
forms must represent the dilution loss, less the decom- 
position and HCN or other gas losses. Any saving in 
these two directions must therefore be partly discounted 
by increase in cyanide sent to dumps. 

No attention need be paid to cyanide used in dissolv- 
ing copper, silver, gold, mercury, or zinc, which merely 
has the effect of a temporary accumulator. 

The theoretical minimum cyanide consumption for 
Geduld ore, based on 60% of the pulp (that is, 40 tons 

•Abstract from the Journal of the Chemical, Metallurgical 
and Mining Society of South Africa. 

Of water with tin tons of dry slime and III' , Of sand of 

l.v, moisture (that is 15 tons of water to of dry 

aand after allowing for oyanide required to raise t ii<- 
associated water to 0.8 lb, Nat'N per ton for slime, ami 

to 1 lb. per ton for sand, a mis to O.lfl lb. per ton of 

ore treated. To this must he added i). it? lb. converted 
into unavailable products. The irreducible minimum of 

0.26 lb. Nat IN per ton is thus arrived at. and tliis shows 
a possible Saving in this of only 0.06 lb. per ton if 
there were no losses in the form of gas. 

Of course, a saving could be effected if lower cyanide 
strengths were possible without corresponding losses of 

gold in the residue, hut that is not. generally tl BBS, 

and the point must he emphasized that any saving of 
cyanide by means of increased alkalinity or in any other 
way of reducing gas losses must be partly offset by in- 
creased amount of loss in residue moisture. 

It is. however, a theoretical possibility that the CO, of 
the boiler flue-gases might be utilized to displace the 
HCN in the sand and slime residues, and in the former 
case the use of cyanide destroyers previous to sand-fill- 
ing would thus be avoided and the HCN collected in 
alkali instead. 

A number of experiments were undertaken, and are 
given in great detail. Briefly, they were as follow 8 : 

(1) Estimation, as NaCN, of the amount of total 
cyanide, ferro-cyanide, and sulpho-cyanide in sand-resi- 
due as discharged at the Simmer Deep. 

(2) Estimation, as NaCN, of the amount of total cya- 
nide, ferro-cyanide, and sulpho-cyanide remaining with 
settled charge of slime after treatment, and before same 
is discharged. 

(3) Estimation same as No. i on sand-residue as dis- 
charged at the Rose Deep. 

(4) Estimation, as NaCN, of the amount of total cya- 
nide, ferro-cyanide, and sulpho-cyanide remaining with 
the settled charge of slime after treatment, and before 
same is discharged. 

(5) Estimation, as NaCN, of total nitrogen in a sam- 
ple of zinc-box precipitate from the Simmer Deep. 

(6) Estimation of cyanide solutions from the Simmer 
Deep and Rose Deep for total nitrogen present. 

These tests showed a total loss as NaCN of 0.305 lb. at 
the Simmer Deep, and 0.268 lb. at the Rose Deep. The 
loss due to the escape of HCN as gas into the air was 
44.7 and 49.5% respectively. It was noticed that an in- 
creased proportion of the pulp treated as slime results in 
increased cyanide consumption, owing to the greater 
amount of cyanide-bearing moisture in slime-residue ; 
and that the smaller loss per ton of slime at the Rose 
Deep is due to the lower cyanide strength required for 
treatment at that plant. 

In a test to determine the effect of exposure of sump 
cyanide solutions to the atmosphere, it was found that 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8, 1916 

loose or incomplete covering is practically useless in pie- 
venting loss of alkali or cyanide j with weak solutions 
there is no loss of HCN as total cyanide, and but little 
loss as free cyanide occurs while available protective 
alkali is present; with strongest solutions the loss of 
HCN, both as free cyanide and total cyanide, becomes 
serious when available protective alkali is below 0.01% 
NallO; and, comparing previous results, it is evident 
that the presence of zinc enormously decreases the loss 
of HCN by hydrolysis. 

Another investigation covered the exposure to the 
atmosphere under varying conditions of working cyanide 
solutions. The conclusions to be drawn from a careful 
consideration of the exposure experiments, which are 
sufficiently comprehensive and consistent when account 
is taken of the various sources and conditions, may be 
briefly stated as follows: The loss is incomparably 
greater in pure synthetic solutions, even with added 
alkali, than is the case with ordinary working solutions ; 
and a very heavy loss is shown in the presence of little 
or no protective alkali, when determined with addition 
of ferro-cyanide. This suggests that it is safer to omit 
the addition of ferro-cyanide in mill-tests. 

An estimation was made of the amount of cyanide 
consumed during the treatment of a charge of collected 
slime, from the time of leaving the collectors till immedi- 
ately after transfer to the first settling-vat. This re- 
sulted in 0.0158 lb. KCN, or 0.0122 lb. NaCN, per ton 
of slime treated. In transferring from the first settle- 
ment to the second, the loss was 0.0188 lb. NaCN. A 
considerable loss takes place during the settlement and 
decantation in the vats. In each of these the solution 
loses 0.001% KCN during the time the charge is under 
treatment. The loss during the treatment is consider- 
able, and if this is taken as representing the loss by 
evaporation of HCN during the slime treatment, it will 
account for more than 0.14 lb. NaCN per ton of slime 

At the Rose Deep the consumption of NaCN is 0.0442 
lb. per ton during transfer of slime from the collector 
to a Trent agitator, during agitation in this machine, 
and during transfer from it to the first settling-vat. 
No decomposition of the KCN in solution could be 
observed at the end of 72 hours from the action of the 
mill-service water. 

Tests were made on regeneration. In ore, the cyanide 
regenerated equalled 28.9% of the total cyanide lost 
during agitation. This was in a closed vat. This was 
confirmed by using absorption-towers. 

At the same meeting of the Society (September 18) a 
paper on the prevention of hydrolysis in cyanide solu- 
tions was presented by H. M. Leslie. He said that in 
ordinary practice it has always been recognized that a 
great deal more cyanide is used for dissolving the 
precious metals than is theoretically necessary, and 
various reasons have been put forward to account, in in- 
dividual cases, for high consumptions; but in stating 
that, no one has ever yet put forward a reason to ac- 
count for this large excess of cyanide which is necessary 

in present practice, and which excess also applies 
to cyanide practice in general. A cyanide solution un- 
dergoes gradual decomposition; it evolves hydrocyanic 
acid, and this decomposition is not prevented by the 
use of excess alkali; the evolution of hydrocyanic acid 
means loss^or consumption of cyanide in working prac- 
tice, and it is this loss which is accountable for the large 
excess of cyanide which has to be used over and above 
that which is necessary for efficient extraction. 

Experiments demonstrated clearly the following 
points : 

That simple cyanide solutions decompose by the 
hydrolysis of the solution; that the percentage loss by 
this reaction is greater in a given time, the weaker the 
solution ; that, increased temperature accelerates this de- 
composition ; that the alkali formed as a product of the 
hydrolytic action has little or no protective action on 
the remaining cyanide, so that hydrolysis goes on until 
all the cyanide is destroyed; and that the protection 
afforded by the addition of an excess of caustic alkali 
is by no means complete, and that the protection is only 
of a very temporary nature. 

An investigation into the protection afforded to a 
simple cyanide solution, by means of a cover, showed the 
loss in a covered vesssel is small compared with that in 
an open one. This loss was found due in accordance 
with the equation 


Larger tests, on a working-scale, at the Village Deep 
mine, were made, to see if a loss was really being made 
which the 'closed' system would prevent, and if it was 
sufficient to justify any modification of plant. A large 
loss of cyanide, due to evaporation, was found; in the 
decantation-plant definite results were obtained, show- 
ing a loss of 0.0013% KCN per 24 hours, amounting to 
32,572 lb. of 100% KCN per year, added to which is 
10,857 lb. per year lost from the clarifiers on this solu- 
tion, a total of 43,429 lb. Other tests were made, and it 
was ascertained that there was a difference of 0.2092 lb. 
per ton of 100% KCN, or 0.161 lb. of 130% KCN, in 
favor of the closed system per ton of sand treated. This 
was done at a small test-plant. The cyanide consump- 
tion at the Village Deep plant is 0.3 lb. 130% KCN per 
ton, or 0.39 lb. of 100% KCN. This might be reduced 
to 0.139 and 0.1806 lb. respectively by using the closed 
system of treatment. Pachuca tanks would also show a 
reduction by being closed. 

Calculating the present rate of treatment on the Rand 
as 27,000,000 tons per annum, and the cyanide consump- 
tion as 0.3 lb. of 130% KCN, a saving by closed method 
would mean 1250 tons per year, say $770,000. [It is 
significant that Mr. Leslie did not estimate the cost of 
covering treatment vats. etc.. without doubt a large ex- 
pense. — Editor.] 

The last tabulated report of the Transvaal Chamber 
of Mines shows that 10,048 stamps and 328 tube-mills, 
working 26.46 days, crushed 2,470,760 tons of ore. equal 
to a stamp-duty of 9.49 tons. The yield was $6.19 per 
ton. and costs $4.20. The working profit was $5,050,000. 

i 1916 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


rr. J tKr MINING *"■! S-^in/k PRESS 1" unvni I" aik junli.m. 
ami <..* mfun»UMm Jrutin< tnlh wvtmkal and othtr mdifrri [wrkiinmtf to iht 
fntmn o4 w*Mm4. m*Um4. anj »m<IW- 

\ . i mi ini ii "i gold contains about 1 ' * troj oui b 

and is worth |200 

Bounn contains from 77 to 559 copper, and L8 to 69! 
iron, with the formula Cu FeS 4 . 

lit vi-i-" — ►— in electric furnaces occur around the 

charging-doors, tap-holes, and where the elect rodes pass 

into the furnace. The latter loss oannol be reduced with 
the presant design, but the others can be. 

'I'm. USE "1" TBS sl.ll>i:-liri.i: by engineers and nun 

about mines should be encouraged. Being able to settle 
quickly a question, involving numerical calculations, 
whan 11 is being discussed is a matter of constant ad- 
vantage, and a slide-rule in a handy leather-case for the 
pocket is an invaluable adjunct to a man who must con- 
sider costs 

In business there are two stages: one when the busi- 

- small, and can and should be dominated by an 

individual; and the other when the business has grown 
to such a size thai ii requires an organisation. The divid- 
ing line is dear, but difficulty arises when one phase 
9 to tin other. This applies to mining as well as 
other industries. 

Bel/ted alternators can be used to advantage in many 
installations where the space occupied is not a deciding 
factor in the selection of the generating-unit. Their 
lower tirst i-ust. as compared with direct-connected units, 
and the ease with which these generators may be con- 
nected to an existing source of power, as an engine. 
water-wheel, or line-shaft used for driving other ma- 
chinery, has led to an extensive use of this type of 

Canaries have been used in coal mines to show a de- 
ficiency of oxygen in the air. but recent tests by the I '. 
S. Bureau of Mines at Pittsburg proved that the use of 
these birds is not altogether reliable. Guinea-pigs have 
been used in Western Australian gold mines to note the 
effect of rock-dust, and subsequent examination of their 
lungs ; but these animals evidently knew something was 
wrong, and buried their snouts in their fur, thus de- 
feating the investigation. 

Change-HODSES are necessary to the comfort, content- 
ment, and efficiency of miners, millmen. and smelter- 
men. Every company that can afford it should erect 
one, and it is gratifying to note that the advantages of 
having a bath, dry, or change-house is becoming largely 
understood. In dirty mines and poisonous works men 
finish work in a considerable mess, making in many cases 
changing absolutely necessary. Seven States require 
change-houses by law, while in 13 States, where this is 

do law, man] apaniea have supplied them. Q I ma 

terial and sanitary ideas should !•■ us. .1 ,,, construction, 
and thej should be well lighted and heated, with «r 
rangements for drying wel clothes, forty gallons of 
water per man day is a reasonable consumption 

Tin iin 1 in.- 1 1 us u 1 is considered to !"■ able to pro 

'luce s 1 of superior quality t" that made h\ other 

methods. The furnace makes a temperature higher than 

any other furnace, and produces such temperatUTI 

noraically: it produces this without contamination of 
the charge through gases and other impurities, and in 
case of the induction-furnace, without contamination 
through carbon; and it oilers the possibility of control 
ling the temperature within limits which arc entirely 
beyond the reach of tl Ider types. 

Starting a load suddenly or when there is excessive 

slack is one of the most destructive influences on win- 
rope under any conditions of work, aid .specially a drill 

ing-cable. Experiments made by placing a dynamometer 
between the rope and the load prove this contention, as 
when there was 2J in. of slack, the stress on the rope was 
39% greater than when the rope was pulled slowly ; with 
3 in., 65%: with 6 in., 122% or more than double: and 
with 12 in. stress was three tines as great. When ;i new 
wire drilling-line is put on, it should be run a few times 
without doing any work, in order to get its 'set.' The 
cause of a lot of wire-rope trouble is due to kinks, and 
care should be taken to prevent them. All small bends 
and kinks should be taken out by placing the line on a 
wooden block and hammering it carefully with a wooden 
or copper mallet. If such kinks are not taken out 
promptly, there is likely to he a projection where the kink 
appeared, and when the wires at this point ruh on the 
side of the casing, there is excessive wear. 

Antimony-gold ores are troublesome to treat by cya- 
nidation ; this is the experience in New South Wales, 
Western Australia, and Rhodesia. At Hillgrove, in the 
first-named country, the caustic soda process was used 
for a time. In the Murchison range of Rhodesia the 
occurrence of antimony has hindered work, but a plant 
has been started at the United Jack mine, in which the 
MeArthur-Forest process is used: The ore is reduced to 
30 mesh in two No. 7 ball-mills. From bins it is con- 
veyed to tanks 23 ft. 9 in. diameter, and 8 ft. deep. A 
solution of caustic soda is pumped on ore, which assays 
$7 gold and 12.5% antimony, and allowed to percolate 
through it. The resultant solution carrying the anti- 
mony sulphide chemically combined, is drained off to 
three carbonators, where it is treated with carbonic acid 
gases from a lime-kiln. The antimony is precipitated as 
an amorphous sulphide, and the sludge is pumped to a 
filter-press, the cakes being finally dried and sent to the 
market. The solution from the filter-press is used again. 
The sand residue is treated in the usual way by cyanide 
solution, which goes through zinc-precipitation-bnxes for 
the recovery of the gold. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8, 1916 

Tisss-iri Paisirrte 

1,157,176. — Separation ok Miiaii.k Sulrds FEOM Ores. 
Thomas Mackellar Owen, Sydney, New South Wales. Australia, 
assigner to Edward William Culver. Sydney. New South Wales. 
Australia. Filed February 27, 1914. 

sulfids of a character to effect flotation, progressively feeding 
said layer with its charge of ore into a flotation liquid al the 
surface thereof, and floating off and recovering the floating 
sulfids; substantially as described. 

M. Leslie, Glasgow, Scotland. Filed December 30. 1911. 


1. In selective or preferential froth flotation separation of 
metallic sulfids from slimes, the herein described process for 
augmenting the flotative quality of certain sulfids in relation 
to certain other sulfids, which consists in adding to and agitat- 
ing with the pulp a limited proportion of alkaline perman- 

2. The herein described improved process of preferential or 
selective froth flotation of lead and zinc sulfids, which consists 
in subjecting slimes to contact with alkaline permanganate in 
solution, agitating the slimes in water containing a flotation 
medium, removing the leady float concentrate, adding acid, re- 
agitating and removing the zincy float concentrate. 

1,159,141.— Fiknai i vmi An ii ii Structure, rtley Wedge, 
Ardmore, Pennsylvania. Filed March 4, 1914. 

1. The combination, in a furnace, ol inner and outer Bxi 'I 
annular structures, the inner having annular hearths project- 
ing outwardly therefrom and the outer having annular hearths 
projecting inwardly therefrom, and an intermediate rotating 
annular structure supported from below and having annular 
hearths projecting in both directions therefrom, the inwardly 
projecting hearths lapping those of the inner fixed structure 
and the outward projecting hearths lapping those of the outer 
fixed structure. 

1.159,713. — Separation ur Minerals bz Flotation. Lewis G. 
Rowland. Brookland, N. Y., assignor to New Jersey Zinc Com- 
pany, New York. X. Y.. a corporation of New Jersey. Filed 
August 1, 1914. 

1. The method of separating sulfld constituents from on B in 
which they are contained, which comprises feeding the solid 
particles of the ore in a finely divided condition upon a moving 
layer of an oleaginous liquid having a selective action for the 

1. The improvement in the cyanid process For treating 
consisting in collecting the gases liberated at all stages of the 
process and conducting them continuously to a regenerating- 
vessel wherein they are subjected to the action of an alkali so 
as to convert any hydrocyanic acid gas into a simple cyanid 
solution which latter is drawn off and added to the solution, 
from which the metal has been extracted, in the sump and 
thereafter supplied to the vessel in which the ore pulp is under- 
going treatment, the arrangement constituting a closed circu- 
latory solution system whereby the hydrocyanic acid gas which 
is constantly evolving from all the tanks, vessels or places in 
which cyanid liquor is used or stored and which go to form the 
various units of a cyanid plant is continuously being re-used 
in the process. 

1,158,513. — Treatment ok Ores rv the Cyanid Process. 
Hugh M. Leslie. Glasgow, Scotland. Filed December 80, 1911. 

1. The closed circulatory cyanid process for the treatment 
of ores for the extraction of metals, consisting in effecting the 
treatment in stages, the first stage consisting in continuously 
bringing the ore pulp into contact with cyanide solution, then 
agitating the same, then conveying the same to the second 
stage which consists in removing surplus solution and then 
transferring the residue, from which surplus solution has been 
removed, to the third stage which consists in treating the same 
with a weaker cyanid solution, then agitating same and then 
conveying same to the fourth stage which is a repetition of the 

- 1916 

MIXING and Scientific PKI SS 


• ■ tuninr consisting iii collecting the 

llqulil ! iin.l lOttltb (di 

the i! ■ - 1 >> 1 1 • -» 1 

tnd also lii collecting iii>' whole of the 
cyanogen ooatalnlng gam cwhv.l ilurliiK nil Stage* "f il» 
•i conjunction with al 

11..:..;;:. Paocasa roi rai Uahwaotoii •<> Bmni raou 
PnavonratM uni Amuxbd Bwo-Bleicm Oaaa. John James 
Ftngiand, Kaalo, Britlah Colombia, Canada, mad September 

\». ins. 

Ortar fin. /ftmrro 0*ts, £ #w 

ffe runt /Groovers ,_/f..*jQ. 

1. The herein described steps in the process of manufactur- 
ing spelter from ferruginous and admixed lead and zinc-blende 
ores, which consists in heating a mixture of crude ore, roasted 
ore, and lime, thereby forming litharge and maintaining the 
heat treatment uniil the litharge has been driven off by vola- 

1,157,836. — A.mah.amatob. Erastus B. Bennett, Denver, Colo- 
rado. Filed November 23, 1914. 

1. An amalgamator, consisting of two semi-circular mem- 
bers, arranged in conjunction with each other to form a circu- 
lar chamber, said members being normally separated to form 
longitudinal openings the entire length of said chamber on 
opposite sides of the latter for the intake and discharge of the 
ore to be treated, an amalgamating roll joumaied in said cham- 
ber, and one of said semi-circular members being adjustable to 
vary the size of said intake and discharge openings, a space 
being provided between said amalgamating roll and one of said 
semi-circular members for the passage of the ore through said 

-"HIM- i hum Ci ran 

Coin pan] i 

Austria Hungary. FUi it] i 

i . I ■ . 


ill anil tli. with 

aluminium sulfate solution. 

-'. Pn extracting raiuable copper conatltuoni 

materials containing tba same consisting In • I < 

i.i materials, routing the sniii materials and ihei 
leaching the same with aluminium sulfate solution 

1460,849. Pan D?n kTioit. 

Filed April 7, 1915. 

ii.iiii R Conklin, Joplln, Mo. 

1. The method of precipitating substances from solutions 
which comprises passing a solution of the substance succi 
sively over pieces of a suitable solid precipitant moving in 

2. The method of precipitating substances from solutions 
which comprises subjecting a solution of the substam 
pieces of appreciable volume of a suitable solid precipitant 
moving in succession in a direction opposite to said solution. 

1,161,859. — Apparatus for Disintegbatino, Out: ami 
Materia!. Harry W. Hardinge, New York, N. Y„ assignor to 
Hardinge Conical Mill Company, New York, N. Y., a corpora- 
tion of New York. Filed December 31, 190S. 

1,162,044. — Process for Extracting Valuable Copper Con- 

1. In an apparatus for disintegrating ore and other ma- 
terial, in combination, a barrel or drum having axial inlet 
and outlet trunnions, bearing members for the trunnions, 
each having a cylindrical inner surface surrounding a trun- 
nion, and a spherical outer surface, supporting members 
having spherical inner surfaces to fit the said bearing mem- 
bers, a foundation upon which the supporting members are 
mounted, means for raising and lowering a supporting mem- 
ber to vary the inclination of the axis of the barrel, and driv- 
ing means for rotating the barrel, including a driving shaft 
parallel with the axis of the barrel and supported by said sup- 
porting members whereby to remain substantially constant In 
position relative to the barrel at all positions of the latter. • 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8. 1916 


As seen at the world's great minimi centres by our ovm correspondents. 

Latesi FBOU iiik TmtoSTES Akka, Including Prices for Ork. 

A legal township organization, followed by the laying out 
and platting of a townsite to be known as Atolia, is almost 
accomplished. The tract covers 40 acres, on mining ground, 
the mineral rights of which are reserved to the original lo- 
cators. Lots are being sold every day. A new general store 
has been built, to be open for business on January 1; a bakery 
will be built by a San Diego man; a pool-room, a stationery 
and cigar-store, with a club-room annex, are other substantial 
evidences of progress in this important tungsten district. 

Brock & Llpp, lessees at the Osdick group, received a cheik 
for $55,000 for tungsten ore shipped to New York in November. 
Another lot was bought from the same lessees by Atkins, Kroll 
& Co. of the Atolia company. The price paid was said to be 
$48 per unit of 60% WO,. 

The Scheellte group of 10 claims, which adjoin the Atolia 
company's ground on the east, is being prospected by means 
of a Keystone drill. 

The recently erected mill is now working at full capacity. 
night and day, on ore extracted from the Atolia company's 
ground. When ore is short, there is 500,000 tons, more or less, 
of tailing that is being re-treated with good results. 

The area of the tungsten belt is gradually increasing. 
Scheellte float is now being found on the Kramer road, three 
miles south of Atolia. Bailey and Anderson found a chunk of 
scheellte weighing over 300 lb., yielding nearly 200 lb. of high 
grade, which brought $1.50 per pound. 

There are half a dozen, or more, buyers of high-grade tung- 
sten ore at Randsburg and in this district. Some of these are 
paying over $2 per pound for grades better than 60%. As a 
consequence, there is more or less high-grading, and purloining 
of ore from dumps, warehouses, and cars, when shipments are 
being made. Last week two sacks worth over $400 disappeared 
quickly when the watchman was not looking. A peculiar ar- 
rest was made. It is difficult to find out from where the ore 
conies, as many who sell scheelite buy for cash, in small quan- 
tities, from others and then re-sell it to agents or middlemen, 
who market the valuable high grades to eastern steel manu- 
facturers. Tungsten is now so high that smaller shipments 
than carload lots must be sent by express. Several tons were 
thus shipped in a regular express-car last week. The rate is 
$190 per ton by express for high-grade ore in sacks. 

Victor Lipp has purchased the McGinnis hotel of Randsburg 
for $3000. During the scarcity of accommodations at Atolia. 
the hotel is being used as an adjunct to his tungsten mine, 
where he can board and lodge his employees. The acuteness 
of this problem of accommodations is illustrated by the fact 
that there are nine regular boarding-houses, and two restau- 
rants and chop-houses, that are rushed to death.' The over- 
flow goes to Randsburg, five miles away, by jitney. 

More than 100 men are working at No. 1 shaft of the old 
Churchill mine, on the various levels. The main shaft is down 
about 100 ft., with the bottom in ore^of good grade. Driving 
and stoping is under way for several hundred feet east and 
west, showing continuity of the main vein. At present the 
principal producing mines are the Churchill. No. 1, 2. and 3: 
Papoose. Piute, Para, Paradox, and Spaniard lease. Harry 
Hughes and R. D. Mayhood are the principal operators of 
leased ground from the Atolia Mining Company. 

All leases of ground owned by the Atolia company will 
terminate on the first of January 1916. Leases of the Osdick. 
Scheelite, Toboggan, and other groups, however, will continue 
indefinitely. These groups are all outside of the 90 or more 
claims held by the Atolia company, only a half dozen of which 
are being worked as quartz producers. Several others, located 
and patented as lode claims are being worked by Italian 
squads for 'float' digging. The float diggers receive $3 per day- 


Meeting ok thh Pan-American Scientific Congress. — 
of Some of the Papers. 

During the last two weeks there has not been much mining 
legislation at the Capital, but the second Pan-American Scien- 
tific Congress has been of interest to mining men. It was 
in session from December 27 to January S, during which 
time there were a large number of meetings at which many 
papers on a variety of subjects were read and discussed by 
prominent men. The Congress was divided into many sections 
and sub-sections, the papers being grouped according to their 
relationship to subjects. Mining, metallurgy, economic 
geology, and applied chemistry made up section 7, with Hennen 
Jennings as chairman. Van H. Manning, director of the 
U. S. Bureau of Mines, was chairman of the sub-section 
devoted to mining; W. R. Ingalls, president of the Mining 
and .Metallurgical Society, chairman of the sub-section on 
metallurgy; George Otis Smith, director of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, chairman of the sub-section on economic geology; 
and Charles E. Munson. former president of the American 
Chemical Society, chairman of the section on applied 
chemistry. In the 19 sub-section meetings, all of which were 
fairly well attended, considering the diversions, over 50 
papers were read and discussed. 

Some of the papers were as follows: 'The Relation of 
Mining to the Pan-American Countries With Special Reference 
to the Mineral Resources of Peru,' by Hon. F. A. Pezet, Peru- 
vian minister to the United States; 'The Value of Technical 
Societies to Mining Engineers,' by Dr. R. W. Raymond, past 
secretary A. I. M. E.; The Influence of Technical Journals Upon 
Engineering Education,' by T. A. Rickard, editor of the Mining 
and Scientific Press. San Francisco; 'The Possibility of Treat- 
ing by the Cyanide Process the Complex Silver or Silver-Gold 
Ores of the Latin American Republics,' by G. H. Clevenger; 
Cyaniding in South America," by H. A. Megraw; 'Mining in 
Ecuador,' by J. W. Mercer; 'The Electric Furnace in Metal- 
lurgy.' by J. W. Richards, Lehigh University; 'The Iron Mines 
of Cuba and the Methods of Preparing Their Ore.' by J. E. 
Little, Felton. Cuba; 'Metallurgy of Native Silver Ores in 
Southwestern Chihuahua,' by Walter M. Brodie: Concentra- 
tion by Flotation,' by F. G. Fuchs, Lima, Peru; 'The Copper 
Mining Industry in the Americas,' by Walter H. Weed: 
•Improved Mining and Metallurgical Methods as an Aid to 
Conservation.' by L. D. Ricketts; 'Buying and Selling of South 
American Non-ferrous Metals.' by L. Vogelstein: 'History and 
Development of Gold Dredging in Montana,' by Hennen Jen- 
nings; 'Recent Progress in Electrical Smoke Precipitation,' 
by F. G. Cottrell: Metallurgy at Braden,' by B. T. Colley and 
R. E. Douglas; 'Metallurgical Operations in Chuquicamata.' by 

J Miliar) s 1916 

MINING and Scientific I'KI SS 

i \ liux', 'Orr D ii Richards; Mlnlni 

of Panama, nj J t Barn tm hUnlng Law,' bj .1 W. Thomp 

Booth \m. | Ii u Zlm 
bg W It InKttlls '!• .i-l an<l HOC III 111. United Sl.ii. 
11 Blebentha]* of th< 

k Uof »f MiuiiiK Property.' bj J, u Pinny; 

MiuiiiK ttif Pioneer ol Intimate ('.mi rclal Relation!,' by 

t i' Bharpleas, eecretarj or the Ulnloi and Metallurgical 
ni.iii Work anil Planar Operation! ..i the 
Chile exploration Co.,' by Pope featman; 'Placer Mining 
Methods and Operating Ooeta,' b] Charlee Janln; Ifetall 

■ ai the Tin Mlnet or Bolivia,' bj Bcovill BJ, rlolllater, 
Bolivia; and Bolivian Tin, b) Bowland Banorofl 


11 i\ r.'15. — Factors AJTECTnco OFBBATIOSS. 
Coma itiMn, Winona, Osceola, Calumet k Hecla, \n- 

MIIK. AlI.UI 1/. IM' MullAWK. 

The production of copper from the Michigan mines during 

1915 broke all records, With a lotal of 259,352,000 lb. The 

II approach to this figure was In 1909, when it was 281,- 

870,000 lb., and 880,487,000 lb. In 1905. Individual yields were 

as follows: 

Mine. Pounds. 
Copper Range Con., 

including Baltic. 

Champion, and 

Trimountain . . . 54,000,000 

Winona 1,500,1 

Hancock 1,400.000 

Tamarack 3,700,000 

White Pine 3,000,000 

La Salle 700,000 

Houghton 270,000 

South Lake S2.000 

Lake Copper 855,000 

Mine Pounds. 

Osceola . . jo.045,000 

Ahmeek 21.500,000 

Wolverine 7,400,000 

Mohawk 15.S00.000 

Isle Royale 9,500,000 

Calumet & Hecla 72.000,000 

Centennial 2.500,000 

Allouez 10.000,000 

Mass 6,000,000 

Superior 4,000,000 

Franklin 2,600,000 

Victoria 2,500,000 

Quincy 20,000,000 

Total 259,352,000 

In considering these figures from a shareholder's point of 
view it should be understood that they are not the present 
annual rate of production, which is now 25% higher than the 
rate for the year. The first quarter of 1915 showed an output 
much below normal. When the War started in August 1914. 
the general condition of the copper business was not good. 
There were enormous quantities of metal on hand. It was a 
task for the treasuries of the companies to carry their un- 
sold metal. All business was depressed. Copper mines in 
Michigan curtailed production; some went on half time, and 
some on three-quarter time. This was the condition when the 
year 1915 opened. In February the situation showed improve- 
ment, and by March all of the companies were turning their 
attention to an increased output. The War resulted in a big 
demand for copper. Lake Superior mines did not benefit much 
until April and May; it has been maintained ever since. 
Wages, dividends, and treasury surpluses were increased. 

At present every mine's output of copper is only limited by its 
milling capacity. The output for 1915, while it was the largest 
on record, shows, in addition, a much greater increase in ore 
treated; also the largest working force ever employed here, a 
total of 18,000 men, and a yearly pay-roll of $17,000,000. 

The most interesting feature of the present situation in this 
State is the fact that 1910 will show a general betterment of at 
least 20% over 1915, provided the demand and price of copper 
averages the same as in 1915. 

Perhaps the most remarkable yields are those of the three 
mines of the Copper Range Consolidated Co., which owns the 
Baltic, Trimountain, and Champion, but only a half interest in 
the third named. The output of these three was 54,000,000 11).. 

•hit ll : 

then hail |e iioin the Champion, vhli 

both in il extracted ami thi Ineri ntent; 

i lb foi a ni b ,' : .> ■ Inn 

inula! lulu., thai is rarelj . qnalli d 

The ..r the Winona n. 

which was takes out I I and tribute m 

which id. corporation i be W In 

activi pari ol the year 

Phe production of the Oao 
the North South Ki uad the oi 

The yi.-id is larger than mam anticipated,* to 
the genera] ballet thai the life ••! the propertj is limited. The 


showing is 2,000,000 lb. better than any made in recent years, 
with the exception of 1909, when it was 25,000,000 lb. The 
record is all the more creditable when it is remembered that 
at the Kearsarge there was interference with hoisting owing to 
accidents and the completion of some construction. In addition 
to its earnings of at least $24 per share, the company at present 
has the largest treasury balance of any in the district, except- 
ing the Calumet & Hecla. The most encouraging feature is the 
fact that its underground openings in the North Kearsarge. 
where the ore has been extremely low grade, are slightly im- 

Calumet & Hecla's performance is the more remarkable when 
it is remembered that the increased tonnage of ore came en- 
tirely from the lower-grade amygdaloid shafts. Naturally the 
conglomerate has to be conserved. It is quite a different propo- 
sition handling Calumet & Hecla with a grade that averages 80 
lb. per ton, and with about 20 lb. The output is better than ii 
has been in six years, and with its subsidiaries the total was 
146,000,000 lb„ about 66% of the entire Lake Superior region. 
In the profit of this subsidiary production, however, the Calu- 
met & Hecla treasury participates only to the limited extent of 
its ownership, one-half of Ahmeek, one-third of Osceola, and 
similar proportion in its other subsidiaries. Calumet & Hecla's 
present dividend rate is on a basis of $60 a year, yet the earn- 
ings for 1915 undoubtedly were better than $80 a share on its 
own mine alone. 

The richest subsidiary of the Calumet & Hecla is the Ah- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8, 1916 

meek. The output in 1916 will probably show an increase of 
309S over that of 1915. Two new stamps are to be erected at 
once. This work will take at least four months, possibly six. 
In the meantime the mill capacity is taxed to the utmost. The 
finality of ore maintains a good average, and the workings 
which now are well opened to provide for the additional ton- 
■ nge needed show the average quality of the Kearsarge lode. 

In 1903 the Ahmeek Land & Improvement Co. was organized, 
and purchased the surface rights of three estates in Keweenaw 
county. The mineral rights under the town of Ahmeek were 
reci ntly sold to Thomas F. Cole of Duluth for $4000 an acre, or 
$160,000 in all. Evidently the idea is to develop the Kearsarge 
loc'e. but a 8600-ft shaft will have to be sunk. 

Allouez is another Calumet & Hecla subsidiary which Is now. 
after five years of thorough preparedness, in shape to produce 
copper at the rate of at least 10,000,000 lb. annually for in 
years at least, and 25 years with reasonable certainty, 
will be lower in 1916 than ever before, as practically all 
sary construction is done, and underground openings are 
further in advance than in any mine in Michigan. 

Mohawk's performance is the talk of the district. Earnings 
for 1915 are over $15 a share, and the present rate of earnings 
is better than $20. Further, the mine is in excellent condi- 


kasii. — Canadian Mining & Exploration Co. 

Lately there has been a marked revival of interest in Cobalt, 
stimulated by the opening of new veins in some of the older 
properties. There is an active demand for prospects, and the 
share market has been buoyant, with a general upward tend- 
iiicy. While shipments have Increased, they are not being 
lushed, as most of the companies are pursuing a conserva- 
tive policy, thinking that the price of silver will advance. 

The Niplsslng lias added considerably to its ore reserves. In 
a cross-cut from an old drift a vein which yielded nothing on 
the surface has been opened 27 ft., assaying 3000 oz. per ton 
over 1* in. Driving 60 ft. above the No. 4 level on a vein 
paralleling vein 98 has opened a 3-in. shoot, containing 2500 oz. 

per ton. The Coniagas has purchased the old Agaunico 

mine on Lake Timiskaming. one of the early producers of the 

district. Work is to be resumed on the Ophir Cobalt, which 

was closed down some years ago for want of funds. B. Neilly 

will be in charge. The old Silver Queen is being worked 

from the Right of Way shaft, and making regular shipments, 

of high-grade ore. The new vein recently found on the 

Cobalt Comet is opening well at depth, containing 4000 to 5000 
oz. of silver per ton at 20 ft. The shaft sunk on it will be 
continued to connect with the old workings. 

At Porcupine good progress is being made with the new 
central shaft of the Dome; it is expected to reach a depth of 
in March. The hoist will have a capacity of 75.000 
tons per month, which will be considerably ahead of the re- 
quirements of the mine for some time to come. The Tisdale 

Mining Co. is sinking a shaft near the Dome Lake boundary. 

Diamond-drilling on the Preston East Dome has shown a 

mineralized zone 200 ft. wide, traversing the property for 2000 
ft. Surface development has been started to uncover promis- 
ing looking veins cut during drilling. The directors of the 

Dome Extension have been authorized by the shareholders to 
s»ll 1,000,000 shares at not less than 25c. each. 

Though the original discovery on the King Dodds claims 
in the Kowkash district has proved disappointing, the vein 
which showed so rich on the surface Having pinched out at the 
depth of a few feet, the latest report of Percy E. Hopkins, of 
the Ontario Bureau of Mines, on the district generally is 
understood to be of a favorable character, especially as regards 
the prospects to the west of the district along the line of the 
National Transcontinental railway. It has not been consid- 

ered advisable to publish it, as too little development has been 
done to form a basis for a conclusive decision as to the value 
of the region. 

The Canadian Mining & Exploration Co. organized in 1912 
hy New York and Canadian people, with a capital of $5,000,000. 
to investigate and exploit mining property, is being wound up, 
and the money returned to investors. It investigated about 
1500 mining prepositions, but found none that were considered 
worth purchasing at the price asked. In the meantime the 
capital was invested in good securities, and the shareholders 
will, it is stated, be repaid in full. 

The annual report of the Coniagas Mines, Ltd., of Cobalt, 
has been issued. Development was confined to following small 
veins and extending certain cross-cuts. This work added 212,- 
700 oz. to the reserves, which were estimated as 12,894, 3S0 oz. 
on October 31. The mill treated 55,4:17 tons of ore. Shipments 
included 473.9 tons of concentrate assaying 2174 oz. per ton, 
and 133.2 tons of 233.3-oz. slime. The heads averaged 23 oz. 
per ton, and residue 3.94 oz. Ore shipped weighed 267.2 tons, 
containing 3519.6 oz. per ton. Silver sold totaled 2,002,053 oz. 
Mining and treatment cost 13.618c. per oz., exclusive of 
freight, smelting, and marketing, which was 3.252c. per oz. 
Dividends totaled $740,000, making $7,840,000 to date. F. D. 
Reid is superintendent. 

During shaft-sinking at the Croesus gold mine in Munro 
township, $125,000 was extracted in 75 ft. of work. The vein 
has been cut at 200 ft., where it is high grade. 

On January 20 the La Rose company will pay V',, equal to 
$74,931. making $5,472,052 to date. 

NOTES on a District with Three Rich Minks. 

Rand is in Mineral county, about 15 miles east of Walker 
lake. It has been somewhat sensational by having shipped 
upward of $100,000 of high-grade ore, also having opened large 
veins of excellent mill ore. Only three mines have been de- 
veloped, but are shippers of rich ore. 

The most important deal made in the camp so far is the 
sale of the Golden Pen mine to a syndicate of Western op- 
erators headed by Jesse Knight of Utah, associated with 
Adams and O'Neil of Los Angeles, J. H. Miller of Hawthorne, 
and others. The deal was closed on December 15, and the 
new owners immediately started 12 men working. High- 
grade ore is being hauled to Nolan spur, a station on the 
Southern Pacific railway. The price reported is $150,000, to 
be paid within one year. The Golden Pen has made very rich 
shipments; one car, the lowest grade shipped, averaged $11S; 
another. $600; while a recent carload averaged $1018 per ton: 
smaller lots have contained as much as $1S per pound. One 
very unusual condition of the sale is the fact that the owners 
retain for their own use and operation, one high-grade shoot in 
the mine 20 ft. long, from which they are stoping some wonder- 
ful ore and will soon make shipment. 

The Queen Regent Merger Mines Co. recently bought the 
Lone Star claims for $50,000. It has steadily developed the 
property with a good number of men and reports the opening 
of a 30-ft. vein on the first level, which in the second level is 
40 ft. wide, with the hanging wall not yet reached. Develop- 
ment is now going on on No. 3 level. A good grade of mill 
ore has been opened, but rich material has not yet been cut 
as in the other mines, except at No. 2 shaft, where a block 
of ground was leased last November to Miller and Meaker, 
who have opened high-grade ore, and are now making ship- 
ments. In addition to this the lessees have opened a 5 to 7-ft 
vein of fine mill ore. 

Adjoining the Queen Regent on the west the Last Hope 
mine recently shipped a carload to the Hazen sampler, av- 
eraging over $S0 per ton. It is thought that the Last Hope 
will, with cross-cutting at depth, open the huge vein of mill 
ore that is under development in the Queen Regent. 

January S, 1 ■• 1 •• 

MINING ..nd Sdentim I'KI SS 


I liv MM "I !«■■ »v«'k ill told l'v our IMCfal COITMpondcTltl and COmpltad (rum fhi local prt-M. 


rttniU ol ihv mill's mi DoaglU Island wi 

Alaska Alaska Alaska 

Results or operations. Mexican. TreadwelL Juneau. 

. working 120 540 300 

isbed.tons l«,800 80,609 48,694 

Gold from all sources $27,959 $166,628 182,003 

Yield per Ion 11.66 $2.06 11.72 

Operating profit It $67,472 $22, I9G 

Construction charges $9.6is $12,953 124,352 

In addition to the Treadwell operating profit, there was 

il from the Mexican and United companies, a total of 
$24,705. tho amount of adjustment of const ruction expenses. 

K 1 I 1 1 [I K A X 

lal Correspondence. ) — After a delay of two months, 

it In Cymru mine at North arm have finally secured 

iransportatlou for a small shipment of copper ore. The 

Despatch will load this ore. also about 300 tons from the Jit. 

Andrew mine, lor the Tacoma smelter. 

The Rush and Brown is now shipping to the Granby smelter 
.it Anyox. British Columbia, and the first shipment to the 
idant from this mine, consisting of 700 tons, has just been 

11 developments al the old Hydah mine, Corta bay, has 
proved that the ore is practically continuous from the old 
workings to a distance of 350 ft. in an easterly direction, while 
several open-cuts have exposed magnetite chalcopyrite ore 
along the contact-zone, and at one place an open-cut exposes a 
solid sulphide body IE ft. wide, averaging 3.5% copper. This 
deposit was traced from a magneto-metric survey made by W. 
L. Poison. 

Gold mining in the vicinity of Twelve-mile arm and Hoi lis 
is proceeding with good results. The Julian mine at Harrnis 
creek has been developed to a depth of 300 ft. on the vein, and 
.1. H. Rodgers. the principal owner, has finally decided to en- 
large the mining and milling plant, and make other improve- 
ments. Lessees on the old Puyalop mine are said to be making 

Flotation experiments made on ore taken from the Apex 
group at McLeans arm are said to give satisfactory results. 
Mining in tins district will become more interesting when it 
becomes more generally known that there are a number of low- 
grade copper-gold deposits containing large quantities of ore 
amenable to flotation. 

A body of ore said to be 80 ft. wide, near Smeaton bay, aver- 
aging $1.S0 gold per ton is said to have been bonded to J. T. 
Jones, representing Tacoma and Portland people. 

Ketchikan, December 15, 1915. 

Cochise County 
The approximate copper production of the Calumet & Arizona 
and Copper Queen smelters at Douglas in 1915 was 75,000.000 
lb. and 125.000.000 lb., respectively, both good increases. The 
totals include custom ores. Both companies have extended 
the sliding-scale of wage up to 25-cent copper, effective Decem- 
ber 1. 1915. The price of metal on which wages are to be based 

win be the average quotation of electrolytic copper to 

all inlar itb. 

On v C01 k n 

Two more units of thi I on mill are working, making 

11 out of is. treating 8000 tons per day. improved driving 
gear has been fitted to the apron feeders (applying the gyra- 
tory crushers. A battery of motor-driven blowers for the Bota 
tlon-plaut is expected soon. 

The raise above No. 12 level In the Arizona Commercial is 
nearly up to Xo. 11 in v , ore. The output is now 600,000 lb. 
of copper a month. 

Five cars of ore from the Iron Cap early in 1 lecember assayed 
from 15 to 2"', copper, netting $16,042. The profit for 1916 
was about $130,000. 

Gbeexlee County 

On December 27 the United States marshal, J. Dillon, and 50 
deputies escorted 236 miners at Morenci from the Duncan 
refugee camp. The men are to do assessment work on the 
Detroit Copper Co.'s unpatented claims, and will lie unmolested 
by the strikers on account of an injunction from the Federal 

The strike is costing the Shannon company over 810,000 a 
month, not including loss of copper production. 

On January 1 the strikers voted against accepting an offer 
from the Arizona, Detroit, and Shannon companies, which 
wished to resume operations with former employees, with an 
extension of the present scale of wages on a basis of 20c. 
copper, provided the men gave up their Western Federation 
of Mines charter. The offer meant an increase of 59! in wages 
for 5000 men, but no recognition of the union. A mediation 
committee of neutral people of Clifton acted in this offer. 
Nearly every American voted for acceptance, but the Italians 
and Mexicans were against it. It was further proposed by the 
companies to place the wage-scale on a basis in accordance 
with the selling-price of copper. 

Under the proposed schedule the following scale would be 
in force: miners and muckers 39jc. ; trimmers 314c; timber- 
men, 414 to 51c; furnace-men 39c; skimmers 47*c; boiler- 
makers 62'^.; electricians 66%c. ; carpenters 591,4c, and 
machinists 62$c. per hour. 

Mohave County 
Much excitement prevails at Oatman through the 400-ft. 
level of the Big Jim cutting the hanging wall of what is 
thought to be the Tom Reed lode. So far it is 43 ft. wide, 
averaging $20 per ton. 

Some good ore has been opened on the surface of the Times 
mine, about 4 miles from Oatman. A large sample is on view- 
on Bush street, San Francisco. 

Yavapai County 
Three miles north of Constellation. R. T. Barton and son 
have opeued silver-lead-vanadium ore to a depth of 00 ft. The 
vanadium is said to occur partly as beautiful crystals, and is 
of high value. 


The number of new oil wells drilled in California during 
1915 was about 240 compared with over 400 drilled during the 
previous year. This decrease, in conjunction with the natural 
decline in productiveness of wells, accounts for the 10% short- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January s . 1916 

age in total production. Demand for oil has Increased in the 
past few months, causing a reduction In storage. 

On page 24 of the issue of January 1 it was stated that the 
State Mining Bureau chapter on Amador, Calaveras, and 
Tuolumne counties was by W. B. Fletcher: this should have 
been W. B. Tucker. 

Bi -til 001 H iv 

A new type of dredge, designed by L. D. Hopfield of the 
Natomas Consolidated, is to commence work at Oroville in a 
few days. Its purpose is to re-dredge the tailing-piles and 
leave the final material level. Mr. Hopfield considers that the 
owners of dredged land should pool their areas for the success 
of this scheme on a large scale. 

It is reported that the Burlington property at Forbestow n 
bas been sold to Eastern people for $130,000. W. C. Ralston 
of San Francisco was instrumental in arranging the deal. 

I0i DOBADO County 

(Special Correspondence.) — John D. Cover, of Seattle, has 
acquired, after personal examination, four gold quartz lode- 
mining claims i n this county, situated on the Mother Lode 
between the Church-Union and the I.aus Padre mines on the 
north fork of the Cosumnes river, about four miles south of 
El Dorado (formerly Mud Springs) railroad station. Three 
miles along the trend of the same formation south is the 
Montezuma quartz mine, which has been for the last nine 
months, and is yet. under extensive development in depth by 
George Wingfield of Qoldfield and \V. J. Loring of the 
Plymouth Consolidated, seven miles farther south. Mr. Cover 
intends to develop and equip his property in a modern manner. 

Mining was started on the old Church-Union mine (two 
claims adjoining) in 1852, and the two properties have pro- 
duced over $10,000.0011 in gold. At the 200-ft. level there was a 
long shoot of ore 20 ft. wide, between good walls, that av- 
eraged $20 free gold per ton. The vein has been mined to a 

depth of about 2 t. It is Bald to be a good mine yet. The 

Church mine was named after Tom' Church of New York, who 
operated it for some years. The Rhcta mine (the old Bay 
State I on which deep-level development on a large scale was 
recently started by B. C. Clark, is also on the same formation, 
about midway between the Montezuma and the Plymouth 

I'laeervllle, December 26. 1915. 

Steam-shovels will not be used as contemplated by Ale 
Webber Creek Co. at Cold Springs. 

The Golden Center company of Grass Valley has acquired 
the Lady Emma and Noon Day quartz claims in the Nash- 
ville district. Some rich ore has been extracted from the 
Emma lately. 

Inyo Count y 

A transmission-line seven miles long is to be erected at once 
between Keeler and the Cerro Gordo zinc-lead mines. M. A. 
Stampher & Co. of Los Angeles has the contract. 

Kern County 

A large tungsten area is reported to have been discovered 
six miles south-west of Randsburg. It is in the tungsten belt. 
and can be traced from Atolia to White's and Powell's camp, 
and from the latter the ground is 2J miles west. 'Float' ore 
contained as high as 75' v tungsten. The field has been rushed. 

N'l \ IDA COl MY 

The new change-house at the Champion mine on Dry creek 
is in full occupation. It is of corrugated iron, lined with 
asbestos, has a cement floor, hot and cold water installed, and 
accommodation for 350 men. 

The North Star and Empire companies are to pay bonuses to 
miners. For the present the standard shift's work will be 
seven holes, depending on the character of the rock drilled. 
It is thought that some men will make up to $1 per day: the 
present wage is $3. 

Shasta County 
The monthly ore production of the Mountain Copper Co. at 
Keswick is about 15,000 tons. The smelter at Martinez is 
kept busy. 

Ten stamps are working 20 hours a day at the Uncle Sam 
mine, four miles west of Kennett. 

Sierra Coin iv 
The Young America mine at Forest has been bonded to 
E. J. Wiley of Nevada City. The 1000-ft. adit is being pre- 
pared for resumption of work. 

Stanislaus County 
A new company, the Pacific Coast Manganese Co.. » Itb offices 
at the Monadnock building. San Francisco, is commencing 
work at Ingram canyon, and expects to start shipping at an 
early date. J. C. Sartorius is president, and J. A. Rumsen, 
\ ice-president. 

Tuolumne County 

(Special Correspondence. 1 — J. W. Mercer of New York, has 
exercised his option on the Poison Oak mine, and tkei 


it over on a lease and bond. Development has been started 
under the supervision of W. H. Knowles of Sonora. This 
mine has been idle for about 15 years. The former owners 
sunk an incline shaft on the vein to a depth of 300 ft. rhwe 
levels were opened, all showing good ore.. A five-stamp mill 
was erected, and about 5000 tons of ore crushed As depth was 
attained the ore became more mineralized, and the recovery 
by amalgamation decreased. While part of the gold was saved 
by concentration, a great deal went down the creek in the tail- 
ing. In those days the concentrate was hauled by wagon to 
the nearest railroad, and shipped to the Selby smelter. Elect ric 
power was not in use in this county, and other modern mi 
of mining and milling were unknown at that time 

There are other deals pending in the district 

Sonora, January 2. 

The McAlpine Mines Co., an organization of Californian 
people, has been formed to re-open the old McAlpine mine near 
the line between Tuolumne and Mariposa counties. th> 
est town being Coulterville. F. R. Whitcomb is president and 
' r. L. C. La Rue is vice-president. The min>- was 
worked in the 60's. and was a well-known producer in the 
early days. A shaft has been sunk 500 ft., and some develop- 
ment done toward re-opening the old workings. Blei 
machim ry "ill be installed. 


Clear Creek County 
(Special Correspondence.) — An lS-in. shoot has been cut in 
the Lake vein by Craise & Co.: the first carload shipment 

Januvj B, 1916 

Ml\l\i. ud Sdentifc I'M SS 

dona through '}>•■ Big 
.•in. and bi the bottom ol ■ '•"'! Winn riie I91t 

Hon from th« Bdgjar end Bellman veins ..i the hIk Five 
rampai BS "illy two proi 

■ o r to d b] Hi-- oompoDT. 

ellmlnarj work ui the UoClelluid adll baa bam c 

plated, ami mm thine drills are ut work. Pro 

il the rate of ISO ft. a month. I.. W. Shaffer la manager. 

Bight of ore ha» boon cut In the east ilrin ol He- 

Roler vein own, worth t\"« par ton in gold and 

Work is done tram the Capital adit 

it Ik reported iiiat the Onondaga tuning Co. will ink. ovi i 

I on Saxon mountain. The adit lias a 

• ft. inn it is proposed to drive 2 ft to Intersect the 

train system of Highland park. 

HariMT t Co.. leasing on the Aetna vain al the Capital mine. 
has commenced shipments o! 180 ore. The shooi la 10 In. 

Idaho Bprings, December 29, 1916. 

Ore production of the Baal Argentine dlstrlcl has ;n 
21 tons par day during the past two months, the largest 

recorded. The largest shipments oome from the Imperial 

mine. All leasees are getting satisfactory returns. 

Ti LLsa Cot irrs i Cbippi i Ca 

Work has boon resumed al the Black Belle company's prop- 
erty on I In- east slope of Beacon hill. The Chester Leasing Co. 
has a lease on IT acres. Shipments will soon commence. 

i.i mi'kin Cotjsrv 

Thirn stamps are crushing hard ore from the Kindley 
Ridge Mining & Power Co.'s Crown Mountain mine. A cya 
nidi-plant. In charge of A. H. Head, is being erected. 

Black samls from the Briar Patch placer claims are being 
Investigated; they assay up to $200 per ton. 

Encouraging developments are reported from the Stoudard, 
Calhoun. Consolidated. Turkey Head, and other properties. 


CrsTER County 

The town of Mackay was started by the owners of some cop- 
per mines nearby, and has grown considerably. The Empire 
mine is of some importance, managed by Ralph R. Osburn. 
Utah people, headed by L. R. Eccles. now have control. Frank 
U. Leland is consulting engineer. 

In the Yankee Fork district the Custer Slide & Development 
Co. operates the Montana mine. Two weeks ago 27 tons of ore 
was brought to Mackay from this property. Of this, 6.5 tons 
is worth $15,000, and the remainder, $350 per ton. The mine 
is well equipped. 


In The Wallace Miner of December 30 are some interesting 
figures on 13 years' mineral production of the region, also the 
estimated output of the State in 1915, the latter compiled by 
the state mine inspector, Robert N. Bell. His total value is 
not much different from that of the U. S. Geological Survey, 
but the outputs vary somewhat. He estimates as follows: 

Copper, pounds 6,655,000 

Gold, value $1,235,000 

Lead, pounds 364,300,000 

Silver, ounces 12,206,000 

Zinc pounds 91,731,000 

Total value $37,551,542 

The Coeur d'Alene produced 95% of the lead and 98% of the 
zinc. Custer county yielded 957t of the copper, and Boise 
county 50% of the gold. Most of the antimony came from the 
Coeur d'Alene. 


the bollda 

Tii.- Horning Bvsnlng vt In 
lug mine la expoetad '■> be toon out hi Ho i idli ol the 

Indsi lam • Lead Co . which i» In 

The Wa ihington Water Power I 

Ith at mining 
ia>-i Jul) . i itheri an awaltlni i onm 

eclal Coi re 
tlnue to be Bent from the Black-jack, Federal, Kohlmann, 

North Unity, Great Western, and Joplln i lucei al Qalena 

a new separatlng-plant, bulll by the Qreal Western c pan., 

is treating a Btocl ide product 

each week. The Qalena Refining Co has purchased levi n 
..i land in this city, and a new I at will 

he finished on January l. The new plani new methods 

of electrolytic separation devised by i.. v. Rice. All gradei 
of ore can be treated at greatly reduced cost 
Galena. December 22. 


Tin Corn it Cm miii 

A brief review oi i his region appears on pagi 63 ..i thl 
Over 12011 employees of the Mohawk and Wolverine coin 
panics received a V, bonus at Christmas. 


jASl' C'lil \ I Y 

Prices for zinc concentrate at Joiilin during the week ended 

December 31 ranged between $85 and $116 tier ton. Thl - 

put of the Missouri-Kansas-Oklahoma region was 5473 tons 
blende, SOS tons calamine, and 1098 tons lead, averaging $96,711. 
$64.10, and $67.06 per ton respectively. The total value was 
$622,S30, and for 52 weeks, $25,268, 7S3. Another week's return 
will complete the past year. 

The 'Origin of the Zinc and Lead Deposits of the Joplin 
Region' (Missouri. Kansas, and Oklahoma), is the title of 
U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 606 by C. E. Slehcnthal. 
The publication covers 283 pages. The author has been 
studying the deposits for 12 years, although not continuously* 
The work is very thorough, and should be secured by all in- 
terested in the area which produced the large total as given 


Silveruow County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The East Butte Copper Co. is 
negotiating for control of the Butte & Duluth property, which 
has been tied-up in bankruptcy for several months. The claims 
are near the Pittsmont mine and smelter of the East Butte. 
The ore contains copper carbonate and is mined by means of 
an open-cut. The mill has a capacity of about 250 tons per 
day. The ore was crushed through 8-mesh and leached with 
sulphuric acid in a series of five large Dorr classifiers. The 
copper was precipitated by electrolysis. The mill was com- 
pleted only a short time before the shut-down, and the com- 
pany was not strong enough to work in the face of the low 
price of copper and the general depression that existed at 
that time. The process was successful, however, and there is 
every indication that the property can be worked at a profit. 

The Butte & Bullwhacker has been leased to Patrick Wall 
and I. A. Heilbronner for one year, under the condition that 
they mine at least 1000 tons of ore per month, and pay as 
royalty 25% of the net proceeds. They also secured an option 
on 51% of the stock of the company at 50c. per share. The 
first payment is to be made in 30 days, the second in 90 days, 
and the final payment at the end of IS months. The Bull- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8| 1916 

whacker is near the Butte. & Duluth, aud it was also worked 
by a glory-hole. About $400,000 was spent experimenting with 
leaching processes similar to that adopted by the Butte & 
Duluth, but as the copper occurs as a silicate, they were not 
successful. Former lessees have made money shipping the 
high-grade ore to a smelter. 
Butte, December lm. 1915. 

Humboldt County 
(in coDcentrating-plant is to be erected by the Antimony 
Syndicate Co., near I'nionville. The ore is high grade. John 
Ross is superintendent. 

Little has been heard from National lately, but it is now 
reported that the National Mines Co. has installed a tube- 
mill and is shipping concentrate. The Indian National, 

Snorting Bob, Shilo Mining, and Howard and Hudelson com- 
panies are busy with development. 

At SO ft. below the 1400-ft. level the Seven Troughs Coalition 
company has cut two feet of $240 ore. showing plenty of free 


Six companies and several lessees at Tonopah last week 
produced 7587 tons of ore worth $162,166. 

The Tonopah company shipped 60 bars of bullion valued at 
$72,225. Development generally is satisfactory. 

The Extension profit in November was $61,800. 

The Nevada-California Power Co.. which supplies Tonopah 
with electricity, has insured its employees for $1000 each in 
the Equitable Life, and will keep the policies in force at its 
own expense. A benefit fund is also being arranged. 

Kansas City people, connected with the Tigre Mining Co. 
of Sonora. Mexico, have purchased the Phonolite claims three 
miles west of lone. E. C. Cooey represented the purchasers. 
A mill is contemplated at an early date. 


Lawrence County 
Two weeks ago the Wasp No. 2 company sent 26 tons of 
tungsten ore to the Crucible Steel Co. of America at Pittsburg. 
The lot is valued at $48,000. 

Pennington County 
If sufficient money can be raised, the Hill City Mining A 
Development Co.. will sink its shaft, develop the mine, and 
erect a 100-ton mill. A persistent vein has already been opened 
to a considerable extent. The property is five miles north of 
Hill City. 

Polk County 
A much greater output of zinc is expected from the Mascot 
mine of the American Zinc. Lead & Smelting Co. during 1916 
than in 1915. The total may be 45,000,000 lb. The 10 months 
ended October 31, 1915, produced 386,880 tons of 3.99% ore, 
yielding 18,741 tons of 59.88c/ r zinc concentrate equal to 22.- 
444,000 lb. of metal. The estimated cost is 4.05c. per lb. The 
present daily capacity of the mill is 2600 tons of ore. 


In its issue of January 2, The Salt Lake Tribune, devotes SS 
pages to a review of the year, etc.. in this State, the mining 
section covering 10 pages including carefully prepared 

riel notes on the mines, districts, processes, and power 

Juab Cor 

The Colorado Mining Co. has issued its report for the year 

November 1. 1915. The property at Tintic was worked 

mostly by lessees, which resulted in a net profit of $;ifll4 to the 

company. When the Tintic Milling Co.'s new plant is ready. 

probably in January, the low-grade ore will lie treated there. 
The lessees' output was 1490 tons (dry) of ore assaying $36.15 
per ton in gold, silver, lead, and zinc. Sampling, freight, aud 
treatment cost $S.42 per ton. The cash balance is $4L'." .4. 
.1. W. Knight is general manager, and E. F. Birch assistant. 

Salt Lake Con NT Y 

The BinghamaJTooele Mining Co.'s adit is in 572 ft. in heavily 
mineralized formation. The flow of water is increasing. 
Officials expert Interesting developments in the near future. 

Summit County 
The Ontario company is now shipping 50 tons of ore daily 
from its 1000 and 1500-ft. levels to the Garfield smelter. It is 
highly silicious. 



Ferry County 

(Special Correspondence.) — During the last seven weeks the 
following shipments of ore have been made from mines at 
Republic: Ben Hur, 2960 tons; Tom Thumb, 765; Knob Hill, 
480; and Lone Pine, 400; a total of 4605 tons. 

Work has been resumed in the Belcher mine in the Belcher 
district, with a few men and shipping three to four cars of 
ore per week. 

Lessees have been extracting $25 ore from the Washington 
mine, on Belcher mountain, and are now developing an ex- 
tensive body of pyrrhotite, which gives small returns in gold. 

Information from Keller states that a five-foot vein in the 
Golden Crown mine is producing ore assaying $234. SO in silver, 
copper, and zinc, with enough gold in addition to pay the cost 
of treatment. The mine is owned by the Illinois Copper- 
Silver Mining & Milling Co. Andrew Hamilton is the local 

manager. Four miners are working on the Walla Walla 

group, and recently struck a stringer of high-grade copper 
ore a foot wide. 

Republic. December 25, 1915. 

Okanogan County 
Following a request made by the Northwest dining Con- 
vention held at Spokane last February, F. A. Thomson, head 
of the mining department of the Washington State college at 
Pullman, has made an investigation of the mineral deposits in 
this county. He states that there are in this district bodies of 
more or less complex ore, consisting mainly of pyrite, sphaler- 
ite, galena, and tetrahedrite. all contained in a gangue of 

Jniiuan 8, 1916 

MINING and Scieotin. I*UI SS 

tdutah-whltr qmirti. Ilx hna Ml I 

[gallon <■( ill.- deposits In tin- district .m.l ...ii equentl) 

irt .hi llir inuiiitlu ..: 
im«nt, unfortunately, while u make* libera 
*nru in other llnee ami Industrie 

cms nf the mineral re- 
• UK. hi in- was < .mi i ..-I l.-il in confine bli effort! 
in.-ni metbodi in thia Mr. Thomson feela 
that he and hla assistants hare bean successful, having made 
In the college lahoratoiiea While 
has nut bees carried far i ret, in 

Iflc reoommi ndattons, it is 
"mill . an be provided thai will yield 
satisfactory results. The eholOB s<i far appears in lie betwe a 
chloridlxlnj roast, followed by eyanldatton after wain 
and flotation concentration of ait the ore, after crushing 
to BO-meeh, Bach »f these methods shows an extraction bj 
• approxlmai ol the silver and a lnrgc 

proportion of the copper, The notation method, of course. 
. eonoentrate Which musl lie either shipped to smelter or 
i rurther si the mine, it seems probable that nn applica- 
tion of the light chlorldlxlng roast with water-wash, followed 
■nidation, which has proved successful with the ore. 
might be applied to the notation concentrate with equal or 

greater success. Tins point will shortly he Investigated. 

Spokahi Couirex 

Mining companies operating in regions tributary to Spokane 
paid a total of SIO.560,060 In dividends last year, making 
5 to date. 

Sim ins CotNTY 

N- initiations are pending for a lease and bond on the prop- 
erties of the American Tungsten Consolidated Corporation, 25 
miles weal of Springdale, and about 50 miles north-west of 
Spokane, by Eastern interests, represented by Fletcher T. 
Hamshaw of Seattle. It Is thought the deal will be closed 
shortly Men and supplies are now being sent into the camp 
to prepare accommodations for a crew of 100 men, who will be 
at work, it is thought. In the next 30 to 60 days. The mill 
was dismantled several months ago, but It is said that the 
building is in good condition to receive new equipment that 
is reported to have been ordered, and that the installation 
will be completed within 30 days, provided the heavy ma- 
chinery can be transported to the property. Ten four-horse 
teams have been secured to haul ore from the mine, and that 
until the mill is ready to operate crude shipments will be made 
regularly. Not less than a car daily will be forwarded to the 
smelters, beginning about January 10. The workings con- 
sisting principally of three adits, aggregating about 3000 ft, 
are Bald to have exposed a considerable quantity of ore. 


Grant Coi.wty 

i Special Correspondence. I — At Hazel Green the McMillan 
Ziiu Co. is down 140 ft. in ore. An initial shipment of hand- 
cobbed ore will be made before January 1. A complete sep- 

arating-plant is nearing completion. The Monmouth Zinc 

Mining Co. has a 7 by 11-ft. shaft well under way. Mechanics 
have begun construction of the main power and mine plant. 
to be ready by March 1. Regular weekly shipments con- 
tinue from the Kennedy, Cleveland, and Lawrence mines. 
Several tracts have been drilled out with success. 

At Platteville the Wisconsin Zinc Co.'s Empire roasting- 
plant. after continuous operation for six years, will be closed 
on January 1 and the plant removed. The Klar-Piquette mine. 
at one time paying 350% dividends per year, has resumed and 
is shipping heavily. Two dividends .have been paid this year. 

The West Hill Mining Co., with a small capital, has paid 

150% in dividends this year. Local interests have carried the 
brunt of new mine development and equipment in this district 

in tin- past tnendoui Hi ,„ nii> 

is is shown h> tin- nui 
c iul>. iitiiii. ly, 32, with a - 
The National Separating n ubs i* rnnnli 

w.-cl,. Shipment-. ..t ..l ..,-, ,,|. 

Platteville, December 12, I 

Iowa Coi mv 

i Spciai Correspondence.) The Highland district, well 
known for extensive deposits •■! carbon its "i rim ore, Is 
languishing for wain ol a demand for the product. Tho 
of tons of on- ready for shlpmenl are held. 

1 Zinc Co. is preparing to mine new di 

of blende on the Kennedy farm, a new two-compartmenl 
shaft is nearing ore a 260-ton power and mllllng-planl will 
be provided this winter. I\l available In 

this district, gives an incentive to extend operations. 

The Linden Separating Works is making the hi 
product "i the field, namely. 62' ;. 

The new acid department of the New Jersey Zinc Co.'s 
plant is returning one 25-ton tank car of commercial sulphuric 
acid per 24 hours. The supply is consigned to the Atlas 
Powder Works, at Senter. Michigan, The New Jersey Zinc Co. 
has begun the construction of a new zinc-ore roasting and 
separating-plant of 150-ton capacity. The present equipment 
is inadequate. Five Mathey hearths are now at work on ores 
mined from the Xew Jersey company's mines in this Held. 

The Peacock Mining Co., operating the Peacock mines In 
the Mifflin district, has paid to shareholders of record for 
1915, 75% in dividends. 

Eastern mining syndicates have representatives in this dis- 
trict reporting on leaseholds and fees available for zinc-mining. 
This district, practically eliminated from mining reports early 
in the year, has jumped into second place, shipping from 20 
to 30 cars of zinc ore per week. Milwaukee capital is heavily 
interested. The Coker mines, owned by the New Jersey Zinc 
Co., continue weekly shipments of from 10 to 15 cars. 

Mineral Point. December 22, 1915. 

LaFayette Cointv 

(Special Correspondence.) — The high-water mark has been 
reached at Benton in producing 50 cars of crude ore in a week. 

The Fields Mining & Milling Co. has installed new crushing 
machinery, facilitating the handling of 750 tons of mill-rock, 
each 20-hour mill run. 

The Vinegar Hill Zinc Co. has a new shaft in ore on the 
Blackstone lease of 160 acres and a new plant will be started 
on January 15. 

Local interests, including four of the leading mining op- 
erators of the district, have a road-building project under way. 
to give all outlying producers track facilities during all sea- 
sons. The C. & N. W. R. Co. offers to contribute $20,000 if 
mining men will pledge their I raffle in return for this aid. 

Benton, December 22, 1915. 

British Columbia 

(Special Correspondence.) — In the Windermere district of 
north-east Kootenay. Burgess & Co., who last summer bonded 
the Lead Queen claims situated on No. 3 creek, has just 
finished building 14 miles of sleigh-road, and about J mile 
of rawhide trail to the mine, and is preparing to ship ore. 
The first 100 tons will be on the way before the end of the 
year, after which a steady production will be kept up; the 
expectation of the bond-owners is to ship at least 100 tons 
per week during the winter. There is a large tonnage opened 
in the mine, assaying well in lead and silver. 

Negotiations were on foot earlier in the year to re-open 
the Paradise mine, but they have not yet materialized. This 
mine shipped approximately 2000 tons of lead carbonate ore 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January s . L916 

of high lead value, and good silver-content, some 10 years ago. 
There is a lot of second-class ore assaying from 20 to 30% 
lead, and 20 to 30 oz. of silver, on the dump. The above ore 
was chiefly taken out in development, and in the mine there 
is a correspondingly large amount of both first and second- 
class ore blocked out. Transportation difficulties, owing to 
lack of railways, and inefficient boat service only in the 
summer months, caused the shutting-down of the mine at 
that time. The building of the Kootenay Central railway 
through the upper Columbia and Kootenay valleys has done 
away with these hindrances, and will enable the mine as 
wi U ;is many others in the district to make fine profits. Lack 
of capital to open them is the drawback at present, and 
here is a good field for the investor. The ores are chiefly 
lead-silver, with some copper in the form of tetrahedrite. 

Wilnier, December 22, 1915. 

The Standard Silver-Lead company's profit in November 
was $99,039, from a revenue of $136,278. The balance on 
November 30 was $336,397. 

The Slocan Star company will probably issue $100,000 7% 
bonds to finance improvements at the property. An aerial 
train 4000 ft. long, from the mill to Sandon, is to be ordered. 

The Tonopah Belmont Development Co. of Nevada has 
decided to complete its option on the Surf Inlet mine on 
Princess Royal island. A hydro-electric plant, 250-ton mill, 
and other machinery- is to be erected. 

In the January 1. 1916, issue of the Journal of Electricity, 
Power, and Gas, San Francisco, is a condensed report on the 
water-power plants of the Province taken from the original by 
G. R. G. Conway for the Dominion government. The Province 
has a superficial area of 372.640 sq. miles. The drainage 
from the mountains and highlands is received in numerous 
lakes, their surplus water Bowing to the sea by several large 
rivers or their tributaries. The principal rivers are the 
Columbia. Fraser, Liard, Peace, Skeena, and Stikine. Develop- 
ment of water-power on a fairly large scale began in 1897. 
The present capacity of 16 large and several small concerns 
is 230,000 hp. Those supplying the mining industry have 
an output of about 50,000 hp., the Britannia, Canadian Col- 
lieries. City of Nelson, Granby, Hedley, and West Kootenay. 


El Obo 

Esperanza Limited has issued a report for the period July 1 
to September 30. Development amounted to 921 ft. Milling 
work has not been resumed, as there has been no improvement 
in the political situation. El Oro is still cut off from the out- 
side world, as there is neither railroad nor telegraphic com- 
munication. During the quarter several suspensions of power 
occurred, caused by troops of the opposite party from that 
which might be occupying El Oro at the time. In September 
the mine was without power for two weeks at one time. In 
August, acting upon a peremptory order from the Governor of 
the State, all wages payable in Mexican currency were in- 
creased 50%. This order was absolutely uncalled for, as there 
had been no difficulty over wages — on the contrary, arrange- 
ments had been completed whereby the workmen should re- 
ceive increased pay, and be furnished with the most common 
of foodstuffs at cost. At the end of the quarter 90% of weekly 
pay-rolls is being given to the laborers in food, as there is no 
food in the camp aside from that brought in by the mining 

Later advices from the mine state that "the local as well as 
the general political situation has 'cleared up' remarkably 
during the past month. Traiqs are now running daily be- 
tween El Oro and Mexico City and mail and food supplies are 
coming In." 


Robkrt E. Cranston is at Butte. 

S. A. Iomi'Ks was at Spokane this week. 

Charles E. Knox was in New York recently. 

Ben. B. Thayer sails for Chile on January 15. 

Wiiri man Symmks is at Thermopolis, Wyoming. 

John H. Baklr of Phoenix is at the Palace Hotel. 

(Has. A. O'Con.nei.l is at Santa Barbara, California 

Aktiuk R. Weigall and H. R. BOSTWICK are at Denver. 

F. R. Weekes has returned to New York from California. 

R. M. Raymond has returned from London to New York. 

T. J. Jones has returned from Kyshtim, Siberia, to London. 

Ralph Abnold has returned to Los Angeles from Venezuela. 

Leo Von Rose.nberg recently visited the Ray district, Ari- 

Ernest Williams is on his way from London to Sonih 

W. H. Bassett is visiting the Miami and Inspiration mines 
in Arizona. 

F. H. Mason has gone to San Die^o with the Canadian min- 
eral exhibit. 

L. D. Ricketts sails from New York for South America on 
January 15. 

A. N. Mai kay is now manager of the Frontino & Bolivia 
mines in Colombia. 

W. J. LoiiiNG has returned from a visit to Angels. California; 
and opened an office in the Crocker building. 

G. D. Hirshbebg and M. N. Zinberg sailed from San Fran- 
Cisco on their return to Russia, on January 6. 

Hoyt S. Gale of the U. S. Geological Survey has goi 

Chile and Peru on three months' leave of absence. 

Si'MNEB S. Smith, Federal mine inspector for Alaska, is 
visiting Washington, D. C, before returning to Juneau. 

H. S. Mullikex has been appointed manager of the mines 
and smelter of the Petioles company at Mapimi. Durango, 

Geobge B. Butterwobth, manager of the Whim Well copper 
mines in Western Australia, visited Anaconda on his way to 

James J. Carriuan, safety engineer for the Anaconda com- 
pany, has been appointed assistant mining superintendent of 
the company's zinc mines at Butte. 

George P. Coffet, of Oakland, superintendent of hydraulic-k- 
ing for the Yukon Gold Co. at Dawson, Klondike, is at the St. 
Francis hospital recovering from an operation for appendicitis. 

Albert G. Walkins, for eight years a foreman at the Copper 
Queen property, Arizona, was killed underground on De- 
cember 29. 

John T. White, well known at Joplin, Missouri, died on 
December 30. He was well versed on the geology and mining 
of this region. 

Dibini; Dm i miui; the San Francisco Mint received 359,- 
572.383 oz. gold, and 65.S86.43 oz. silver. Coinage executed 
was worth $2,199,030. 

Bulletin 3, series II, of the Mackay School of Mines at Reno, 
is the alumni number, with short addresses by the president. 
Archer \V. Hendrick, Ellsworth R. Bennett, and F. C. Lincoln. 
The secondary mining schools at Virginia City at Tonopah are 
under the supervision of this institution. One hundred and 
thirty-six men have graduated from the Mackay school, of 
whom 10 have since died; of the remaining 126. more than 
one-half are in Nevada, one-quarter in California, and one- 
tenth in foreign countries. 



MINING and Scientific PR! SS 



mi in run i - 

laco, January 6. 

Cants per pound, 


S.00 — 6.95 

Tin 45 

I iine-llned eaaea SO 

imii: i-hii U 
i 'rum-is.-.', January 6. 

per unit 

■ i and I 1 1 lIHoa, per ton 

ordlng i>> Quality and quanttl 
ton, f.o.b 




plastic, no Iron and lime, calcined. per ton.... 
Mann. sit. refractory, up to 7'. iron, calcined, per ton. ..80 
Muni;. i- lllca, per ton, f.o.b. cars. s. l'. 

• metal, f.o.b. New York, per ton ' 

Tungsten: minimum 65' Wl ' . per unit for spot 

ai Boulder, Colorado, on January 2, 60' . tungsten ore reall 
lir. per unit. 


(By wiro from New York.) 
NKW YORK, January 6. — Copper is very strong, with spot 
m. -tnl becoming scarce; lead is very strong and active; zinc Is 


sua BR 

■ given the average New York quotatin 
ounce, "t Bne silver. 

in cents 


11 55.00 

Jan. 1 II. .i 

•z Sunday 

8 55.87 


•' 5. . 

Average week ending 





M , 

l!'l t. 




. 56.43 


Monthly averages. 

Nov. 24 52.35 

I lei 1 56.27 

s 55.54 

16 55.66 

■ L'2 54.23 

29 54.06 

5 55.67 



1914. 1915. 

July 54.90 47.52 

Aug 54.35 47.11 

Sept 33.75 48.77 

Get 51.12 49.40 

Nov 49.12 51.88 

Dec 49.27 55.34 

A shipment from San Francisco to China last week was 

i at 1240.000. Shipments from London to India and China 

i., December 15 totaled £3,676,000. against £5,261.500 in 1914, a 

-■- .-f. say. 16.000.000 ounces. 

The Jim Butler company reports $163,388 on hand at 50e. per 



lectrolytlc in New York, in cents per pound. 

November return! were as follows: Chlno, 6.939,006 11, 
Con., 5,495,487 lb.; I lb.; and Utah, 

1 BAD 
1.. ..1 Is quoted in cents per pound, x.w v.,i k •■■ lh 



.1 1 n 

1 Holiday 

' .lav 





Nov. 24 

Deo. 1 

Monthly avi i 

♦ 2 











: , : 



.: 38 




S. pt 



• icl 







. 3.80 

. 3.8S 

. 3.82 

. 3.60 

. 3 80 


On January I the Hunker Hill & Sullivan paid dividend 
811, "f $81,750. 


The primary market for quicksilver Is Ban Francisco, 
fornia being the largest producer. The pri. Ixed in the 

open market, according to quantity. Prices. In dollars per 
flask of 75 pounds: 

Week ending 

Date. 1 Dec. 22 1 

Dec 8 115.00 ■• 29 135.00 

" 15 130.00 I Jan. 6 150.00 

Monthly averages. 



Jan 39.25 

Feb 39.00 

Mch 39.00 

Apr 38.90 

May 39.00 

June 38.60 


mi. mi 


July 37.50 80.00 

S.-pt 76.25 

Oct 53.00 

Nov. 55.00 

Dec 53.10 

1 9 I 5. 

:ir, in, 
:i l.uii 
in 1. :.ii 


Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands, New York 

delivery, in cents per pound. 


Dec. 30 17.50 

" 31 17.50 

Jan. 1 Holiday 
2 Sunday 

3 17.50 

4 I7.::u 

5 17.30 

Average week ending 

Nov. 24 IS. 5s 

Dec. 1 18.52 

8 15.83 

" 15 16.04 

" 22 17.50 

" 29 17.44 

Jan. 5 17.12 

Monthly averages. 







June 4.84 

The New Jersey Zinc Co. Is now producing 20% of the coun- 
try's spelter. A dividend of 4% and an extra of 10 r /c has been 
























20.6 1 





1 1.05 












jj 50 

. . .23.50 


Dec. 1 

8. . , . 

" 15 

" 22 

" 29 



week endi 







Prices in New York, 

Feb 39.76 


in cents per pound. 
Monthly averages. 








1 1.SII 




. . . .33.10 




. . . .30.40 


May 33.29 

June 30.72 

. . . .33.51 


Pi b. 

. . 12.34 





Tin is strong at 44 cents. 



. . . .11.75 




Exports during the week ended December 18 totaled 22.178.65S 
lb., valued at $4,224,473. England secured 5,810,044 lb.; France, 
12.118.729 lb.: Italy. 1.536.621 lb., and Russia, 1,904,550 lb. Im- 
ports amounted to 2.909.663 lb., worth $441,174. 

Anaconda output in December was 25,600,000 lb., an increase 
of 1.200.000 lb. over November; the 1915 total was 254,800.000 lb., 
;against 223,720.292 pounds. 

Good inquiries have developed, some of which have culminated 
in business, and whereas the market was easy last week at 39 
to 39.50c, duty paid, it is now strong at 39.50 to 40c, for 
Chinese and Japanese grades. Spot is scarce and higher prices 
are looked for, if the pressure of demand keeps up. 

The revolution in China, especially in the antimony province 
of Hunan, may affect prices later on. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8. 1916 

Eastern Metal Market 

December 30, 1915. 

Copper has held the centre of the stage, and so far as 
buying is concerned has outstripped all the other metals. 
The excitement started by Great Britain's big purchase of 
a week ago has been sustained until now. Zinc has not 
shared the activity, but is firm at last week's price. Lead is 
extremely strong, principally because of the heavy expert 
demand. Tin quotations have changed but little, and most 
of its activity has been in futures. Antimony is higher and 
active. Aluminum has had a dull week and quotations are 
easier. Sheet copper is now quoted at 27c. base. Early this 
week some of the independent brass mills withdrew quota- 
tions on their products. So winds up a year that has been 
a good one for the metal trade, but its prosperity has been 
based entirely on the War demand, although it is true that 
in the last few months domestic demand improved consider- 
ably. Copper exports of December made a good showing 
red with previous months. 

The congestion of foreign bound freight at the port of 
\iw York because of the lack of cargo space on trans-Atlantic 
vessels shows little improvement, although the French and 
English governments and their agents are straining them- 
selves to get vessels here to relieve the situation. The steel 
mills are receiving fewer domestic specifications, one reason 
being that when last quarter contracts are concluded, new 
ones become effective which were placed at advances of several 
dollars a ton. Consumers who bought steel at 1.20c. Pitts 
burg, will henceforth have to pay 1.80c, or more. Many 
foundries in the East have been crippled by a shortage of 
coke, due to the railroad tie-up, and one blast-furnace has 
banked for the same reason. Tin-plate for export has 
been in heavy demand, especially from the Far East, and 
contracts for the year have been made on the basis of $3. SO 
per box. 


The purchase of 120,000,000 lb. of copper a week ago by 
the British government not only caused great excitement, 
bnt started a rush of buying on both domestic and foreign 
account that is not yet ended. Domestic consumers have 
bought heavily for first and second-quarter delivery, and some 
of the large selling-agencies are now saying that they have 
but little metal to sell this side of April. It is understood 
that the big deal was shared by the United Metals Selling Co. 
and the American Smelting & Refining Co. Under the 
influence of this demand quotations have advanced from 
day to day, and sometimes from hour to hour. Electrolytic 
is now 22.25 to 22.50c, full terms. Lake is nominal at about 
the same figure, as none is to be had. That copper should 
reach its highest point in the last week of the year was 
unlooked for, and members of the trade are of the opinion 
that almost anything may be expected. Predictions that 
the price of copper will go to 25c are commonly heard. 
Some of the independent brass mills withdrew prices on their 
products, Monday of this week, but sheet-copper is to be 
had at about 27c. base. Wire drawers and the brass mills 
have been more liberal purchasers of late than at any 
previous time in the year. After a three-day Christmas 
holiday at London the quotation there for electrolytic 
advanced £4 to £107. which is about equal to 22c landed 
in England. On December 29. the London quotation went 
to £108. The exports of this month are the best since last 
March. Their total, up to December 30, was 29,694 tons, 
whereas in March they were 30.14S tons. There is more and 
more talk of a scarcity in copper, but as to the real likelihood 
of such a situation none but the producers know, as since 

the dissolution of the Copper Producers' Association authori- 
tative statittics are not available to the general public, or 
the buying public, for that matter. Whatever the state of 
3, the outlook is good for the trade. The National Con- 
duit & Cable Co. says in 'Copper Gossip': 

"The pronounced expansion in American consumption of 
copper during the last half of this year establishes a new 
high record for domestic melting. This feature of the situa- 
tion has created an unusually interesting and strong market. 
Manufacturers have been able to operate their plants to 
capacity recently. Urgent demand for manufactured material 
and shapes naturally created a big market for raw ci 
With the consuming trade extraordinarily busy, the develop- 
ment of strength and activity in copper followed as a matter 
of course. And it is an encouraging fact that there are signs 
indicating substantial operations in manufacturing enterprise 
during 1916." 


This metal has not shared the excitement which has pre- 
vailed in copper, a fact which is rather contrary to precedent. 
One reason for this is the heavy buying ol a few weel 
while another is that the holidays at London included Mon- 
day. About December 24 offerings became a little freer and 
the quotation for spot dropped a few points, but recovered 
after the Christmas holiday, and 17.50c, New York, again 
was quoted. Prompt metal continues scarce. The London 
market on December 28 and 29 was quoted at £90 for prompt. 
There is some good inquiry in this market for prompt and' 
near-by, but consumers continue to hold themselves aloof from 
future deliveries. February is quoted at 16c, March at 15.60c. 
and second quarter at 14 to 14.25c. Exports from December 1 
to 30 total 5691 tons. Sheet-zinc, in carload lots, is unchanged 
at 22c f. o. b. mill, 89J off for cash. 

There is little to say about lead, save that prices are 
strong, and predictions of an advance are heard on all sides. 
It has been repeatedly observed, however, that lead prices 
often move just the opposite of what is expected. At the 
same time there can be no question as to the strength of 
the market, inasmuch as independents are getting from :\ 
to 5 points over the quotations of the leading interest, which 
continue at 5.40c, New York, and 5.32»c, St. Louis. The 
London market has been quiet because of the holidays, but 
is strong at £29 10s. Re-sale lots have pretty well disappeared 
from the market. Exports continue a strong phase of the 
situation, as evidenced by an offer of 5.50c, New York, for 
500 tons for January export shipment, an offer which was 
turned down. Exports would be heavier were it not for the 
scarcity and high cost of ocean freight-space. Conditions 
have reached a point where only the allied governments can 
be half way certain of getting freight room. With them 
it is a necessity. Exports to date this month total 6654 tons. 

Business of late has been almost entirely in tin afloat or 
shipment from the Far East. On various days trading aggre- 
gated from 150 to 300 tons, all in futures. Sellers are few. 
It is a question to what extent Great Britain will permit 
direct shipment to America from the Far East. Its restric- 
tions of a few months ago indicated that it intended to 
keep a strong hand on the supply, and already reports are 
current that it may cut down tonnages intended for direct 
shipment, preferring that shipment be made by way of 
London. The spot quotation on December 29 was 39.50c 
The quantity afloat on the 30th was 5618 tons, and up to 
that day 3922 tons had arrived. 

Januan - 1916 

MINING and Sdntifit I'KI SS 

Metal Production in 1915 

ii Survej i lis prelli 

rdlnj tiir mineral output ol certain 

from which the follow ll tCtl 'I 


California mines show » materially Inoraaaad output In gold, 
silver, copper, lead, and zinc In li»15. compared with 1914, ac- 
cording to preliminary figures compiled by Charles (!. Vale. 
The nun.- ngurea for r.'it were $20,6(3,496 in gold, and 1.471,- 
359 One os. silver; the eatlmatea for 1915 Indicate an output o( 
In gold and 1,974,589 ox. silver. California remains 
the premier gold-producing Stale of the country. The yield 
lor 1915 Is. with one exception, the largest in any year for 51 
and is the largeel tor 32 years. There are about 700 
producing metal mines in the State, about evenly divided be- 
tween deep and placer mines of various kinds. About 2,500,- 
000 tons of ore is mined and treated in the State annually of 
an average value in all metals of $6.75 per ton. In value of all 
metals produced, Shasta is the leading county, while In value 
of gold output. Nevada, Amador. Yuba, and Sacramento are the 
leading counties in the order named. 

Dredges arc producing si;-, of the placer gold. During 1915 
there were t'.T boats in operation and 60 at the end of the year. 

The yield of copper was 44.09S.552 lh„ compared with 30,- 
507,692 lb. in 1914. 

The mine output of lead in 1914 was 4,261,923 lb.; in 1915 

It Is estimated at 6,346,319 lb.. Most of this is derived from 

inthern counties of the State, particularly Inyo county. 

The zinc output is 11,443.926 lb. against 3S9.471 lb. in 1914, 
an increase of 11.054,455 lb. This is the largest production of 
this metal ever made in California in one year. Tbe greater 
proportion was derived from Shasta county, where one of the 
large copper smelters has installed a zinc-sorting plant. Inyo 
county was also a large contributor to the zinc output of the 


Preliminary estimates made by Charles G. Yale show ma- 
terial increases over the figures of 1914, in both gold and cop- 
per, and nominal decreases in yield of silver and lead. The 
gold yield for 1915 was $1,771,618, an increase of $1S0,157. The 
silver output was 136,033 oz.. or 6519 oz. less. The yield of 
copper was 910.104 lb., an increase of S70.S56 lb.; and the yield 
of lead was 6650 lb., or 9786 lb. less than in 1914. 

It is noteworthy that such material increases in output of 
gold and copper should be apparent when the fact is con- 
sidered that the number of producing mines in Oregon has 
fallen off fully one-third in the past two years. Baker county 
continues to be by far the most productive county of the State, 
yielding annually fully 85% of all the gold. Of the placer 
mines in Oregon, by far the most important enterprise is that 
of the Powder River Dredge Company, Cracker Creek district, 
Baker county. This company, which owned but one dredge 
in 1914, put another one in operation in the same field in 1915, 
and it is to the work of this company that the increase in 
gold yield in the State for the year is mainly due. 


Mines in Utah produced gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc 
in 1915 amounting in value to $55,000,000, as estimated by 
V. C. Heikes. This represents an increase over the production 
in 1914 of nearly 50%, or $18,000,000. There was a consider- 
able increase in all the metals. About one-fourth more ore 
was mined, increasing the total from 8,544,014 tons in 1914 
to about 10,725,000 tons in 1915. About 9.900.000 tons was 
produced at Bingham, an increase from 7.S00.661 tons in 1914. 

The bulk ol ibis ore was mined at the i tah and 

properties, which yielded about 9,000, r 

ore in 1916. Other mines thai contributed tntltles 

of ore were the rtah Consolidated, Utah apex, United 

Bingham, Bingham New Haven, ami i tah Metal nun.,. The 

Tlntlc district produced about . 

tons in ion, The main ore producers were the Chlel Con 

BoTidated, Iron Blossom, Centennial Burt 

Mammoth, Qemlnl, Grand Central, and Ma) Da] mines. The 

100-ton concentration mill, built primarily i" treat Ohlel 

Consolidated ores, did considerable custom wink. 

In the Park City region about 99,795 tons of crude ore 
and concentrates was shipped, against 66,786 tons In 1914. 
Improvements in concentration methods resulted In large 
shipments of lead and zinc concentrate from the Dalj Judge 
Daly West, and Silver King Coalition mills. 

The mine output of gold increased over 19',;. from $8,266,347 
in 1914 to $3,908,000 in 1915. Copper ores yielded thi 
part of the gold but large quantities also came from lead ore 
and silicious ore. 

The mine production of silver increased from 11,164,9 
in 1914 to approximately 12,724,000 oz. in 1915, the Increase 
amounting to 14% in quantity and about $169,000 In value. 
Much of the silver is derived from lead ore, and smaller 
quantities from the copper and silicious ores. 

The copper output from Utah mines increased from 162,- 
034,002 lb. in 1914 to about 182,589,000 lb. in 1915, the increase 
amounting to more than 20% in quantity and about $11,450,000 
in value. The gain was made mostly by the Utah Copper 
mine at Bingham, which is credited with an Increase of 
34,207,552 lb. over the output of 1914. 

The mine production of lead increased from 171,323,137 lb. 
in 1914 to 219,098,000 lb. in 1915, or about 28%, mostlj from 
tbe Bingham district. 

With the advance in prices, zinc ore was offered from many 
sources. The mine production of zinc recoverable as spelter 
aggregated 22,643,000 lb., valued at about $3,224,000. This Is 
an increase of about 41% in quantity over the output of 1914, 
amounting to 15,989,267 lb. 

All the smelting establishments were operating at full 
capacity soon after the first of the year. These were the 
Murray, Midvale, International, and Garfield plants. 

Dividends amounting to about $9,000,000 were distributed 
by Utah mining companies in 1915 and $7,431,017 in 1914. 


Preliminary estimates of the total yield of petroleum for 
1915 indicate a slight increase over the record-breaking yield 
in 1914. This condition does not agree with the currently 
reported reason for the exceptionally high prices now pre- 
vailing for motor fuel. 

As a result of the over-load put on the transporting and 
refining phases of the petroleum industry by the excess output 
of crude petroleum in 1914, the year 1915 may be characterized 
as a period of re-adjustment, in which production activity 
was purposely retarded as far as practicable. The small 
increase therefore is more significant than the simple figures 

According to John D. Northrop the marketed production 
of petroleum in the United States in 1915 approximated 
267,400.000 bbl., and the total yield approximated 291.400,000 
bbl., about 24.000,000 bbl. of oil brought to the surface during 
the year being placed in field storage by the producers. 

The following table shows by States the marketed production 
of petroleum in 1914 and an estimate of the corresponding 
production in 1915 in barrels: 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 8, 1916 

State. 1915. 

California 89,000.000 

Oklahoma 80.000.000 

Texas 20,000.000 

Illinois 18,500,000 

Louisiana 18.500,000 

Weal Virginia 9,000,000 

Pennsylvania S, 700,000 

Ohio 7,900,000 

Wyoming 4,200,090 

Kansas 3,000, 

Indiana 1,000,000 

NVw York 900,000 

Kentucky 450.000 

Colorado 200,000 

Other States 50,000 

21,919/1 19 
. 136,466 


267,400,000 266,762 

The apparent increase in the quantity of marketed pro- 
duction in 1915 is accounted for by the continued output of 
oil in large quantities from the dishing field. Oklahoma 
daring the first half of the year, and from the Humble pool. 
Texas, during the entire year, as well as by the discovery 
and rapid development of new pools in Louisiana and Texas. 

The stocks of crude petroleum held by pipe-line companies 
at the end of 1915, amounted to approximately 195,000,000 
bbl. Including the oil retained in storage by certain oil 
companies that conducted a pipe-line business at the begin- 
>l the year, but which business was taken over and 
l.-ii.i .(inducted by separate pipe-line companies. This reserve 
is approximately 50,000.000 bbl. greater than at Ihe end 
M 19H. 

Prices of crude petroleum ai the wells were uniformly low 
in all fields from January to August, whea the permanent 
decline of the dishing field resulted in an increased demand 
for oil produced in other parts of the country, with a con- 
sequent advance in the scale of prices warranted. From the 
low level of $1.35 a barrel maintained from April 3 to 
August 14, 'Pennsylvania grade.' the market standard, 
advanced steadily during the last third of the year, reaching 
$2 on November IS. and $2.15 on December 17 and disclosed 
a Btrengtfa which indicates a rapid return to the $2.50 level 
attained before the advent of dishing. 'Kansas and Okla- 
homa' grade recorded an even more rapid recovery. From 
its low level of 40 cents maintained from February 15 to 
August 2. this grade advanced to $1.20 in a little more than 
four months, passing its former high level of $1.02 on 
December 13. and attaining the price above quoted on the 
following day. California grades were fairly steady through- 
out the year, a 5-cent cut affecting heavy oils in the Valley 
fields on June 7. and a corresponding advance affecting the 
same grade of oil on October 26, followed by a general advance 
of 2» to 5 cents on all grades except Ventura county and 
Santa Maria, effective November 20. 

Throughout the country as a whole, drilling activity was 
at a low ebb in all the developed fields until late in the 
year when the advancing market proved an incentive for a 
moderate amount of new work. The Cushing field. Okla.. and 
the newer pools discovered as the result of wildcat drilling, 
during the year sustained a marked activity which was due 
to the conditions of local competition rather than to any 
justification expressed by the oil market. 

Antiibacitf. production of Pennsylvania was 2,000,000 tons 
less than in 1914; shipments totaled*66,3S2.21S tons. 

Sii.riimii acid showed a large increase, 2.v;. the quantity 
being 4.007.000 tons of 50% acid. 

[BOK-OBi shipments were 55.000.000 tons, against 39,714,280 
tons. Portland cement increased 0.1 r ; to 86.524,500 barrels. 

Commercial Paragraphs 

The Skn.n Concihtbatob Co.. San Francisco, has recently 
issued a pamphlet descriptive of its new pan-motion batea 
amalgamator, giving instances of its application to placer and 
quartz minis 

With a cover illustrating the action of oil flotation in a 
tank, the DENVEB Fihk Clay Co. in Bulletin No. 150 briefly 
describes the process, and the Case laboratory flotation ma- 
chine. A leaflet shows the Case oil-fired forge for drill-steel. 

A. LdBSl hi s A: S".nx Rope Co.. St. Louis, send us the follow- 
ing: The Moctezuma Copper Co. has recently completed at 
N'acozari. Sonora. Mexico, the installation of a Leschen heavy- 
duty friction-grip aerial tramway. This is used for the dis- 
posal of tailing from the mill, it being 'wasted' along the 
line. The tramway is so arranged that the carriers pass 
around the outer terminal without detaching, so no labor is 
required at this point. The track ropes are 1J and 1 in. locked 
coil, and the traction-rope j-'n. diameter of the patent flattened- 
strand construction. The capacity of this tramway is 50 tons 
of tailing per hour. — The United Verde Extension Mining Co. 
Jerome. Arizona, is installing a Leschen heavy-duty friction- 
grip aerial tramway for carrying its ore from the mine to the 
railroad. The line will be about 4000 ft. long, having a fall 
in this distance of about 600 ft. This tramway will have a 
capacity of 50 tons per hour. The carriers are of 10-cu. ft. 
capacity, and run when loaded on a 18-in. diameter locked-coil 
track rope, and return on a track rope 1-in. diameter of the 
same construction. The traction-rope is 3in. diameter of the 
patent flattened-strand construction. 

The Roessleb & Hasslacheb Chemical Co., 100 William 
street, New York, has issued the following circular, entitled 
'Cyanide': "Beginning January 1, 1916, we shall change the 
designations of our various grades of cyanide, basing same on 
sodium cyanide content. When the cyanides now in the mar- 
ket superseded potassium cyanide, the various grades of 
sodium cyanide were designated by their equivalents in potas- 
sium cyanide, in order to show their comparative strengths. 
Potassium cyanide 95-96% contains 38% cyanogen. Thus 
sodium cyanide containing 51-52'>r cyanogen was designated 
as 12991-. that being its equivalent in potassium cyanide. 
Owing to its lower cost, sodium cyanide has now entirely re- 
placed potassium cyanide in the recovery of precious metals, 
in fumigation, plating, etc., the results being equal if not 
superior to those obtained by the use of potassium cyanide. 
The lower cost of transportation is also an element of saving 
because of the greater cyanogen content of pure sodium cya- 
nide. As potassium cyanide is no longer used, and the change 
to sodium cyanide fully understood, a re-naming of the dif- 
ferent grades of cyanide is advisable. We shall label and sell 
sodium cyanide as such, and with the following we illustrate 
the change from the old to the new style of labeling and bill- 
ing, and refer to the last page of the December issue of our 
price-list as to the actual wording of our labels: 

Old desii^i 
Sodium cyanide. . . . 

■\ :in i,l,- ,-hloride 


Cyanide chloride — 
carbonate mixture. 
Cyanide clilortde — 
carbonate mixture. 
Cyanide chloride — 
carbonate mixture. 
< lys nlde chloride — 
carbonate mixture . 

I 'y;i 


for both. 

129$ :.i-:.-". 

9 -99 

::s-nv r 

IS Hi', 
19 so , 

New designation. 
Sodium cyanide. 96-987, 
Cyanide chloride 

mixture 73-76% 

Cyanide chloride — 
carbonate mixture No. 1 
Cyanide chloride — 
carbonate mixture No. 2 
Cyanide chloride — 
carbonate mixture No. 3 
Cyanide chloride — 
carbonate mixture No. 4 

"We wish to emphasize particularly that we have not 
changed the composition of our products in any respect. The 
change is solely In the designation." 


Scienti fie 

Ed. tod by 







Guarantees the extraction of 95 < to 98' < of all liberated Gold 
whether coarse or fine, rusty or flaky; also of Platinum and Iridium, 

The m:\\ I'n ii Motion 11 1TB \ IMALGAM kTOR provides banlcally the circular "panning" Hon thai 

m\ expert mil d pan. Thla has always been considered the most perfect ^ pi 

f..r the concentrating or amalgamating "f precious metal bearing materials, hi thJ 

mating surl bes -i truly circular motion and a particle ol metal would have i>* travel thousands >*i 

Ing the tailing's, even if ii escaped From the amalgam bowl. 

oat- M.w BATEA IMALGAMATOR Is more efficient than 1000 feel of plates, but requires Iras attention (ban 

in fi. ii takes the plaee of nil Inside amalgamation! battery i Matlonary plates ( and aninlajrnm traps. 

vii the amalgamating '- done on and i>> this one apparatus. 

'."i ,.!' the saving Is made within tin- amalgam bowl and a radl LS Inches Crom Its center. Loss "f 

amalgam or quick Is Impossible, One amalgamator will handle from 50 i«> ."■ tons per 24 hours. 


ENGINEERING OFFICE AND FACTORY: 5th and Parker Sts., Berkeley, Cal. 


Firft National Bank Buildint 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 15, 1916 

The Rolling* i Gold Mines Ltd., Tlmmlns, Ontario, Canada. 

"Core Drilling at the Hollinger" 
with Sullivan Diamond Drills 

This is the title of an interesting article 
in the January "Mine and Quarry," now 

The Hollinger mines own four Sullivan 
Drills, one "E," two "S," for under- 
ground work, and a "B," 3200 ft. drill, 
for surface drilling. With these drills, 
more than 21,000 lineal feet have been 
bored, constituting valuable assistance 
in the work of development. 

The "B" drill has put in a hole 2000 
feet long, at an angle of 60°, by which 
important information was gained as to 
values below the 800-ft. level. 

If interested in scientific mine develop- 
ment, get this article. £ Ask for the 
January "Mine and Quarry." 

Sullivan "B" Diamond Core Drill on the deep hole 

at the Hollinger Mine. 

Sullivan Machinery Company 

461 Market Street, San Francisco 

122 South Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 


El ) 

idon, Eng. 

Nelson, B. C. 



Boston, .i 

.lopiin Mo. 

Mont real 

New York 


Sydney, X. S. w 




Paris. France 

St. !>'>uis 



S 11 Lake City 



I \ HK K\K[> 


y B \i.i>os \u> 

> J* 


i 51 tfil imimi i 

I'ulJ .Kr.1 M 4_>ll MuU St. Su Ki.neaco. W ibi Dnny I\,I4J„„« Co 


Sctaicv hm no ewmyeavs Ihc ijnoranl 

luued Kvery Saturday 

I Y-ar— 10 Centa par Copy 

San Francisco, January 15, 1916 

MM I \l i oNrww 

\V It Sl.o.klny. 

I H. Auatln 
lo <':i.-lanl 

l lb. 

''Marie* Junlii 

I' li 

C U furlnirton. 


The Buyer'a liuldr— Pnno :ll 
A.I-. . Index — Iji.t Paca 



N..i>- 76 

A.NOTHH Mt\li in Outrage 76 

Comment on the murder of eighteen Americans on the 
way to the Cusihuiriachlc mines In Chihuahua. 


Sundry authoritative expressions of opinion regarding 
the fundamental principles of mining education are 
quoted, compared, and discussed, with the conclusion 
that Incompatible Ideals cannot be followed success- 


The opinion of Dr. L. D. Rlcketts Is quoted In reply 
to a recent editorial pronouncement, indicating prac- 
tical agreement as to the necessity for a sane com- 
promise of individualism and organization. 

Tut EVEBSOS .Myth 78 

Disclosure of the facts concerning the life of Mrs. 
Everson. whose patent has been featured in recent 
litigation. Comment on the want of value in her 
amateur work and criticism of those who have ex- 
aggerated it, to meet the exigencies of litigation. 

The Electrical Theory of Flotation. 

By Dot-Id Co/e 79 

Confirmation of Mr. Bains' electrical theory of flota- 
tion; the effect of 'colloids' in gravity work on slime; 
fluid clay: the practice of thickening the slime; the . 
suspension of sulphide particles by static electricity. 
Traiie in Soi-th America. 

By Mark R. Lamb SO 

Mining machinery is sold in South America for cash, 
as compared to agricultural and electrical machinery. 
which is sold on credit; a knowledge of Spanish is 
not so necessary as is commonly mooted; the coming 
of dollar exchange; money difficulties. 


Carrie J. Everson and Flotation- S2 

The truth about Mrs. Everson and her patents, with 
a plain statement of the main facts about her life, 
as furnished by her son. Several erroneous details 
corrected. The slender metallurgical value of her 

Cosi i:\tkating Molybdenum 82 

A method devised by the Canadian Department of 
Mines at Ottawa for the treatment of molybdenite 
ores. Preliminary sizing favored, roasting, and flota- 

Theoretical Considerations Governing the Persistence 

op Ore. By T. A. Rickard 83 

Discussion of the current theory concerning the per- 
sistence of ore in relation to the erosion of the country 


rock. The Nova Scot Ian example. The II 

lode in relation to the gold bearing conglomerate In 
tin Potsdam formation. Illustrations from several 
mining districts. Enrichments due to structural con- 
ditions not directly affected by depth, but less likely 
to be repeated at great depth, on account of increase 
of pressure and temperature. 

Mining Districts ok Northern Ontario. 

By Robert Livermore 89 

The manager of the Kerr Lake Mining Co. writes on 
the mining and geological features of the Cobalt sliver 


Smelting in Australia 92 

Notes on the largest plant In the Commonwealth. 

Economics of the World's Sitply of Corr-ER. 

By Thomas T. Read 93 

Abstract of a paper presented before the International 
Engineering Congress in San Francisco In September 
last. Aluminum not able to compete with copper in 
wires of small gauge; the copper ore reserves of the 
world; the world's copper trade, Japan ranks next 
to the United States as a producer of copper, although 
Japan produces less than one-seventh of the output of 
this country. Russia's copper used there and none 
exported as yet. 

Points of View From Lake Superior. 

By P. B. McDonald 95 

Hand-picking copper ore in the shaft-house; long 
slender drill-steel; steel being made at Duluth; the 
steady old Wolverine; increasing the birth-rate in the 
Copper Country; underground haulage; E. W. Walker 
at the Lake mine; White Pine; Kitchigaml. 


Concentrates 96 

Review of Mining 97 

Special correspondence from Tucson, Arizona: Joplin, 
Missouri; Platteville, Wisconsin; Lewislon, Montana: 
Washington, D. C. 

The Mining Summary 101 

Personal 105 

Schools and Societies 105 

The Metal Market 106 

Eastern Metal Market 107 

Metal Production in 1915 108 

Lead and Zinc. 

Company Reports 109 

Braden Copper Co., Camp Bird, Limited, Santa Ger- 
trudis Co., Limited. 

Book Reviews 110 

'The Mechanical Engineers' Pocket-Book,' by William 
Kent; 'Inorganic Chemistry,' edited by J. Newton 
Friend; 'Metallurgy of Gold,' by Sir T. Kirke Rose: 
'Text-Book of Geology,' by Louis V. Pirsson and 
Charles Schuchert. 

Established May 24. 1860. as The Scientific Press; name 
changed October -20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class mat- 
ter. Cable address: Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago, 300 Fisher Bdg.; New York. 1308-10 
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Price, 10 cents per copy. Annual subscription: United States 
and Mexico, $3; Canada, ?4; other countries In postal union, 
21s. or ?5 per annum. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 15, 1916 


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V. A. STOUT, Western Representative, Room 601 Balboa Building, SAN FRANCISCO 

Januar) 15, 1916 

MINING Scirntih PKI 


T. A. R/CKARD. Edilor 

EXPORTS "i copper continue heavy. Our New fork 
oorreapondenl reports thai the market exhibits signs 
rang rapport Foreign demand persists with ex- 
traordinary vigor. Zinc is strong in sympathy and 
antimony is reported t" be scarce. Lead also is Btrong, 
mainly mi foreign account 

LITIGATION between the North star and Empire 
mines at Grass Vallej is likely to be avoided by a 
compromise, the particulars of which we liopc to pub- 
lish at an early date. The peaceful settlement of this 
intricate conflict of mineral rights docs credit to the 
parties concerned and furnishes a good example to other 
mining companies in difficulty over their title by reason 
.if an ambiguous law. 

PROMOTION has caused -Mr. H. M. Wolflin to leave 
-*■ San Francisco, in order to assume the duties of his 
new post at Pittsburg. We have heard many expressions 
of regret that he Should have left this community, where 
he won the respect and confidence of those engaged in 
mining while acting for the U. S. Bureau of Mines on 
the Industrial Accident Commission. Mr. Wolflin had a 
difficult duty to perform and he performed it with a 
sineeritv that commanded esteem. 

\ ('CORDING to telegraphic dispatches, the striking 
■**■ miners of the three copper companies in the Clifton- 
Morenci district have withdrawn from the Western Fed- 
eration of Miners at the insistent demand of the man- 
agements of these three mines. The men have applied 
for membership in the Arizona State Federation of 
Labor as a local union. This organization is affiliated 
with the American Federation of Labor. The conces- 
sion thus made to the demand of the companies is 
credited to Mr. John L. Donnelly, of the executive board 
of the Arizona State Federation of Labor. Mr. Don- 
nelly is to be congratulated on his public service. We 
hope that the incident presages further concessions and a 
speedy settlement of the dispute. 

"IMTINE transfers in California are being recorded with 
-"-"-*- interesting frequency. The South American Mines 
Co., as related in our Mining Summary last week, has 
exercised its option on the Poison Oak mine in Tuolumne 
county, on the advice of Mr. J. W. Mercer. Another 
important deal is that whereby the old Eureka mine, in 
Amador county, passes from Mrs. Hettie Green to a 
group of mining men in New York. These strokes of 
business coincide with several highly satisfactory de- 

velopments in deep mining on the Mother Lode. In the 
Kennedy mine a magnificent body of ore has been dis 
closed below the 3750 ft level, and the Argonaut has 
l n so successful in its deepest development work thai 

a large hoist is to l reeled at the 1200 it. station of 

the incline shaft in order to continue systematic exp 
tion downward. 

"I3 0BERT M. RAYMOND has been appointed I'm- 
-*■*■ lessor of Mining in the School of Mines. Columbia 
University, filling the vacancy created by the retirement 
of Mr. Henry s. Munroe. This appointment will excite 
keen interest and pleasure not only among the sons of 
Columbia but in the mining profession generally. Him 
self a graduate from the School to which he now goes 
as a professor, Mr. Raymond has had a wide, successful. 
and honorable experience not only in this country, but 
in Australia, Rhodesia, China, and Mexico. Born a 
Canadian, he became naturalized as an American in 
early manhood, thus coming back to the fold from which 
a progenitor strayed at the time of the Revolution. 
During recent years he has been manager and consulting 
engineer successively for the group of mines controlled 
by the Exploration Company, of London, in Mexico. 
Thus he brings thirty years of observation and experi- 
ence to the lecture-room on Morningside Heights. And 
he has other qualifications fully as important. His sol- 
dierly poise and straight glance indicate a sincerity of 
purpose and directness of thought that will exert that 
moral influence without which the mere lecturer cannot 
be a real teacher. At a time when several professorships 
of mining are vacant and suitable selections are notor- 
iously difficult to make, we congratulate our friends a! 
Columbia on a choice so sagacious. We wish Professor 
Raymond every success in his new departure. 

TT'ORECASTS are more interesting than retrospects: 
-*- perhaps on account of their hazard. The early days 
of this new year have brought us many opinions as ti- 
the future course of business and industry in the United 
States. One psychological fact is noteworthy: all the 
vaticinations assume the proximate ending of the War. 
The problem of the quidnuncs is as to what will happen 
"after the War." That is not a little remarkable at a 
time when there is no visible slackening in the intensity 
of the European conflict. Among so many optimistic 
statements, the warning issued by Judge Gary is in t 
unwelcome. Danger is always near when everybody 
unites in prophesying smooth things. It is well that i' 
should be realized that no precedents exist for any con- 
fident prediction as to the sequel of Armageddon. His- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 15. 1916 

tory furnishes no standard. Even the Napoleonic debacle 
affords no adequate experience. Credit has been ex- 
tended to the fourth dimension. The wastage of men 
and material is stupendous. Our own trade has under- 
gone an expansion that is altogether abnormal. The 
landmarks are gone ; we are sailing in uncharted seas. 
Therefore we welcome the cautious tone of the memo- 
randum published by the Secretary of Commerce and his 
insistence upon the need for better organization. The 
review issued by the National City Bank of New York 
likewise conveys some sound ideas, while emphasizing 
the elieck upon normal progress as the chief consequence 
of the War. To make real gains, the United States must 
use its productive powers and resources "with a new 
and extraordinary degree of co-ordination and effi- 
eieney." The Annalist, another sagacious observer, be- 
lieves that the adoption of the PVderal Reserve banking 
system came most opportunely, that the United States 
hail just begun to look with increasing consciousness of 
power to business opportunities in foreign countries, and 
that the War has but accelerated that development. The 
wastage of war and the reconstruction in Europe will 
furnish an opportunity to the United States for extend- 
ing help and so making a return for the assistance for- 
merly given by the older countries in developing the 
natural resources of this country. In short, it is believed 
that the United States will emerge from the War period 
as a great creditor nation prepared to play the part that 
formerly centred at London, Paris, and Berlin. 

Another Mexican Outrage 

The latest performance of Mexican brigandage has 
created a keen feeling of resentment on the Pacific ( Hast. 
where the victims were well known and highly regarded. 
The demoralization of government on the south side of 
the Rio Grande has been brought home to the friends of 
Charles A. Pringle, W. J. Wallace, and the other Ameri- 
cans that have been killed under conditions of particular 
brutality. It appears that on January 10 a party of 19 
men, including the staff of the Cusihuiriachic Mining 
Company, operating in western Chihuahua, was on its 
way from the city of Chihuahua to the mines by rail 
when the train was attacked at Santa Ysabel by a force 
of bandits led by Jose Rodriguez. These ruffians are 
reported to have stripped their captives naked and then 
shot them. The train carried a stock of supplies and 
silver currency to be used in the resumption of mining 
operations. It is stated that the party was traveling 
under the military protection of the de facto Govern- 
ment. One man escaped, Mr. Thomas M. Holmes, and 
from him the details of the atrocity have been obtained. 
The Cusihuiriachic company was one of the first to accept 
the promises of protection made by the Carranza govern- 
ment, and it remains to be seen what amount of respon- 
sibility is accepted by the Government and what steps 
are taken to catch the murderers. It is pitiable to read 
accounts of 'General' Jose Rodriguez, one of Villa's 
lieutenants. These military titles tend to cloak brutal 

assassinations under the guise of warfare, giving them a 
dignity that is monstrous. We do not wonder that a 
number of mining men at El Paso sent a telegram to 
Washington, reading, "The massacre of fifteen more 
American gitizens in Mexico shows the result of a watch- 
ful waiting policy." It may not be logical, but it is in- 
telligible. The President may reply properly that the 
men thus killed took their own lives in their hands by 
going to the mines at this time and the American gov- 
ernment cannot be held responsible for their unfortunate 
fate. But this will be poor solace to their friends and 
relatives, who had the idea that the recognition of the 
de facto Mexican government involved an obligation to 
protect American citizens in the conduct of peaceful 

Mining Education 

Three pronouncements on this subject have been made 
recently : by Mr. William B. Phillips, the new President 
of the Colorado School of Mines, by Mr. John R. Allen, 
Professor of Mechanical Engineering in the University 
of Michigan, and by Mr. Charles F. Willis. Director of 
the Arizona State Bureau of Mines. In these discussions 
of the subject there is an evident struggle between the 
broad idea of a training that shall develop an effective 
citizen and the narrower concept of a specialized in- 
struction that shall fit a young man to win bread and 
butter, and eventually wealth, in the competitive arena 
of an industrial civilization. Even the least expansive 
of professors understands, however, that no mining 
school can graduate either mine managers or smelter 
superintendents. Professor Allen quotes a wise saying: 
"No engineer was ever educated in a university, but the 
university has given many a man an excellent oppor- 
tunity to educate himself." The motto of the school to 
which the present writer w-ent as a boy was a saying in 
Latin that can be translated: "We do not learn for 
school but for life." Professor Phillips expresses the 
same idea when he says that "the training in such highly 
specialized matters as mining, ore dressing, and metal- 
lurgy is largely of a prophetic nature." It is impossible 
to foresee what the technical requirements of the future 
may be. The teacher can only elucidate principles by 
means of methods and processes that may be discarded 
by the time the student has barely started on his career. 
Professor Willis recognizes the rapidity with which 
conditions have changed in mining and metallurgical 
practice ; he complains that the schools have lagged be- 
hind, retaining curricula that are largely obsolete. The 
theoretical mining engineer of an earlier era is no longer 
wanted, the commercial element now dominates the 
technical, so that science without business insight is quite 
ineffective. As industry becomes organized on scientific 
lines, it calls for technically educated men for every 
position of responsibility; not the captains alone, but 
even the corporals, must be properly equipped. We con- 
clude then that to be effective the education must not be 
too specialized ; what is needed is not so much the civil, 

.Iiuiunry 1".. 1916 

MIXING and Scientih. PHI SS 

mechanical, »r mining engineer, but an engineer tout 
simpU, ready to adapt hitnf If to conditions as they 
arise aii.l to trnin himself for opportunities as they be 
some evident The European criticism is thai the 
American is superficial but imaginative; he lacks thor- 
oughness, but he is rich in adaptability. Pari of this 

characterisation is a ptable; tin- question arises 

whether some of the deficiencies oannol be corrected. 
In this, us in many other matters, Europe and America 
go t" extremes both of which are faulty. Yet. in the 
end, all the efforts to reconcile divergenl ideals will fail. 
You cannot fat your cake and have it. "in' ideal must 
be sacrificed to the other. A sane compromise is the 
nuly practical solution. Tin- man who pursues the shekel 
onremittingly must not complain if Ids appreciation of 
sundry other good things becomes atrophied, as Darwin 

found his taste fur music left him when he CO! nl rated 

Ids days to grinding generalisations out of facts. So also 
tlie man of generous mind and philosophic temperament 
must not he surprised if he does not become a forceful 
driver of men or a successful collector of coins of stand- 
ard value. Each presumably finds his happiness and 
each his usefulness. The genuine product of each school 
is better than the simulation of either. 

The foregoing may seem an unsatisfactory answer to 
the question at issue. No reply can be completely satis- 
factory. Our own observation of men has taught us that 
they are too varied in their natural gifts and defects to 
respond to the same system of culture. To learn any- 
thing thoroughly is a mental training, to half-learn a 
dozen things tends to enfeeble the mind. A sound 
knowledge of Greek is a better preparation for engineer- 
ing than an unsound schooling in electricity. 

We find ourselves in quick agreement with Professor 
Phillips in attributing defective technical training in 
large part to the lack of a thorough teaching in mathe- 
matics and English. The one contributes to logical 
thinking and the other to clear expression; they react 
on each other, so as to combine in developing good habits 
of mind. Of course, the growth of the reasoning faculty 
is stimulated and developed by mathematics, but good 
teachers of this subject are rare. A firm hold of mathe- 
matics is essential to the engineer in obtaining a sound 
grasp of mechanics, just as a thorough understanding of 
the principles of chemistry is requisite to the intelligent 
development of metallurgical skill. As for the acquisi- 
tion of a knowledge of the language, we can hardly lay 
too much stress on the importance of a control of, rather 
than a facility in, the expression of scientific thought. 
To know the English, or any other, language thoroughly 
is a liberal education. Not to be able to command the 
vehicle of ideas is to be handicapped in acquiring in- 
formation for ourselves, no less than in giving it to 
others. While yielding to none in recognizing the para- 
mount importance of a scientific training, we realize that 
the emphasis placed on the sciences has tended to cause 
a neglect of adequate schooling in English, the result 
being not only a lack of skill in writing and speaking 
but a loss of ability in the acquirement of technical 

knowledge. Much of what m lean comes to us in the 

form of the punted word, therefore the young man who 

baa id leaned thoroughly tie- language In which that 
printed word is given i s handicapped in his eir..rt to 
assimilate the knowledge that is provided by the- litera- 
ture of the period. Tin' sooner it is acquired the better. 
It is the vehicle of thought in which all the other forces 
of written knowledge are conveyed 

'I'lnis. the tinal conclusion is that no schooling is 
good that sp.nis sincerity of purpose. Inaccuracy of 
observation and statement is the dominant ems.' of a 

half-educated community and tin- mark of the half baked 
engineer. No man can "see life sanely, see it whole" who 
deals in make believe; none is worthy the name of engi- 
neer who has not learned thai "there is no alleviation 

for the Bufferings of mankind except veracity of thought 
and of action." 

Individualism and Co-operation 

The editorial under this title in our issue of December 
4 has provoked an opinion as to the preservation of in- 
dividuality in great organizations from no less a person 
than Mr. L. D. Ricketts himself. The ideas of a mine 
manager and consulting engineer of such wide experi- 
ence on a subject so pertinent cannot help but be a mat- 
ter of interest to both young and old members of the 
profession. Where is the corporation unit who does not 
at times chafe at the clumsy inertia of action and thought 
that characterizes large masses; in what mine staff or 
city office does not the question of the man versus the 
company play a constant and critical part? Yet all of 
us realize that co-operation is the secret of the success 
of American development in 'big business.' The special- 
ization of useful effort, the co-ordination of unusual 
faculties, the utilization of spontaneous ability for the 
serving of the common good have come in this great un- 
developed country to mean the binding together of di- 
verse minds and varied capacities for an organization 
more than competent to compete on even terms with the 
industries of older and less well-paid peoples. We take 
pleasure in quoting herewith from the letter received 
from Dr. Ricketts, as he is generally known in the West : 
"In my opinion any organization that aims to prevent 
the expression of individuality will injure itself. My 
view-point is that an organization of large size requires 
a great many men in different capacities; that it is 
essential from top to bottom that a certain amount of 
personal effort be allowed to the employee, and that the 
more important the man the greater leeway should be 
allowed him. In taking up a study of a new process or 
the application of an experiment in commercial work, 
it has always been my practice to select a number of 
men, if necessary, to work out the details and the process. 
Each man should be given full swing, should be allowed 
credit for his work, and should be required to report his 
opinion. You must remember, however, that there are 
few men who have the qualities required for investiga- 
tion and development, and at the same time possess 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 15, 1916 

balance. As a consequence, someone with balance must 
review the work of the men under him, and, to the brst of 
his ability, sort the practicable from the impracticable 
and see that the practicable points are developed; bill 
it' the work goes no further, both the investigator and the 
reviewer are apt to get in a rut so deep that they cannot 
see over the edge, and as a consequence other men must 
come in with fresh minds to discuss the problem, and 
throw side-lights upun it. Then there must be someone 
with decision to adopt the plan and carry it out. I most 
thoroughly agree with you as to the tremendous impor- 
tance of individualism and you appear to agree with me 
in the tremendous importance of organization and com- 
mittee work. When, therefore, there are two view-points 
there must be a compromise, and the only compromise is 
the value of an efficient organization balanced in size to 
compare with the magnitude of the operation. Where 
individualism is curbed to a slight extent, and the or- 
ganization evolves a final plan, the result of individual 
ism may be apparently concealed, but if a well matured 
practical plan is studied in detail in all its branches, tin 
individualism is bound to become apparent." 

The statement of Mr. Ricketts needs no embellishment. 
He believes in the practicability of organization ; he also 
believes in the genius of individualism. As he States: 
"When there are two view-points, there must be a com- 
promise." Any compromise to attain the greatest degree 
of success — as measured in all its aspects — must be a 
careful balancing of the discipline, helpfulness, and big- 
ness of organization with the imagination, originality, 
and personality of individuals. Corporations are giants 
in strength and system, but they deteriorate rapidly 
when deprived of that ability to think which must be 
supplied to them by individual intellects subject to all 
the play of human character. The problem is to harmon- 
ize individualism and co-operation. 

The Everson Myth 

On another page we give the salient facts in the life of 
Mrs. Everson, as recorded in a letter from her son to a 
committee of the Colorado Scientific Society. Appar- 
ently a belated desire had been expressed at Denver to 
learn something concerning the Carrie J. Everson whose 
name has been so prominently identified with a famous 
flotation patent. The melancholy result was to discover 
that the lady, whose experimental work had been quoted 
freely in recent litigation, although neither litigant had 
dared to subpoena her as a witness, had died a year be- 
fore the enquiry was set afoot. Another consequence 
is to shatter the romantic story of the alleged invention 
of the oil-flotation process. It was about time to ascer- 
tain the truth. We have been told that Carrie J. Ever- 
son of U. S. patent No. 348,157 was a Miss Everson, a 
school-teacher, the sister of an assayer, in whose labora- 
tory at Denver she had discovered the flotativc power of 
oil by washing some greasy ore-sacks containing concen- 
trate, and that therefrom had resulted the invention of 
an epoch-making process for treating sulphide ores. 

Indeed, one authoritative writer gave a final touch to the 
picture in these words: "When she had the greasy con- 
centrate-sacks in the wash-tub and gave them such agita- 
tion as was incident to the operation of washing, it only 
required the customary actiteuess of observation of the 
Western ladj* school-teacher to grasp the essential facts 
of sulphide flotation." Alas, our hold on those essential 
facts is slippery enough even 30 years after the date 
of the supposed discovery. The excellent lady herself 
proves to have been a Mrs. Everson, the wife of a Chi- 
cago doctor, with no brother assayer and no laboratory 
for washing ore-sacks or other scientific research. Sev- 
eral years after the patent had been obtained she became 
a nurse and later still, twenty years subsequent to the 
filing of that patent, she was for a short time a teacher 
in a school for girls. The romancist is welcome to that 
scrap of fact, even if it comes at the wrong place in the 
story. In short, Mrs. Everson was an intelligent earnest 
woman who happened to touch the fringe of a metal- 
lurgical enigma. We do not ridicule her, nor her effort 
to investigate a problem that remained entirely un- 
solved for many long years after she made her amateur 
experiments: but we permit ourselves a laugh at those 
who have exaggerated her ineffective attempt into a 
great invention, in order to belittle the work of real 
metallurgists and in order to destroy the originality of 
much later and far more scientific research. The Ever- 
son patent describes no workable process; it was for- 
gotten until patent litigation brought it into fictitious 
prominence. Posthumous demonstrations of the prior 
art made in court do not impress the detached onlooker. 
If Mrs. Everson had never recorded her experiments the 
flotation process would have lost nothing. Flotation was 
not descended from her. That oil would adhere to me- 
tallic particles and float them was known to Herodotus, 
it has been a matter of encyclopedic information ever 
since. Mrs. Everson tried to apply the old fact to the 
concentration of ore, and failed. The flotation of today 
comes to us through the Elmore brothers, who got their 
idea from George Robson, at the Glasdir mine, in Wales ; 
where Robson got his idea we do not know, but we hope 
to find out before the chapter is closed. No reason 
exists for believing that he got it from the U. S. patent 
records, for his method bore no resemblance to that of 
Carrie Everson. Prom the Elmores the flotation pedi- 
gree continues to Alcide Froment, who saw the Elmore 
bulk-oil process in Italy, and from Froment to H. L. 
Sulman and H. P. K. Picard. It is only the distortion 
of scientific vision created by the miasma of litigation 
that has caused the Everson patent to loom so large 
against the later investigations and developments of the 
process. One myth has been swept away; in course of 
time others may follow it, so that ultimately the scien- 
tific truth may stand out clear. Meanwhile we con- 
gratulate the Colorado Scientific Society on its course of 
action and hope that it will not abate in its intention to 
do honor to a woman who was an investigator, a nurse, 
a teacher, a good wife, and a devoted mother. That is 
more than being a bubble in the froth of litigation. 

Jiuiuan 15, 1916 

MINING and Sdentin, I'Kl SS 


Our rvcuton an fnvifod »<► um ih« dipartmrnl for du- ditcanion uf technical 1 and other mafii i 
tabling (o ntfnfad and metallurgy. I h* Editor uwtoonun the a xp r mi on of viewi contrary (<> Mi "un, tv- 
htiirnj (hai careful criticism U mure valuable than casual comptinumt. 

The Electrical Theory of Flotation 
The Editor: 

l have read with much interest Mr. Bains' article 
in your issue of the 27th nit on this subject. I believe 
he is right in his theory and thai electrification plays a 
very important part in the phenomena of the new metal- 
lurgy. The slime problem — the greal difficulty mill-men 
attribute to 'colloids' — is a manifestation <>f the electri- 
fication of the particles causing them to form into flakes 
and to interfere profoundly with the effect of gravity 
as utilized in water-concentration methods. I have 
noticed that dry -dust" classified by transportation in 
air is similarly affected and will retain large percentages 
.it' air in the mass and will 'run' on a slight grade. 

Studying the effeel of 'colloids' in gravity work on 
slime three years ago I noted that some force was causing 
the extremely fine particles to be attracted to each other 
with system, and in a manner to suggest that the phe- 
nomenon was due to electrification. I assumed, how- 
ever, that the aluminous and earthy particles were the 
only ones charged, and that the crystalline sulphide 
particles which 1 was trying to separate from the mass 
were not subject to the queer behavior noted in the 
'colloids.' In connection with an application for a 
patent on a 'colloid separator.' I wrote a description of 
what was to my mind happening, from which I quote: 

By 'slime' is meant, for the purpose of this discussion. 
a mixture of water with ore and mineral so finely com- 
minuted as to be impalpable. The losses (by gravity 
concentration I in these sizes are very largely caused by 
the fact that the slime contains a very large percentage 
of so-called 'colloids.' In the language of the mill metal- 
lurgist, 'colloids' is pulverized ore, affording a great deal 
of material that contains more than an ordinary amount 
of combined water, and when in an impalpable state ap- 
parently carries a static 'charge' and has the peculiar 
property of quickly forming into flakes, being then 
known as 'flocculent slime.' 

When greatly diluted with water, that is, when the 
amount of 'solid' matter in suspension is a very small 
percentage of the whole and the mass is at the same time 
in a state of agitation, the formation of flakes is pre- 
vented. As the mass of water comes to a state of rest and 
the solids present begin to fall under the influence of 
gravity, the crystalloids (more or less cubical particles) 
go rapidly toward the bottom of the vessel. The col- 
loidal, or clay-making 'solids' also commence to fall, 
and at the same time begin to migrate toward each other 

and form themselves into Hakes w Btrings, which be- 
have in water much like fine feathers of fluffy down in 

air. While the Makes an' widely separated the particles 
ui non-electrified, non-hydrous, crystalline material fall 

readily in paths between them. 

When the flakes have settled into a mass touching 
each other at their extremities, their movement under 
gravity is interfered with and when in this state they are 
no longer free-settling particles, but are a mass of flak' s 
resting upon each other with clear water filling their in- 
terstices. When they fall farther the mass formation is 
condensed and the process is one of re-adjustment of the 
flakes among themselves, in which the water in their in- 
terstices is displaced, and on account of the greater 
degree of impediment as the mass becomes more dense, 
they require longer periods to fall a given distance or 
crowd into less space. Thus, each stage of the condensa- 
tion or thickening process is a successively slower one and 
one which greatly embarrasses 'gravity' processes of 

When I take a long glass cylinder, say of li in. diain., 
fill it with 100 to 5 slime-feed, as found in average mill 
conditions (in which all of the mass would pass a 240- 
mesh screen) and allow the cylinder to stand perpendicu- 
larly a short time for the slime to settle and commence the 
cycle referred to above, I find that by the time approxi- 
mately 10% of the water is supernatent, that is, clear 
water on top of slime, then the colloids have migrated 
under this system of attraction and have become flakes 
large enough to be seen and have settled until they touch 
each other. Looking through the glass, I note that the 
water between the flakes is clear and that the process of 
re-arrangement among them in process of 'thickening' is 
visible. The passage of the water upward from among 
them is made instantly apparent by inclining the tube 
about 15°. Observing the upper side of the incline I find 
the water racing along the glass, in the path of least re- 
sistance, causing wavelets among the flakes and carry- 
ing them upward ; and on the under side of the cylinder 
the movement is downward but in a more uniform 
manner, that is, a larger section of the mass is moving 
downward with less speed. When I reverse the inclina- 
tion of the cylinder the direction of movement is re- 
versed in a surprisingly short interval, with a very short 
period of rest before starting in the opposite direction. 
This demonstrates visually the action noted in the re- 
adjustment of the flakes mentioned, and demonstrates 
that the water is being squeezed, so to speak, out from 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 15, 1916 

the interstices between the flakes as they re-am 
themselves in a more compact mass in the art of Balling. 

If I take a 'drop' of clean, water-saturated, slimed 
sulphide, which I have previously separated from a 
similar mixture on a conventional slimer' and drop some 
of it from a glass rod into my cylinder, I can watch the 
sulphides pass downward through the mass. When the 
apertures between the flakes are large enough, a majority 
of the little black crystals are able to reach the bottom. 
but if I continue this from time to time as the 
thickens I find that the sulphide crystals are being 
arrested. The finer ones first begin to be held up and 
may be seen suspended upon the flakes even when the 
mass looks very thin and extremely fluid-like. By the 
time the 'colloids' have excluded the water until the 
proportion in the mass is 100:10. all sizes of the so- 
called 'slime-sulphide' concentrate are held up on it 
like coal-dust or sand supported upon down. 

When the 'colloids' first begin to settle and combine 
into flakes they are feathery in appearance in the water, 
especially toward the surface of 'slime,' but as the mass 
becomes more dense and less free to move, it assumes a 
cream-like consistence. When I pour the clear water 
off from the top and the slime begins to also go over, the 
appearance by reflected light suggests cream or syrup 
and viscosity. In very fact I realize that I am dealing 
with fluid clay. 

I think it is entirely obvious that the thickening of 
slimes in preparation for feeding on so-called 'sliming 
machines,' as now practised, is entirely wrong in prin- 
ciple. In the absence of the peculiar 'colloids' this would 
be quite correct and the results upon the machine would 
be what is intended, but we have the colloids all of the 
time in all ores (though in varying proportions ) and this 
part of the tonnage is not only not amenable to the con- 
centrating action of any machine or device used for 
water-concentration by the gravity method and cannot be 
concentrated by these machines, but it prevents the crys- 
talline particles (which, when clean of colloids, are easily 
separated) from having a chance to reach the concentrat- 
ing surface and be saved. We use pointed boxes, spitz- 
kasten. Callow tanks, pulp-thickeners, etc.. the ob.i 
wbich is to "thicken the feed." and these devices are 
admirably adapted to make material so dense that a con- 
centrating unit may handle a larger and more satis- 
faetory In image of it, but, for reasons that have been 
explained, the unit will concentrate the valuable portions 
with very poor success. 

Here ends the quotation from my former notes. 

Considering what Mr. Bains' experiments and experi- 
ence have shown I now see that the whole mass of solids 
was 'charged' and that the effect was misunderstood as 
far as the coarse particle was concerned, because it was 
too large to 'migrate' and collect into masses governed 
by the 'charge.' but as the particles carrying the charge 
became finer they could migrate and assemble so as to 
become visible. The sulphide particles were not exempt 
from the influence as I had supposed. Their suspension 
in the mass of colloids was not a mechanical proposition 

altogether or so much as it was one of attraction due to 
the charge of electricity present in the mass, and the 
superfine sulphide particle contained in the mass of 
flakes was just as much an electrically charged colloid 
as any other part of the mass, and that is where the main 
losses, the unavoidable losses, were, and where the ap- 
parently easy and most notable saving by flotation comes 
into play. 

Now comes flotation with its peculiar and unexplained 
influence upon the colloid condition, and I am satisfied 
that the new theory points the way to a better under- 
standing and realization of what is taking place in con- 
nection with the burden-carrying bubble. Oil evidently 
does not belong at the head of the class and has been 
enjoying a measure of popularity that does not belong to 
it. Verily, much is yet to be learned about how, and why. 
and what, is flotation. 

I am sending herewith a small sample of Anaconda 
concentrate which seems to have peculiar properties. It 
is not a sample of the average concentrate of its size, but 
is a class of pyrite which selects itself out of the feed in 
passing over the table and floats off on the surface of the 
water. Note its relatively coarse size (20-mesh). It is 
plentiful at times and scarce at other times, evidently 
depending upon where the ore comes from for that day. 
It has not been oiled either purposely or by accident, but 
it will float persistently, as you will note if you put the 
dry material in a pan and allow a tongue or wedge of 
water to crawl under it. As soon as it is drained, the 
film of water will peel off from this material like it docs 
from a duck's back and it advertises that it wants to float 
by doing so at every opportunity. This material won't. 
stay drowned, and the question naturally arises as to 
what is peculiar about it and what can be learned by 
studying its peculiarities. I am sending some of it to 
Mr. Bains with a copy of this letter. 

David Cole. 

El Paso. December 14. 1915. 

Trade in South America 

The Editor: 

Sir — Your remarks on this subject are very good. You 
should enlarge upon it and while doing this, refer to some 
particular line of trade. It is not possible to say much 
in general terms without making mistakes. 

I take it that your readers are more interested in the 
machinery trade with South America than with simply 
"trade.' And the 'machinery trade' should be again 
limited to machinery trade other than agricultural. The 
reason for this is that there is no similarity between agri- 
cultural machinery business and mining, power, or 
nitrate machinery business. 

Agricultural machinery is sold by big houses that give 
a year or two of credit, based on crops, which are in 
turn often contracted for when machinery purchases are 
made. This makes it difficult for the American manu- 
facturer of agricultural machinery to retail for cash. 

Electrical machinery is usually sold on long terms to 

Januarj IS 1916 

MINING and Scienl I'KI SS 


lighting and power oompaniea by 1 1 1 « - European manu 
rer thai takes an intenal in the bnaineaB I should 
say this i'ii.« tin- »ay thi.s business was <lim<\ None La 
being done in thia line now. 

alining maehinerj is sold here, aa in other parts of the 
world, for cash. There are oceaaiona] ezoeptiona to this. 
Imt the reaolta of giving time on mining Bales are nol 
such as iii inspire imitation. 

In other tinea, such as shirls. slims, and shelf g Is iii 

general, longer terms were granted by European bouses 
than bj American, Imt there air two ways of looking at 
this, qm stion of terma Tin' American manufacturer can 
either hold • >n t fur his terma of cash, or he can give away 
and allow credits, or be and his customer ran compromise. 
If there was just one American manufacturer, this could 
ttled easily, hut there are many, and American 
gooda arc appearing on tin: market, so tin' terms finally 
arranged must be satisfactory to both sides. 

Personally, I think that tin- allowing of a special .lis 
count for '-ash is a better way for the buyer than giving 
him a long credit ami covering it in the price; and ap- 
parently the buyer here thinks so also. Anyway, why 
should it he necessary tor the American shipper to 
change his methods if they are better than the European, 
as be thinks? 

Dollar exchange is appearing in the financial circles 
with much greater frequency, lately. The Braden and 
Chuquicamata companies try to obtain all the money re- 
quire, 1 Tor operations by selling 00-day New York 
exchange. So far their arrangements for doing this 
are not convenient. That is, it is easier for me to go to 
the hank and buy the exchange on New York than it is to 
call up the Braden Copper Co. at Rancagua, get a quota- 
tion, send them the money, and wait for the draft, even 
though their rate of exchange is better than that of the 
bank. It is stated that this condition will be changed, 
ami then we will have an American bank to all intents 
and purposes, except as regards lending money. 

I think you lay too much stress on the importance of 
speaking Spanish. We have, among the American colony, 
men who have been here a score of years without learning 
much about Spanish — and there are Englishmen who 
could be here centuries without learning the subjunctive 
any better than I have. Yet the Englishmen do most of 
the business in Chile. If the men sent to South America 
to do banking know banking the task of learning enough 
Spanish is only a question of a short time. 

So far, any sales of New York drafts are based on the 
rate of exchange between pesos and pounds sterling. As 
soon as we have an exchange rate quoted in dollars, trad- 
ing in New York exchange will be much easier. Not long 
ago the first sale of nitrate in dollars was effected in Val- 
paraiso. Not long ago the first sale of tin concentrate 
was contracted in dollars. A number of locally repre- 
sented American companies have given instructions that 
hereafter quotations must be made only in dollars, and 
not in pounds, pesos, marks, or francs. These are straws 
that show that the importance of the dollar is increasing. 

Occasionally my customers wish to pay accounts with 

sterling exchange, i lur account will be in dollars 
nt in New Fork, s,, thia means figuring tin 
In order to he able t" remit dollars, I mu 
bank here in Santiago and ask what tl 
Thej in turn niiisi ask Valparaiso, because the rate ,,t 
exchange is based on the sale of drafts at Valparai 

return I,, the hank in the after] and they k'i\, 

rate. Prom this I figure the value of a dollar in pounds 

and get the draft I'roin m> customer for the right amount 
This draft must he us, ,i i., purchase between 2 ami I p.m. 
of tin- same day New York exchange, or I am liable to 
lo,,s, or gain by the fluctuation of exchange, because a 

new rale must he obtained on tin- m\l day. You can se, 
what trouble this entails. Another difficulty is that the 
rale is not the same at all 111,- hanks, so that it beCOUleS 

necessary to ask- several in order to know which is the i„ si 
rai, Their rates depend upon whether they wish to sell 
or buy on that particular day. So it is that at times I 
have been asked, "Are you sure going to buy .'" before I 
have heen quoted a rate. 

My company remits funds for current expenses in 
drafts on New York, and it is in such eases that I am 
keen on getting the best possible rate. When the draft 
is such that any bank will accept it, the difference in 
price offered is sometimes as much as 2%. Even in cases 
where the draft is drawn directly on a given hank here, 
it is possible to obtain a better rate than is originally 
quoted if one is independent and in a position to send 
the draft, back to New York if the price is not right. 

This is not like banking elsewhere, but the condition 
is not to be charged to the banks so much as to the un- 
certainty of the value of Chilean money from day to day. 
Nevertheless, it is to be hoped that if an American bank 
is ever established here, it will not quote different rates 
to different, people. 

Mark R. Lamb. 

Santiago, December 4, 1915. 

The Weedon copper mine in the Eastern Townships 
of Quebec has produced in five years 174,000 tons of 
cupriferous pyrite ore. According to a recent report on 
the 'Copper Deposits of the Eastern Townships of 
Quebec' by the Provincial Department of Mines, the 
main orebody of the Weedon is a lense 570 ft. long, 40 to 
45 ft. in maximum thickness, striking north-east and 
dipping 40° to the south-east. The ore averages 3.6^ 
copper, 40.7% sulphur, with traces of zinc, lead, silver, 
and gold ; it has been sold for about $9 per ton. On Sep- 
tember 1, 1914, about 200,000 tons of ore was known to 
be in reserve. The mine is 3i miles from the railroad to 
which transportation of the ore is effected by an aerial 
tramway; the cost of this transportation by tramway is 
under 7 cents per ton. John McDonald of Sheibrooke. 
Quebec, bought the property for a small sum in 1908, on 
account of its rusty showing of schist. He sunk several 
pits and finally a shaft in the bottom of a grass-covered 
depression, penetrating 25 ft. of ore. The property was 
leased under option to P. de P. Ricketts of New York, 
who transferred it to the East Canada Smelting Co. 

si' MINING and Scientific PRESS January 15, 1916 

Carrie 'J/Ii-wenotiiisulTiurd-liosi C oncentratliicj 'Molybdenum 

The Colorado Scientific Society recently started an in- 
quiry into the work of Carrie Jane Everson. who did 
some early work in connection with the flotation process 
in Colorado. The committee of investigation consisted 

of n. C. Parmelee, the secretary of the Society. Philip 
Argall. and George E. Collins: the last mentioned being 
chairman of the committee. The chief result was to 
elicit an authoritative aecount of Mrs. Everson's life 
from her son, John L. Everson, of San Anselmo. Cali- 
fornia. From this account it appears that many of the 
details circulated in the literature of flotation are quite 

Her maiden name was Billings. She was horn at 
Sharon. Massachusetts, in 1842, and in 1851, when only 
nine years old. went with her parents to Illinois, 
where in 1*64 she married "William K. Everson, a 
physician ami surgeon practising at Chicago. Through 
her husband she became interested in chemistry. In 
1878 Dr. Everson lost money in one of Brick Pomeroy's 
wild-cat mining schemes, causing his wife to seek a 
means of adding to their livelihood. She studied miner- 
alogy and chemistry, and. as her son states, "discovered 
what she termed the chemical affinity of oils and fatty 
substances for mineral particles. She later qualified this 
theory when she learned by further experiments that 
other substances would accomplish the same results. 
notably wheat-gluten, lamp-black, soot, etc." Her hus- 
band became interested in these experiments and aide. I 
her in obtaining tin- celebrated patent. No. 348,157, 
of August 29, 1885. Two years later the family moved 
to Denver, where Dr. Everson tried vainly to get min- 
ing men interested in the process. He died in 1889. 
Thereupon his widow, being in financial straits, took 
to obstetrical nursing. At this time she met Thomas 
P. Criley, who tried to get some people at Baker City. 
Oregon, to interest themselves in the process. Criley 
lied shortly afterward. Then, in 1891. Mrs. Everson 
■net Charles I'.. Hebron, who had a little knowledge of 
concentrating plants and arranged to aid her in me- 
chanical details. The joint patent No. 471.174 of 1891. 
was a result of this association. A Mr. Pischel of Denver 
is also mentioned by her son as having become interested 
to the extent of furnishing funds for the erection of a 
demonstration plant. One or two trials were made in 
this experimental plant, but a disagreement between 
Hebron and Pischel caused the abandonment of the 
scheme and a final cessation of her courageous effort to 
make something out of her patents. Thereupon, in 1892, 
Mrs. Everson became visiting nurse of the Denver 
Flower Mission and was employed in this capacity until 
1900. when failing health caused her to accept a position 
as teacher of physiology and hygiene in the State School 
for Girls at Morrison. Colorado. In 1909 she joined her 
son in San Francisco, and later at their joint home at 
San Anselmo. where she die] on November 3, 1914, being 
then 72 years of age. 

As is generally known, molybdenum is in great demand 
at present as a substitute for tungsten in the making of 
tool-steel. The principal ore, molybdenite * MoS,) much 
resembles graphite in appearance, having, however, a 
little bluer color and giving a green streak on fractured 
porcelain. Molybdenite occurs commercially in narrow 
veins in granite and crystalline rocks. The concentra- 
tion of the ore, containing from 1% to 10 or 20% of 
MoS,, to a merchantable product of 80 or 90%, is re- 
ceiving attention in various parts of this country and 
Canada. The Canadian Department of Mines, at Ot- 
tawa, has been experimenting along these lines, and has 
lately obtained one of the flotation machines of Henry 
Wood of Denver for its testing laboratory. Mr. Wood 
has concentrated molybdenite ores from several localities 
in the Western states and British Columbia, and claims 
that his machine will separate molybdenite from gangue 
without preliminary sizing, yielding a merchantable 
concentrate, and recovering 80 to 90% of the molybden- 
ite. The Mines Department at Ottawa apparently favors 
preliminary sizing and in some cases a roasting operation. 

According to the Canadian Mining Journal the proc- 
ess suggested by the Mines Department as devised from 
treating '2\' , ore containing other sulphides and mica 
from the Chisholm mine, in Ontario, is as follows : 

( rush to inch size. Dry in a cylindrical drier that does 
not allow the furnace-gases to come in contact with the 
ore. Pass to J-in. rolls ; thence to a Newago screen that 
gives material over J-in. to a picking-belt, material over 
J-in. going to another picking-belt, and under J-in. to a 
Keedy sizer. The picking-belts carry the product to J-in. 
rolls, thence it passes over a Newago screen, from which 
over |-in. size goes to J-in. rolls, and under J-in. to a 
K'iiU sizer. All the ore (finally under J-in. size) goes to 
;i Keedy sizer. which is simply a large flour-bolter made 
exceptionally strong. This makes ten sizes, each of which 
goes to its own water-flotation machine: the dust passing 
to .in oil-flotation machine or to waste, depending on its 
content of molybdenum. The tailing- from the water- 
flotation goes to waste. The concentrate, containing 20 
to W , molybdenite, goes to a Wilfley roaster thai sub- 
jects it to a slightly oxidizing roast at about 1000° F. 
» ,i refill roasting is necessary to obviate any partial oxi- 
dation of molybdenite. The roasted concent rate, now 
containing oxidized pyrite and pyrrhotite as well as some 
mica and gangue, is again concentrated by water-flota- 
tion machines, giving a product of about 80% molyb- 
denite. The tailing from the roasted ore can be ground 
and treated in nil-flotation units or can be dried and re- 
turned to the Keedy sizer. On the ore tested, . r >0% of 
the molybdenite was recovered by crushing in steps and 
(licking out the coarse flake that yields material coarser 
than 6-mesh. 

Prices for molybdenum remain around +1.50 per pound 
for a product containing 90% MoS,. Frequent reports 
are published regarding the discovery of new deposits. 
and the 1916 output should be of fair quantity. 

Januan 15 1916 

MINIM. ..,„) Scienuh, I'Kl SS 

lint) the 


By T. A. Mckaxd 

•The non persist* ' ore in depth has disconcerted 

the miner from time immemorial. The geologist did 
little to explain the difficulty onti] the effects of 0x3 
genated water within the vadose zone were elucidated 

b) Poeepny, and the water-level I ame recognized as a 

factor in the distribution of rich ore. When Emmons' and 

Weed 1 brought forward an explanation for the set I 

ary enrichmenl of copper lodes, and others, including 
myself, 1 followed suit with a discussion of the • 
lions affecting concentrations of gold in veins, then the 
miner sat up ami took notice, as it were, for the geolo- 
gist began to touch upon the one subject most important 
to him, namely, the ascertainment of the factors favor- 
ing the malting of those extraordinary concentrations 
of metal for which he has sought since first a pick 
struck the earth. The miner does uot seek merely for 
gold in quartz, galena in limestone, or cinnabar in ser- 
pentine, for example; he seeks for those few spots where 
the gold, the lead, or the mercury is in a form or in 
s mass so concentrated as to yield him a handsome 
protit. Mining is the art of exploiting enrichments, 
let universal disseminations. There is gold in sea- 
water, what profits that? 

So when theories of secondary enrichment, with all 
the deductions arising therefrom, began to made head- 
way, they, being true, prevailed over the old generaliza- 
tion, being untrue. One of the first systematic state- 
ments on the subject was tendered, most fitly, by that 
keen observer and effective teacher. Waldemar Lindgren. 
in 1905. In the first, volume of Economic Geology* he 
wrote an article entitled 'Ore Deposition and Deep Min- 
ing.' That article summarizes current theory on the 
subject we are discussing. Turning to what Mr. Lind- 
gren has to say concerning "deposits in which the metal 
is of later origin than the surrounding rock," we find 
that he considers contact-metamorpbic deposits to be 
non-persistent. "Slight changes of composition and 
texture of the rock influence their susceptibility to con- 
tact metatnorphism to a very surprising degree. Few 

*From 'Persistence of Ore in Depth,' a paper presented to 
the Inst. M. & M., London, November 19, with additions. See 
the Mining and Scientific Press. December 19 and 26, 1914. 

i'The Secondary Enrichment of Ore Deposits.' S. F. Em- 
mons. Trans. A. I. If. E.. Vol. XXX, pp. 177-217. 

^'Enrichment of Mineral Veins by Later Metallic Sulphides.' 
W. H. Weed. Bulletin Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. 11, pp. 176-206. 

3'The Formation of Bonanzas in the Upper Portions of Gold 
Veins.' T. A. Rickard. Trans. A. I. M. E., Vol. XXI, pp. 19S- 

<Vol 1, pp. 34-36, October-November, 1905. 

mines ..11 contad deposits have been worked at a l" 
depth than a few hundred feet." 
Concerning the deposits "in which the ores have 








MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 15, 1916 

been deposited either by filling or replacement along 
fissures or other paths for underground waters," he 
states that the views now generally accepted agree in 
supposing the metallic contents to have been "deposited 
by ascending hot solutions — in fact, ascending hot 
spring)! — and most observers also agree that the metals 
were taken up in solution by the water at some point 
considerably below the point of precipitation." He 
allows that "the conditions for deposition grow less 
favorable as depth increases, but the change takes plae.- 
slowly. The richest ores are those near to their original 
apex." Here he is referring to the erosion of the upper 
portion of the vein as originally formed. Finally, he 
concludes, on theoretical grounds, that "ores deposited 
by ascending hot waters are more likely to show a de- 
crease than an increase in value when developed by 
deep mining." 

However, this is not all that he has to say. It is 
important to note his suggestion that in some cases 
erosion may have removed so much of the vein or lode 
that the present outcrop "may be thousands of feet 
lielow the point where the fissure reached the surface 
during the vein-forming epoch." Applying this idea, 
lie distinguishes between veins traversing volcanic rocks 
of relatively recent geological age and those penetrating 
older intrusive rocks known to have consolidated at 
great depth. He argues therefrom that "the date of 
vein formation" in the latter case "is likely to be re- 
mote," as compared with the former. He places the 
veins of the Southern Appalachian region, of the Cali- 
fornia gold belt, and of Australia under the first cate- 
gory, while he mentions the mining districts of western 
Nevada, the Hauraki peninsula in New Zealand, Owyhee 
county in Idaho, the San Juan region and the Cripple 
Creek district, both in Colorado, as in the younger class 
of deposits. Mr. Lindgren argues, for example, that 
because "the thickness of crust removed by erosion in 
the foot-hill region" of California is 3000 ft., and the 
most persistent orebody as yet discovered has been 
mined to 3000 ft. vertically, therefore "deposition of 
free gold ores in the California veins has proceeded to 
depths from the surface of about 6000 feet." 

This argument assumes that the ore as now found is 
much the same in character and richness as it was at 
the time when the vein was first formed; it infers the 
geological age of the orebody from that of the vein in 
which it lies. To this I demur. The vein, of course, 
cannot be older than the rock by which it is encased, 
but it may be much younger; moreover, the ore as now- 
found by the miner in the vein may be considerably 
younger than the fissure or other receptacle in which 
it lies. Furthermore, I am discussing the vertical dis- 
tribution of enrichments, not of the mere vein-filling, 
for the ore-bodies exploited by man represent the selected 
parts of a lode, not the whole of it, and certainly not 
its poorer portions. I submit that these rich parts may 
he the result of later chemical reactions long post-dating 
the waters that first circulated along the fissure and pre- 
cipitated the primary ore. In short. I submit that most 

orebodies, that is, the rich parts of a lode, are geolog- 
ically young. 

The suggestion made by Mr. Lindgren, that the pres- 
ent veins may be only the stumps, as it were, of those 
that at one time, previous to erosion, reached to a 
former surf^e several thousand feet higher than their 
present outcrops, has been advocated with some enthusi- 
asm by persons of less acknowledged authority in mat- 
ters of this kind. A good example is afforded by the 
literature on the goldfields of Nova Scotia. In that 
( lanadiao province the small veins of gold-bearing quartz 
follow thin beds of slate belonging to an extensive 
series of slates and sandstones of pre-Cambrian age. 
This sedimentary formation has not only been meta- 
morphosed, but it has also been subjected to violent 
plication resulting in sharp anticlinal folds, so that 
the quartz veins assume the shape of saddles, which 
by the further action of cross- folds, become domes. 1 
Apart from these structural features, it is a remark- 
able fact that this sedimentary formation has a known 
thickness of 30,000 ft., of which 18,000 ft. constitutes 
the division characterized by gold veins. It is estimated 
by E. R. Faribault, J. E. Woodman, and other geolo- 
gists who have studied the series, that erosion has re- 
moved overlying rock several miles thick. Mr. Fari- 
bault writes" of the veins having been "truncated by 
extensive denudation." Again he says: "Some of the 
sharpest and highest folds have been truncated to a 
depth, as far as we kuow, of over eight miles, exposing 
at the surface a section of gold-measures of over five 
miles in thickness." This means that 8 miles has been 
denuded, and that the gold veins persist through the 
underlying and surviving 5 miles of rock. His dia- 
grams express the same idea. Several less-known 
writers on the geology of the Nova Seotian goldfields 
have argued likewise: that the little quartz veins to be 
seen nowadays at the surface are the stumps of veins 
that once reached three or four miles to the surface 
of a former period, and therefore, that these same little 
veins may persist a few miles deeper, thus arriving at 
the cheerful conclusion that gold mining in Nova Scotia 
is "in its infancy." 

This reminds me of the cynic's definition of faith 
as believing things you know to be untrue. It is a 
brutal fact that of the gold veins that are supposed, 
on a geological diagram, to have continued several miles 
overhead and to persist yet for several miles underfoot, 
not one has been exploited profitably to a vertical depth 
of more than 1100 ft. 7 Most of the little mines in Nova 

s'The Domes of Nova Scotia.' By T. A. Rickard. Trans. 
Inst. M. M., Vol. XXI, pp. 506-566. 

o'The Gold Measures of Nova Scotia and Deep Mining.' By 
E. R. Faribault. Mining Society of Nova Scotia, 1S99. 

• The deepest gold mine in Nova Scotia is the Libbey prop- 
erty at Brookfleld, Queen's county. This was worked to a 
vertical depth of 1062 ft., following the orebody on its pitch 
by means of an incline. The Lake lode, at Caribou, in Halifax 
county, was mined to a vertical depth of 1000 ft. Not more 
than a couple of dozen mines were exploited to a depth greater 
than 500 ft. vertical. 

inuar\ 15, 1916 


i tlmt have given good results were abandoned 
Ihey wen 800 to •>"< | It deep, When a man tella 

■ in- that a l! im-h <|iiart/ vein 6n08 penetrated rook, now 

.il miles, either way, up and down, from 

pol where l now s.v it. I marvel at liis im«gin» 

imii. and when I find that a prospect-hole, or at most 

a shaft only a couple of hundred feet deep, suffices to 

follow that v.iii to its vanishing point, l turn to him 

and say to him that he has stated something that is 

ideally untrue. 

Even if tin' aetual story of mining in Nova Scotia 

ha. I not given the laugh to any Bach assumption ,,f p, r 

sistinr.- on quasi geological grounds, we should be war- 

: in rejecting the theory of continuity on such 

knowledge as is extant concerning the origin of ore 

deposits in general. Mr. Faribault ami others assume 

that the granite, of Silurian age, was extruded after 

ill veins hail been formed, "for granite dikes and 

reins have I n observed to always cul the inter-strati- 

firim r SuJ f *;Ct -^ s - • 


fied quartz veins wherever they come in contact with 
them." This is open to doubt. At Forest Hill the 
quartz of a vein can be seen penetrating into the granite, 
and gold is visible both in this quartz and in that of 
a vein near-by.'* Mineralization is usually the sequel to 
eruptive activity. In Colorado, almost without excep- 
tion, the deposition of ore over a wide region of great 
geological diversity is known to have taken place in 
post-Cretaceous time, and in most cases it can be proved 
that the orebodies hitherto discovered were formed after 
the extraordinary eruptive activity of the early Tertiary 
period." I could quote scores of other examples indi- 
cating the geological recency of the agencies that may 

^Trans. Inst. M. M., Vol. XXI, pp. 565, 566. 

"'Geological Distribution of the Precious Metals in Colo- 
rado.' T. A. Rickard. Mining and Scientific Press, January S, 
15, and 23, 1910. 

nested justiflablj with the deposition 
of the precious metals only, but of n„. base ones as well 

f the evidence indicates that a vein was formed 
at an early date in geological history, before erosion 
hail removed thousands of feel of younger rock, it still 
remains to !„• proved that the metals enriching that 
particular vein were precipitated at so early a i 
where we now flnd them; ami even then it is incumbent 
on those who argue persistence of ore on the basis of the 


geologic antiquity of the veins, to prove that the richest 
portions, namely, the orebodies, were not the product 
of activities belonging to a much later time. We are 
entitled to make this last stipulation, because, as I have 
said, and have elsewhere proved, so many orebodies are 
definitely known to be the products of the thermal and 
igneous activities that came into play at a period long 
subsequent to that in which the veins themselves were 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

.January 15, 1916 

first formed. Let me quote the case of the Homestake. 

That celebrated lode, in South Dakota, consists of a 
mineralized zone in schist, known to be of pre-Cambrian 
age. In the overlying Cambrian conglomerate are found 
bonldera recognizable as eroded fragments of the lode- 

Bchist. The glomerate is a 'banket' deposit, for it 

contains enough gold to be exploited as ore. So here, 
it has been said, we have proof of a gold-bearing lode 
of pre-Cambrian age, for is not the debris of it and 
the gold of it found as a constituent of a Cambrian con- 
glomerate ? 

As early as 1882 W. B. Devereux indicated that part 
of the gold in the overlying Potsdam conglomerate- was 
not of mechanical origin, derived from the erosion of 
the Homestake outcrop, but had been deposited as a 
chemical precipitate, for he found it as a film between 
the folia of the schist and in the overlying quartzite. 1 " 
In 1889, F. R. Carpenter, long resident in the locality as 
a mine manager, testified thai the vicinity of intrusive 
rock is favorable to the richness of the ore; he concluded 
that 'porphyry' produced "either an enrichment of the 
deposit or a further concentration of what gold origin- 
ally existed in it." In the neighboring district he aseer- 
5 that the silver-bearing galena ores, in Cambrian 
quartzite, are found "only in connection with the 
igneous intrusions." In the overlying Carboniferous 
limestone, ore of similar character is found "adjoining 
the porphyry, where it cuts through the limestone." 
Ee then expressed the opinion that the ore-bearing rocks 
of the region are "co-extensive with the intruded 
igneous rocks." 11 In 1897, F. C. Smith 12 stated that 
neither the Potsdam quartzites "nor those of the Car- 
boniferous are ever sufficiently mineralized with the 
precious metals to be called ores, except in certain locali- 
ties where they are cut by dikes, covered by flows, or 
intercalated with sheets of igneous rocks." 

In 1896 I had an opportunity of going underground 
in the Homestake mine and of visiting neighboring 
workings; in 1899 I examined the Hawkeye-Pluma mine, 
which is in the gold-bearing conglomerate overlying the 
Homestake lode. I formed an opinion then that the 
richer portions — that is, the orebodies — of the Home- 
stake schist are associated with the dikes of rhyolite that 
penetrate not only the overlying Cambrian strata but 
transgress a formation of shale belonging to a period so 
late as the Cretaceous. In other words, it seemed likely 
that the enrichment of the lode was consequent upon 
thermal action of post-Cretaceous age. 

In 1903, J. D. Irving published a paper on the sub- 
ject. 13 He stated that the fact of the Homestake lode 

io'The Occurrence of Gold in the Potsdam Formation, Black 
Hills, Dakota.' By Walter B. Devereux. Trans. A. I. M. E.. 
Vol. V, pp. 465-473. 

"'Ore Deposits of the Black Hills of Dakota.' By Franklin 
R. Carpenter. Trans. A. I. M. E.,*Vo\. XVII, pp. 570-599. 

"'The Potsdam Gold Ores of the Black Hills of South Da- 
kota.' By Frank Clemes Smith. Trans. A. I. XI. E.. Vol. 
XXVII, p. 405. 

"'Contributions to Economic Geology,' U. S. Geol. Survey. 
1903, p. 128. 

being "mineralized and gold-bearing" in Cambrian 
time "is proved by the presence of gold in the basal or 
lowest rocks of the sedimentary series which lie in the 
isolated patches about the outcrop of the orebody." 
However, Mr. Irving also says, in regard to the Home- 
stake lode:*' It. appears, first, that there have been sev- 
eral different periods of mineralization, at least one of 
which has preceded the deposition of the Cambrian 
rocks, as is distinctly shown by the presence of placer 
gold in the lowermost gravel beds of the Cambrian 
series: second, that there have been periods of mineral- 
ization which followed the entire deposition of the sedi- 
mentary rocks and were later than the intrusion of the 
dikes and bodies of rhyolite. It is probable that this 
belt has been the seat of much fracturing and crushing 
from very early geological time until the present, con- 
stituting a line of weakness along which mineralizing 
waters were permitted to circulate more freely else- 

In 1904. J. D. Irving, S. F. Emmons, and T. A Jaggai 
published a paper on the economic geology of the dis- 
trict." They concluded that while some of the gold in 
the Potsdam conglomerate is detrital, the high-grade por- 
tions of it are indebted to secondary enrichment. This 
enrichment was contemporaneous with the introduction 
of the pyrite, which was not an original constituent of 
the pebbles, but serves now to distinguish the rich parts 
of the deposit. The pyrite occupies fissures and cavities 
in the pebbles. Barren conglomerate is cemented by 
quartzite or by calcite free from pyrite. He refers to 
the films of gold in the schist. 

It is noteworthy that Irving considers the increase 
from a grade of 1 dwt. gold to the higher average of 10 
dwt. per ton to be due to secondary enrichment. In 
other words, the formation of that part of the deposit 
that has an economic value — and is therefore 'ore' — is 
ascribed to the later processes whereby the original 
detrital deposit was enriched by secondary precipitation. 
In short, the Cambrian conglomerate became an orebody 
by reason of chemical precipitation associated with post- 
Cretaceous, or Tertiary, thermal circulation. 

In regard to the Homestake lode, Emmons ascertained 
that intrusive bodies of rhyolite, of Eocene age, dip and 
strike with the orebodies, through which they also pass. 
The breccia formed along their contact with the schist is 
gold-bearing and pyritic, showing that the "mineraliz- 
ing solutions must have entered along the channels pro- 
duced by these movements," which, be it noted, took 
place in the Eocene period. Thus the gold-bearing ore 
of the Homestake, once supposed to be wholly of pre- 
Cambrian age, proves to be largely of Tertiary age ; in 
other words, the enrichment or concentration that 
changed a zone of crushing into an orebody was not 
ancient, but young, geologically. 

An interesting example of ore deposits undoubtedly 
due to more than one period of formation is afforded by 
the copper veins of Butte, in which chaleocite has orig- 

uProfessional Paper No. 26, U. S. Geol. Survey. 

■luiiiiury l"> 1916 

MINING ! Seieatii I'KI 5S 

thm waya, and «t tli r.«- different 

1 As a primary deposit from ascending s"lm 

2 \m .i secondary deporit from unending 


i secondary deposit from deaoending solutions 
indeed, the idee that ore depoaita aa now found oame 
into being »< one moment of geological time and nave 
survived unaltered through the onntinnal interplay of 
nature operating for periods during which the 
Alps and Andes might oome and go like a child's sand- 
castles before the encroaching tide, is contrary to all the 
teaehii logy. On the contrary, the evidence, 
■ally that gathered daring recent years in connec- 
tion with at nilary enrichment, all goes to show that 

the nrebodiea found by man today represent the tem- 
porary balance between solution and precipitation, be- 
twaan dissemination and concentration. Man, by re- 
moving the ore and subjecting it to his own processes, 
interrupts the work of Nature, who otherwise would 
continue to modify her handiwork indefinitely. The 
idea of fixity in the composition of an orebody is as 

. « ar?3-^^2lpii!' - 


Fig. 3. 

After J. D. Irvins. 

repellant geologically as the notion that the present face 
of the earth is permanent. 

Among those that have demurred to the conclusion I 
am seeking to establish is J. Malcolm Maclaren. Two 
years ago, in discussion of a couple of articles 10 on this 
subject written by me, he objected 17 to one generaliza- 
tion being replaced by another; that is, while he could 
not support the old idea of general persistence, he con- 
sidered my sweeping contradiction to be a "pernicious 
doctrine, if universally applied." He makes a big ex- 
ception for ore deposits in Archean and Paleozoic rocks, 
and even several in Mesozoic rocks. Imputing the ore- 
bearing character of such lodes to a favorable country- 
rock, he concludes that the richness will continue down- 
ward until the lode passes out of the favorable rock. He 
instances the Mother lode in California, the Treadwell 
lode in Alaska, and the Champion vein in India to sup- 
port his conclusion. He endeavors to make a point of 

isAustin F. Rogers. Economic Geology, Vol. VIII, No. S. 
p. 794. 

^'Persistence of Ore in Depth,' Mining and Scientific Press, 
August 24 and 31, 1912. 

"Mining and Scientific Press, October 26, 1912. 


diffi and 

.-.. r 

II ing regard t" l»r Maclaren 'a knowledg 
nomic geology, this maj be considered tin- I" --: arg 
aneed in favor of an idea thai I consider ri] 
tinal sepulture. The argument is Ingi it it 

amounts only to a red herring aoroaa the trail we are 
trying tu follow. Suppose we aooepl geologic structure 
as more decisive than depth, does that falsify the argn 
menl from world-wide experience 1 Of course not In- 
crease of depth involves change of geologic structure. 
It is most unlikely thai a mine opening can be extended 
downward for many thousand feel without exposing a 
change of rock or of rock-structure. The probability of 
is implicit in the idea of depth. 

Be refers to the Champion lode, in the Kolar gold 
field, and says that "if it should fail at greater depths, 
it will fail not on account of the depth, hut because the 
fissure has passed from hornblende-schist into the gran- 


TTirmrrs r>nmmi>>Fffl T ' f} " i r ~ r . 

/ °° ■ - 


Fig. 4. 

ite, and so far as I [Dr. Maclaren] know, there is no evi- 
dence to indicate such a change is likely to take place." 
To this I reply that the Champion lade, without marked 
change of geologic encasement, has become impoverished 
in depth. 

That impoverishment or even abrupt cessation of ore 
may ensue from a change in the structure or composi- 
tion of the wall-rocks is true, of course. This is an ex- 
planation, not a rebuttal, of my argument. We are all 
aware that ore-shoots have a pitch that takes them be- 
yond one line of vertical descent and may bring them 
across another line of descent, as is illustrated in Pig. 4, 
where shaft B is started in the ore-shoot and goes out of 
it in depth. On the other hand shaft A starts in a bar- 
ren portion of the lode and does not strike ore until a 
depth of several hundred feet has been gained. It would 
be as illogical to conclude, from B, that the ore peters 
out at, say, 300 ft, as it would be to assume, from A, 
that enrichment with depth has been proved at 350 ft. 
At Oatman, Arizona, at the present time, we have more 
than one illustration of the conditions typified by shaft 
A; it is highly probable that the explanation will be 
similar in kind. One reason for missing the outcrop of 
an orebody and starting to prospect in a relatively poor 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 15, 1916 

portion of the vein is the tad tliat. where the ore if 
or easily decomposed, the ore-shoot exhibits no outcrop; 
on the contrary, it is covered with a mantle of <letrit us 
sufficiently thick to cause the prospector to miss it. 

We miners are also aware that a 'congenial' rock ex- 
ercises an important influence pa the distribution of ore. 
Cornishmen have known that since the days when the 
Phoenicians came to the Cassiterides. In Fig. 5 a group 

Fio. 5. 

that had fed the so-called contacts he found that they 
became impoverished at a short distance below the ore- 
bearing horizon. 

Another type of contact is shown in Fig. 7, where a 
porphyrite adjoins a limestone. Such igneous contacts 
with solublc^-oeks have proved good places for the find- 
ing i.i' ores, both those of lead and of copper, as at Lead- 
villc and at Clifton. The neighborhood of dikes and 
intercalations of irruptive rock has proved favorable in 
the search for gold and silver also, in numberless locali- 
ties all over the world. 

Finally, I may instance the crossing of veins as a struc- 

Fig. 7. 

of veins is shown passing from shite into granite. Under 
such conditions no ore may be found in the veins until 
they penetrate the granite, or else they carry copper 
when in the slate and tin when in the granite, as has 
been the case at Dolcoath and other Cornish mines. 
Another good example of a congenial rock is illustrated 
by Fig. 6, where a vein, itself of minor consequence as 
an ore-carrier, is capped by a rich mass of ore in a bed 
of dolomite. Such conditions exist in the Black Hills of 
South Dakota. The flat orebodies of Newman hill, at 
Rico, Colorado, also belong to this type, only there the 

- SHALE feisS OOi-OMIT-E (23 SANDSTONE ^ /\t 

Fro. 6. 

favorable horizon is marked by a bed of gypsum. In 
both cases, however, the roof or upper limit of enrich- 
ment is shale, which appears to have been relatively im- 
pervious to the mineralizing waters that impregnated 
the soluble dolomite and gypsum. Here also the miner 
was compelled, in most cases, to sink several hundred 
Feet, or to drive a long adit into a hill, in order to reach 
the place of enrichment, yet when he followed the veins 

tural condition appreciated by the miner as a place likely 
to lie marked by an enrichment. See Fig. 8. 

Other examples of the localization of ore by reason of 
structural relationships might be cited, but those given 
will suffice. Such favorable conditions may recur in 
depth, and they are found at varying distances from the 
surface, but the effect of them in promoting the deposi- 
tion of ore becomes modified in depth by the increase of 
temperature and of pressure. Moreover, the tightening 
of the ground, as the miner phrases it, tends to decrease 
the multiplicity and continuity of fracturing, thereby 
impeding the circulation of mineralizing waters and 

Fig. S. 

checking those exchanges and reactions between solu- 
tions of diverse composition to which the precipitation 
of ore is largely due. 

Manganese ore from the Caucasian region of Russia 
was produced to the amount of 730,310 short tons in 1914, 
which is 338.415 tons less than in 1913. Practically all 
of the annual production is customarily exported; before 
the War, Germany and Belgium were the best customers, 
while Great Britain. United States, Austria, and France 
took smaller quantities. 

White aksexic production vof the United States in 
1915 was 5195 tons, worth at the smelters 2c. per pound, 
or a total of $207,780. This is 11% over 1914, and 65% 
over 1913. 

■ 1916 

Ml\|\i. and ScMBtih. 1'KI SS 

Mining Districts of Northern Ontario 

By Kob«rt Uftnnort ' 

THE mining districts of the Province of Ontario 
divided into two claasee: the precious 
metal, gold and silver, producing areas; and the 
other mineral-producing diatrieta, such as copper, nickel, 

and th uneroial eartha At preaenl productive 

mince of the former class belong to the northern part, 


tween the ivm>. sin.-.- gold rarely occurs in any consider 
able quantity with the silver orea, while silver, altl 
found to some extent in the gold-bearing veins, is a by 
product only. The chief reason for this is to I"- found 
in the facl Unit the veins of tin- i«n groups, though nil 
in rocks of pre-Cambrian age, were formed under dif- 
ferent geological and chem 
conditions, and at different pe 

The silver deposits are all in, 
or associated with, the rocks 
now named from the district 
which contains the most impor- 
tan] deposits, the ( lobalt Series. 
This scries is of I luronian age. 
with later intrusions of diabase, 
and overlies unconformably a 
base of complex rock consisting 
of greenstones, altered Blates 
and porphyries of the Keewatin 
age. The Keewatin rooks are 
not properly of the series. I nit 
important silver veins existing 
in this formation were affected 
by the same geological condi- 
tions as those responsible for 

and of the latter to the southern 
part of the Province. This, 
however, is a general statement 
only, as deposits of the precious 
metals have been known and 
worked for many years in the 
older southern districts, while 
considerable deposits of the 
baser metals are known, and at 
least one profitable deposit of 
nickel is being worked in the 
north. Still, the division is 
correct for the purpose of this 
article, which is to describe in 
genera] terms the gold and sil- 
ver districts, and the conditions 
of mining in them. 

The precious-metal mining 
districts may again be divided into two distinct groups: 
gold and silver; for unlike most of the Western mining 
districts, there is a very clear line of demarcation be- 

•Manager of the Kerr Lake Mining Co., Cobalt, Ontario. 

tRe-printed from the November, 1915, issue of The Tech- 
nology Monthly and Harvard Engineering Journal. Protected 
by copyright. 


the deposition of the silver ores in the Iluronian. The 
Cobalt series proper consists mainly of slate, pebble con- 
glomerate, and graywaeke. It was originally deposited 
by sedimentary action on the uneven Keewatin floor, and 
subsequently tilted, faulted, and eroded, so that its thick- 
ness varies greatly, and its former horizontal bedding- 
planes are rarely maintained in that position. Its sedi- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Januarv 15, 1916 

mentary character is clearly shown in the waterworn 
pebbles of the conglomerate and the even stratification 
of the slate. 

Subsequent to the laying down of the Iluronian 
measures there was a great intrusion or eruption of 
diabase, which in the Eorm of a line,''' sheet or sill cul 
through or spread over the entire series as well as the 
underlying Keewatin. This sill has been proved to be 
over odd ft. thick. The generally accepted theory is thai 
the shattering and assuring of the rock thai opened tie- 
way for the ore-bearing veins took place by contraction 
when this eruptive cooled, and that the diabase itself was 

the source of the silver. Some engineers Of repute hold 

that the assuring was subsequent to the eruptive flow, 
and not directly due to it, and thai the silver was de 
posited from deep-seated solutions, in one or the other 
formation according to the favorable chemical conditions 
of the wall-rocks. Faults are quite numerous, varying 
from mere steps in the bedding-planes to throws of 
many feet. These seem in some eases to have influenced 
the deposition of the ore in the veins, notably in the 
vicinity of the great fault under Cobalt lake, and in the 
South Lorain district, where the orebodies have usually 
been found near the faulted contact between the diabase 

and the Keewatin. The faults themselves, however. 
rarely form ore-zones. 

The veins OCCUr in all three formations: the basal 

Keewatin. the more reeeiit Iluronian. and the intrusive 

diabase. They are far more numerous in the Iluronian 

than in the other formations, so much so thai it has been 

the custom to measure the probable life of the district 

by the known areas of Iluronian rocks. Thai this is QOl 

entirely the ease is shown by the facl thai important 
deposits in both diabase and Keewatin, which have 
added largely to the total production, have been worked 
since the early days of the district, and discoveries are 

still being made in these formations. In fact, since the 

Iluronian terrain is distinctly limited both in area and 

depth, the best hopes for the future lie in exploration 
of these deeper-seated rocks. 

In general it may be said that the veins occurring in 
the Iluronian are far more dependable than those in 
other formations, and one fact is universally recog- 
nized, that a vein which carries ore in one of the three 
principal rock-series named, will carry it in that series 
alone, and though the vein itself may continue in 
strength for some distance, it will rarely contain ore for 

more than a few feet in a different series. 

The silver occurs in several forms; native silver, in 
sheets, masses, and in fine combination with other min- 
erals being the most common form. Proustite, argentite. 
and dyscrasite are also common. Closely associated 

with the silver are the eohalt compounds, smaltil 
cobaltite. It is from this mineral that the camp takes its 

name, as the prominent ontcrojjpings of cobalt bloom at- 
tracted the first notice to the veins. Niccolite is nearly 
as common as smaltite, and is usually an ore-bearing 
mineral. The commoner minerals, galena, pyrite, and 
chalcopyrite are frequent in occurrence, but are never 1 
good indications of ore. The vein-filling is almost in- 

variably cab-ite and dolomite. Where quart/. ills it is 

a sign that no silver will he found. 

In conjunction with the vein there is usually an im- 
pregnation of the wall-rocks with silver, extending from 
a few inches to widths of many feet from the veins. In 
the early d^vs little attention was paid to this feature. 
both for lack of methods for treatment, and because the 
high-grade ore was so easily won; hut with the approach- 
ing exhaustion of the high-grade, the low-grade mill-ore 
has become of increasing importance, and today a very 
large tonnage is treated in the modern plants that have 
been erected as conditions warranted. 

Erosion has played an important part in the physical 
features of the country, due to the intense glacial action 
of past ages. Unfortunately for the miner it has not 
worked entirely to his advantage, for undoubtedly enor- 
mous thicknesses of ore-bearing rock have been elimin- 
ated. Still, it has not been all one-sided, for just as 
probably, ore-formations formerly capped or concealed 

by barren rock have been exposed to view by this agency. 

The physical aspect of the Cobalt country is one of low. 
rounded, rocky hills, rarely exceeding 200 ft. in height, 
formerly forest-clad, hut now unsightly with stumps and 
brush. Numerous lakes make up a large part of the 
surface area, and often overlie parts of the mines. The 
altitude is about 1000 ft., and the climate dry and brac- 
ing. The winters are long and cold. 

Tin ( loball silver district so far overshadows the other 
silver-producing areas of Ontario that a description of its 
main features covers the whole subject. The Cobalt dis- 
trict proper includes an area some five miles long by two 
wide. While other productive localities, such as the 
Casey-Cobalt mine on the north and the South Lorrain 
district on the smith, extend its limits for over twenty 
miles, the mines of both the last-mentioned places are 
simply isolated cases of ore deposition, to which the same 
features apply as to the parent district. 

The district is served by the Teiniskaming & Northern 
Ontario Railway, a government line that gives excellent 
Service to the whole North country. This road, in fact, 
is the prime reason for the discovery of Cobalt. It was 
originally projected by the Ontario government to open 
up for settlement the fertile clay-lands known to lie to 
the north and west of lake Temiskaming. reaching far 
north over the height-of-land toward Hudson's Hay. 
The Mist ore was found on the shores of Cobalt lake, then 
known as Long lake, in 1903, by employees of the railway. 
Not until liid-f was the importance of the deposits recog- 
nized, but when it was. a rush set in. and scenes of excite- 
ment and 'wild-catting' usual to new finds prevailed. A 
Strange combination of remoteness and accessibility was 
this rich silver camp in the heart of the northern wilder- 
ness, separated l,y many miles of untracked forest, yet 
tn lie reached in one night from the great city of Toronto 
by comfortable Pullman car. Today, only ten years 
after the time when none but. the timber cruiser, the 
Indian, or trapper traversed the wilds by canoe and por- 
tage, a town of thousands of people, with good build- 
ings of brick and stone, with electric cars and automo- 
biles passing along its streets, stands on the site of the 

Januan 15, 1916 

MINING and Sdenun. 1'KI SS 

old i" iwifl is the progress of a prosperous nun 

■hi; oommunity, 

Cobalt has produced in the ten years of us existence 

than 210,000,000 ounoea of silver, and has paid 

^60,000,000 in dividends. For the Nisi five yean 

the production has been maintained al nearly 30,000,000 

n/ annually, ami although there are signs thai tliis yield 

ug, the output is still maintained at aol far 


from its high mark. There are 
at the present time no less than 
16 producing and dividend-pay- 
ing mines in an area five miles 
long. In normal times there are 
50011 men employed in and 
around.the mines, and probably 
10,000 people in the district and 
neighboring towns are depend- 
ent directly or indirectly upon 
the industry. 

There are three main groups 
of mines : those near and sur- 
rounding Cobalt lake, where the 
town stands and where the first 
discoveries were made; those in 
the Kerr Lake district two and 
■a half miles south; and those 
two miles farther south near the 
granite contact, known as the 
Teniiskaimng Beaver mines. 

Of these, the first now derives its ore almost entirely 
from the Huronian formation, and is by far the largest 
in number of mines and productive area; the second 
takes a large production from the Huronian, but also has 
had veins of great richness in both diabase and Keewatin 
rocks; the third, -and smallest, has depended upon the 
Keewatin for its production until recently. 

The Cohalt veins are narrow, rarely exceeding a foot 
in width, and are irregular in all dimensions. They are, 

howi .r ■ Ktremely rich, ppobaluj the riches! tilvet 

icovered. It is ool unusual ti 
in i-.. main four, live, or six thousand ounoea per ton 
The rharaoteristioa of the \< Ins make n exceedingly hard 
in estimate then- future productivity, Tins onoeitaint) 
has hurl many of the propertiea from an investment 
point of view, and economicallj speaking, has operated 

against initial installment of efflcienl equi] int, and 

ns,- of long sighted mining 
methods proper t<> mines of 
more assured future, In the 
course of years, greater famili 
aritj with the 'habits' of tin- ore 
has enabled engineers to make 
much miir imprehensive esti 

mail's iif the reserves. B0 that 

with Ih inlidencc of experi- 

61 many Of the early mistakes 

have been Bet right, and mining 

and treatment methods brought 
thoroughly up to date. 

The mining practice of Cobalt 
is not complicated. The wall- 
nicks are solid anil on the whole 

little timbering is required. The 
ground is easily broken; and 
the ore is hoisted to the surface 
for sorting, where the high- 
grade is picked on bells or 


bumping-tables, the fine jigged for smaller pieces of high- 
grade, and the reject sent to the mills. About the only 
engineering difficulties underground have been those 
where the valuable deposits lay under water, necessi- 
tating greater care in stoping and supporting the ground. 
At Kerr lake, a body of water some 40 acres in area, and 
100 ft. deep had to be considered. The managements of 
the two companies, parts of whose property lay under it, 
undertook to drain the lake by mounting powerful pumps 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 15, 1916 

oil a scow, and pumping the 400, 1,000 gallons of 

and water it was estimated to contain, out of the basin. 
This has been accomplished, and lias tin-own the formerly 
submerged territory open to prospecting and mining. 
The management of the Cobalt Lake mine, which lies 
under the lake of the same name, has installed apparatus 
of similar nature and has commenced draining that lake 

Surface prospecting has always been a necessary part 
of the operations, since so many small rich veins lie ir- 
regularly over it. which would he difficult and expensive 
to find underground. This has usually been done by 
trenching through the drift material, but the Nipissing 
Mining Co., which has a large surface area, has tried the 
interesting and successful experiment of installing a 
powerful hydraulic plant, which strips large surfaces 
i overburden at a minimum of expense. 

Cobalt is not a 'deep' district. Two hundred feet is 
considered a satisfactory thickness for the Ilurnnian 
rniks. and the average is still less. The great number of 
veins and their richness have, however, compensated for 
the lack of depth, since if ore is concentrated by nature 
on the surface it is that much more easily mined than 
lower-grade ores that must be hoisted from greater depth 
at, greater expense in equipment and elaboration of min- 
ing methods. This tad is too apt to be overlooked by 
the investor or engineer, who has always had impressed 
upon him the desirability of persistence in depth, and 
the reputation of Cobalt has in the past suffered accord- 
ingly. The continued productiveness of the district, 
however, has gone Par toward re-establishing the con- 
fidence lost when its shallowness was first recognized. 
Naturally, depth of ore deposits is highly desirable, for 
lateral extensiiin of the veins is obviously limited, and in 
the long run the continuity of industry depends upon the 
depth to which the ore will go. Signs are not lacking 
that tli is factor has still to be determined, as ore has been 
discovered and mined at quite respectable depths in the 
Keewatin and diabase. Up to the present, however, all 
discoveries are well within the 1000-ft. mark. 

Almost all of the mining companies treat their low- 
grade ore in either their own or custom mills. The mill- 
ing practice varies between simple amalgamation with 
concentration, and straight cyanidation. The concen- 
trating advocates claim that though a less extraction is 
made, the loss is offset by the smaller cost of treatment. 
Those who uphold cyanidation alone say that the higher 
extraction far more than balances the extra cost. With 
the operation of the 240-ton low-grade mill of the Nipiss- 
ing Mining Co.. which does away with concentration en- 
tirely, and depends upon tine grinding with direct cy- 
anidation. the latter practice lias become generally recog- 
nized to be the best, and most of the mills are now using 
cyanide in their scheme of treatment. 

Mnst of the mines have their own steam-driven power- 
plants, but these are used simply for heating or for 
auxiliary supply during occasional shortages due to 
vicissitudes of climate. The main supply is bought from 
a company that controls the huge water-power on the 
Montreal and Matabitchouan rivers, and furnishes both 

electric and compressed-air power to the whole district. 

Labor, on the whole, is efficient, and of a good class. 
The rank and file of the men are of all nationalities, with 
tin' native-horn in the majority. The Nova Scotian gold 
miners were at first the only experienced machine-men, 
but of late*tlieir places have been filled partly by foreign- 
born who have proved themselves adept. Finns and 
Austrian Poles are strong in numbers, and much to the 
credit of the Canadian temper, the latter have been per- 
mitted to continue at work without molestation, in spite 
of their nationality. Wages, in comparison with West- 
ern, and with other camps of Northern Ontario, are not 
high, ranging from $2.25 to $3.25 per day, but condi- 
tions of living are easy and working-hours are not long. 

Smelting in Australia 

As a result of the War, the Broken Hill Associated 
Smelters Proprietary Co. was formed by three com- 
panies operating at Broken Hill to acquire the Broken 
Hill Proprietary Co.'s plant at Port Pirie, South 
Australia, connected by rail with the mines and mills, a 
distance of 250 miles. The weekly capacity of four Ropp 
roasting-furnaces, seven Dwight-Lloyd sintering ma- 
chines, 16 Huntington-Heberlein converters, and four 
blast-furnaces with mechanical feeders, was 3200 tons of 
60% lead concentrate per week, and the lead refinery 
2000 tons of bullion per week. The zinc smelter works 
consisted of one Matthieson-Hegeler roasting-furnace and 
10 zinc-distillation furnaces, with a total capacity of 350 
tons of zinc concentrate, and an output of 100 tons of 
spelter and blue powder per week. The output is to be 
increased to 5000 tons of lead concentrate per week, at a 
cost of about $500,000. The area of the property is 136 
acres, also a wharf 1200 ft. long. There are coke-works 
at Belamhi. New South Wales, with a weekly output of 
1100 tons for the smelter. The companies at present 
sending their products to the works are the Proprietary. 
North. South, and Zinc Corporation. When extensions 
are completed, the number of contributors will be in- 
creased. During the four weeks ended September 22 the 
following work was reported: concentrate smelted, 11.- 
847 tons; slime smelted, 1210 tons; and silicious ores, 
3000 tons, a total of 16,057 tons; refinery products con- 
sisted of 6975 tons lead, 59 tons antimonial lead, 296,023 
oz. silver, and 372 tons spelter. 

At the Pan-American financial congress, held in 
Washington in May 1915, the following measures were 
advocated : two-cent letter postage between Latin- 
American countries and the United States: the adoption 
of the gold standard in all Latin-American countries; 
increase and simplification of banking and exchange 
facilities between the United States and Latin-America ; 
more and faster steamer service ; extension of the pa reel- 
post service: better understanding as to tariffs, taxes on 
shipping, and free zones; publication of commercial 
laws in English. Spanish, and Portuguese: protection of 
foreign patents and trade-marks in South America. 

.Iiinuun 15, 1916 

MINING and Sdenl I'KI SS 

Economics of the World's Supply of Copper 

By Thomas T. Read 

I trieal 

ii > l n » IDENTLY with the development of the elec- 

nl iiuluslry, the consumption of OOpper has in 

used :ii an extraordinarily rapid rate, and is 

now at its maximum. It is of Interest to i rider I 

Whether tliis increase will continue : (2 i whether rcsminvs 
arr available to permit the continued production of con 
stimtly increasing amounts of copper. As 
sub-topics under (1), there are the questions: 
(a whether substitutes may not lie devised 
to take the place of copper; (b) whether 
changes in industry may not be brought about 

that will perhaps decrease the use of those 

materials in which copper is now used ; (c) 
whether new uses tor copper may not be de- 
vised that will increase its consumption. As 
subtopics under ' 2 . it is necessary (a) to 
review the known and probable resources of 
the world's copper deposits, and (b) to an- 
alyze the world's trade in copper in so far as 

it bears on tin onomic factors governing the 

exploitation of these deposits. 

(la) Probability of Substitutes for 
Copper. The electrical industry absorbs 60 
to TO',' of the present production of copper, 
the larger part of it in the form of wire. 
Aluminum is a strong competitor of copper 
for long-distance transmission-lines, or wher- 
ever aluminum can be stranded with a wire 
of steel to afford the tensile strength that the 
aluminum itself lacks. Aluminum is more 
easily attacked than copper by corrosive 
agencies of the atmosphere, but as long trans- 
mission-lines are most in use in the Rocky 
Mountain region, where the air is compara- 
tively pure and dry. the importance of this 
factor is lessened. For telephone and tele- 
graph lines, copper seems likely to hold its 
own. especially in the Eastern States, since it 
is resistant to corrosion, and the smaller cop- 
per wire is less swayed by the wind and holds 
a smaller load of snow and ice in the occa- 
sional severe storms that are so destructive. 
It has been suggested that steel wires coated with cop- 
per would have greater tensile strength and equal con- 
ductivity, but it is difficult to make such a coating suffi- 
ciently homogeneous and adherent so that rusting will 
not take place beneath it, and it is also difficult to pro- 
duce compound wires at a low cost. Where small wires 
are necessary, as in winding dynamos and motors, or 
for electric-light cord, there appears no possibility that 

•Abstracted from a paper presented before the International 
Engineering Congress, in San Francisco. September 20, 1915. 

OOpper can be displa I, and the competition of alumi- 
num must be Confined to heavy wire. 

11. ru—mii. Changes in [ndustey, For the prea 

ent at least, there seems no reason to suppose that the 
electrical industry will demand smaller quantities, of 

copper, while in a hundred fields, of industry the grovi 




ing use of electrical equipment calls for increasing 

(2a) Known and Probable Resources of Copper. 
The following table shows the copper reserves of the 
principal mines of the Lake Superior district, as esti- 
mated by J. R. Finlay in a report for the State Tax Com- 
mission of Michigan in the summer of 1911. The figures 
given are the recoverable copper, not the total content. 
Since 1911 the recovery methods have been improved 
and a leaching process has been devised that is expected 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 15, 1916 

not only to increase the recovery from ore, but also to 
yield large amounts of copper from old tailing. 

Recoverable copper 
Mine. lb. 

Ahmeek 290,000,000 

Mohawk 176,000,000 

Wolverine 80,000,000 

Osceola Consolidated 300,000,000 

Allouez 140.000,000 

Calumet & Hecla 702,000,000 

Osceola amygdaloid 330,000,000 

Quincy 200,000,000 

Isle Royale 112.000,000 

Superior 75,000,000 

Baltic 110,000,000 

Trimountain 16.000.iinn 


Lake 40,000,000 

Total, July, 1911 2,681,000,000 

Deduct production to January 1, 1915. 

Add estimated recovery from tailing .... 150,000,000 

This table includes only those mines that, in 1911, 
were producing copper at a profit. There arc other 
mines that produce (or have produced) considerable 
amounts without making any profit. A decrease in 
working costs or an increase in the price of copper would 
I here fore increase the reserves given above. 

Only a few of the other copper companies have pub- 
lished any statement of their ore reserves, but fortu- 
nately among these an' several of the largest, as shown in 
the table below : 

Ore in Copper Copper in 
tons. % lb. 

Utah Copper 332,500,000 1.47 9,642.500,000 

Ray 78,380,966 2.20 3,228,800,000 

Chlno 94,000,000 1.80 3,384,000,000 

Inspiration Consolidated 45.000,000 2.00 1,800,000,000 

r20,300,000 2.45 995,000,000 

Miami J 6,000.000 2.00 240,000,000 

(17,200,000 1.21 413,000,000 

Nevada Consolidated 41,020,296 1.68 1,374,180,000 

Figures for the Anaconda and Phelps-Dodge com- 
panies are not available; otherwise, a fair estimate of 
the known copper resources of the United States might 
be made. 

For foreign companies, even less authentic data are 
available. The list below gives most of those at band : 

Ore Copper Copper 

Mine. Reserves Content Content 

Short ton. % lb. 

Chile Copper Co., Chile 280,855,000 2.13 11,936,337,500 

Braden Copper Co., Chile . . 78,000,000 2.8 4,368,000,000 

Mount Morgan, Australia . . 3,125,000 2.55 1,572.500,000 
Kyshtim Corporation, Ltd.. 

Russia 356,000 3.00 21,360,000 

Spassky Copper Mine, LtSl., 

Siberia 12,643 20.00 5,057,200 

Mount Lyell, Tasmania 2,202,335 0.531 23,500,000 

1,086,112 6.00 130,300,000 

These figures are useful only as hints, since the really 
significant factors are the large deposits that have never 
been thoroughly explored. Thus the immense copper de- 
posits of the Belgian Congo have never been appraised. 
since under present conditions no profit can be made. 

except in working the higher-grade ore. Improved 
facilities for mining and reduction, a new process, or 
higher prices for the metal may render immense quan- 
tities from these deposits available for industry. It is 
significant that the largest reserve in the table above. 
that of theThile Copper Co., was unknown a few years 
ago. Large copper deposits exist in southwestern China 
and are only worked to a limited extent. The figures 
given for the two Russian companies undoubtedly repre- 
sent only a modicum of the copper which that country 
will eventually produce. 

(2b) World's Copper Trade. The United States 
produces more than half the world's supply of copper, 
Japan, with the next largest output, producing less than 
one-seventh of the IT. S. output. Of our yield about 
one-half is used in this country and one-half exported, 
chiefly to Europe, Germany having been our best cus- 
tomer. Japan uses a large part of its output and sells 
the rest in China and Europe. Much of the Australasian 
production goes to Europe, and the same may be said of 
the Mexican and Chilean copper. The copper output of 
Russia is absorbed in that country; in time Russia may 
become an exporter. Spain and Canada are also impor- 
tant producers of copper; the output of the other coun- 
tries is small. It may be said that the general move- 
ment of copper, the world over, is toward regions of 
dense population. Manufactures of copper, on the other 
hand, tend to flow outward from the densely populated 
regions. In general, it may be said that such fluctuations 
in the price of copper as occur in the near future will be 
due to the relations between demand and immediate sup- 
ply, and not to any scarcity of copper ores. 

COPPER and its alloy, bronze, were known and used 
by prehistoric men. Copper was known before the time 
of Menes. the first Egyptian King, who reigned at a 
period possibly as early as 5500 B. C. It is believed 
that copper was used unalloyed for many centuries be- 
fore the discovery of the use of tiu as an alloy for pro- 
ducing bronze, which came into use on account of its 
greater hardness. At the beginning of the 18th century. 
Great Britain was making three-quarters of the world's 
copper — possibly 5000 tons. One hundred years ago the 
mines of the United States, Spain, Chile, Mexico, Canada, 
South Africa, Australia, and Tasmania, which now pro- 
duce 90% of the world's copper, were undeveloped. In 
the United States, copper was discovered in Massachu- 
setts as early as 1632, and in 1709 a company was in- 
corporated in Connecticut for the purpose of working 
copper ores. The copper deposits of New Jersey were 
exploited in 1719. The copper mines of Vermont date 
from the 18th century. These were the principal sources 
of American copper until the opening of the Lake Su- 
perior mines in 1844. Really important copper mining 
in the United States dates from 1844. with the opening 
of a vein near Copper Harbor, in Keweenaw county. 
Michigan. In 1882 Montana produced its first copper. 
The copper industry of Arizona was started a decade 


MINING and Scienl.f.c PKI SS 

Points of View From Lake 

By P. B. McDonald 

Till: Franklin mine is trying a circular picking- 
table in its slmft lioiisc where hand-picking of the 
ore is being done Close picking of the ore at i Ik- 
- .in innovation in the Copper Country. 

in now being manufactured al Duluth in the new 
plant of t It •- r. 8. Steel Corporation. Bibbing, .Minn. 
continues t" have troubles; together with several neigh 
boring towns, iis saloons have been closed by an old 
In. linn Ian of 1855. 

The Calu t A Hecla group of companies is using 

{-inch hollow steel for must ordinary drilling. With the 
longer steels now employed, a 16-ft. length of ;-in. steel 
appears, as one miner expressed it, "as springy as a 

The Wolverine mine, which was rach a steady profit- 
able producer for so long, was reported a few years ago 
to have its ore practically exhausted. Then the policy of 
seeking for copper in the foot-wall by drilling with small 
sinker-drills was adopted with such success that it is now 
announced thai the mine has 15 or 20 years of life ahead. 
much of which time will he consumed in working from 
the bottom bach to surface, prospecting the foot-wall in 
the old slopes. The report that the Stanton interests, 
who control the Wolverine and Mohawk, intend to con- 
solidate- tin- White Pine Extension with the Wolverine 
is officially denied, although Theodore Dengler will serve 
as manager of the three mines. 

( alumet township has shown such an increase in births 
recently that for the year 1915 it registered approx- 
imately one-tenth of the total number of births in the 
State of Michigan. It is axiomatic that the statistics for 
marriages and births in the Copper Country rise and 
fall in the wake of the price of copper. 

A mine-superintendent in the Copper Country recent- 
ly remarked: "Our output hinges on the speed of tram- 
ming, yel if we put an extra man on each car, two men 
would work while the third loafed." In many of the 
Copper mines tin- tramming is so scattered on twenty 
or thirty levels that close supervision is difficult. Mule 
or electric haulage never obtained much popularity in 
this region, such as the latter has on the Iron Ranges, 
because of the difficulty of concentrating the tramming; 
the Winona mine recently put in mules for underground 

E. W. Walker, who returned to Michigan from Arizona 
several years ago and made a record at cutting costs and 
producing copper at the Mass Consolidated, is now in 
charge of the Lake mine. Six or seven years ago Lake 

osation of lb,- sio.-k •peculators in tie Copper 
Country, partly because of >p , ,; V 

per and partly becaus ' the connection of the Pryor 

I'aniiU with the oompanj Mr Walker's pi.. 

paign to rehabilitate the Lake mine will he baaed upon 
tin- same mixture of progresaiveness and conservatism 
as characterized his management of Mass. 

The Whit,- Pine mine down in the wilderness of the 

Porcupine i intains used to be more difficult to 

from Houghton than was Chicago or Milwaukee. With 
"" , recent apleti f the branch railway, coal and 

supplies are bring shipped to the loealily and a settle 

meiit i> springing up near-by; the company is also taking 
advantage of the rail-transportation to improve the 
equipment at the mine. 

The Kitehigami Cold Development Co. is a i ent 

venture of Lake Superior people to operate in the Kirk- 
land Lake district of northern Ontario. The directorate 
includes John Daniell, Dr. John McRae, Chas. Chyno- 

weth. James T. Fisher, and Edwin .1. Hall, all of Calu 
met, Henry Baer of Hancock and John A. Docile of 
Houghton. C. W. Botsford, a geologist ol' experience. 
is in direct charge of the work, which will consist al firsl 
of diamond-drilling to cut extensions of neighboring 
gold-bearing veins. The company was organized under 
the laws of the State of Arizona with a capital of $300,- 
000 divided into 150,000 shares of $2 each ; public partic- 
ipation in the stock holding was invited. Four mining 
claims, approximating 160 acres, have been secured in 
the part of the Kirkland lake district adjoining the Fost- 
er-Costello group. Every once in a while Lake Superior 
people take a chance on ventures in the West or North. 
and have picked some notable winners. 

The year 1915 was an extraordinary one for the (Up- 
per Country, the output of copper being 259,352,000 lb. 
This was the largest production of copper that Michigan 
ever made, exceeding the great years of 1905 ami 19(19. 
As compared to the copper yield of Arizona in 1915, 
which was the enormous figure of 45(1.(1(10,0(1(1 lb., Mich- 
igan's figure seems small, but the Slate of Arizona is 
many times larger than Keweenaw peninsula, and em- 
braces several copper mining regions. Montana's out- 
put of copper in 1915 was 275,000,000 lb. Of Michigan's 
production the Calumet & Hecla Co. furnished 72,000.- 
000 lb. or less than one-fourth, which was the company's 
biggest output in six years. It is interesting to note that 

the so-called Calumet & Hecla subsidiaries, produ 1 

slightly more than the Calumet & Hecla. Evidently the 
policy of expansion adopted by the C. & II. several years 
ago will be profitable. It should be remembered, how- 
ever, that only a portion of the stock of the subsidiary 
companies is held by C. & II. Dividends from the Lake 
mines had dwindled a good deal since the happy days of 
ten years ago, and the large returns of the last year are 
all the more deserved when the lean months of the strike 
are considered. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 15, 1!H6 


Readers of rhe MINING and Scientific PRESS are mvited to atk questions 

and give hformdiOT dcaKnsJ with technical und other molten penuining 10 ihe 

practice o/ mining, milling, and smelling. 

.Mink foundries should be jjell ventilated to get rid of 

tilt- dust, strain, and smoke that always accompanies 
molding and casting metals. Small furnaces should have 
hoods attached. 

MaNGANOID STEEL BALLS and lining have lieen found to 

be t In- must efficient for Hardinge re-grinding mills at 
the Winona mine. Michigan. They are superior to the 
flint and silex imported from Europe. 

Worn-out tube-mill LINERS of the Oshorn type on tin- 
Rand are being successfully used as liners for launders, 
ore-bins, feeder-chutes, and mortar-boxes, also as fire- 
bars for assay ami melting-furnaces. 

Journals an- best lubricated by having the rubbing 
surfaces constantly submerged in a bath of oil; it is not 
necessary that the whole surface be submerged. The 
same result is accomplished by chains and rings en- 
circling the journals and dipping into oil-poekets. 

Fi.y-wjieei.s are commonly made of cast iron as it is 
cheap. With high speed this material is not safe. Some 
heavy fly-wheels are made of steel-plates (perhaps a 
dozen, each A in. thick i securely riveted together; such a 
fly-wheel might he used on a motor-generator set. 

THE waste of heat supplied an open-hearth furnace 
as fuel gas and combustible elements of the charge is 
4.V ; . Boilers placed in the flues will reduce this loss by 
50 or 60%, by the generation of steam for power. Aft 
85-ton furnace will produce 386 b.hp. There are several 
difficulties in the operation of a boiler in this way. 

The BASIC-LINED copper converter is now well estab- 
lished. It gives splendid sendee. At the Old Dominion 
smelter, at Globe. Arizona, a converter of this kind was 
taken off the stand, early in December, after having been 
ii continuous use since July 1913 — a run of 30 months. 
During that lime it had produced 70,000,000 pounds of 

Surfaces of machinery that are subject to heavy work 
ami wear should be case-hardened. This is done by 
penetrating the surface of tin- steel by carbon. The best 
natural carbonizers are granulate,! bone, charred hoofs, 
leal her. beet-SUgar pulp, and crude raw sugar. Artificial 
carbonizers are made, but their effect is not considered 
equal to tin- natural ones. 

HYDROCYANIC acid gas is used for fumigating various 
things, largely fruit trees. The gas is made in the 
orchard in a machine on wheels. The cyanofumer con- 
sists of two tanks, one above the other: in the lower one 

is H.,0 and H..SO,, in the upper KCN solution, and by 
means of a pump the required quantity of solution is 
forced into the acid, generating gas instantly. This is 
sprayed onto the trees. 

Some ENGINEERS consider ball and roller-bearings not 
Successful <tr commercially practicable for heavy shaft- 
ing. This type of bearing shows good results in low- 
frictiun losses when new and when kept in good condi- 
tion, but give trouble if not frequently examined. A 
well-designed babbitted self-oiling bearing with chain or 
ring, is considered very reliable. It is simple, has low 
first cost, little wear, small oil consumption, and the 
metal lasts for years. 

SPECIFIC gravity of metals is of interest at this time of 
disturbance and new adaptations in metal economics. 
Tungsten 's specific gravity is unusually high, being 17.3, 
which is nearly equal to gold of 19.3. and which exceeds 
that of mercury. 13.6. Magnesium, which German 
scientists are said to be advocating as a substitute for 
aluminum, is only 1.75, compared to 2.7 for aluminum, 
which in turn is three times lighter than copper with 8.8. 
Cobalt and nickel are close to copper. Chromium at 5 is 
lighter than steel at 7.8; while zinc at 7 is nearly equal 
to tin at 7.3. but lighter than lead at 11.4. Manganese 
is from 7 to 8 ; silver is 10.5. 

Amygdaloid, baxket, conglomerate and pudding- 
stone are terms closely allied. The first is given to an 
igneous rock containing rounded cavities, caused by 
bubbles of steam in the original lava, now filled with 
secondary minerals, such as quartz or caleite. or lined 
with zeolites. Amygdaloid comes from amygdale, the 
Greek for almond. Banket is the Boer word for almond 
cake, and was given by them to the conglomerate on the 
Rand. Conglomerate comes from the Latin conglomer- 
iihis, heaped together, which is derived from cum, with, 
and glomus, a ball. It is the more scientific equivalent 
of pudding-stone, given in the early days of geology to a 
rock formed of consolidated pebbles. 

A 'possum,' as used in the oilfields of California is 
intended to prevent wear on both the cable and easing, by 
keeping the cable from rubbing or striking the sides of 
the casing. They are especially effective where the hole 
takes a considerable turn from the perpendicular. These 
possums are usually from 14 to 2 in. thick, and from 12 
to 14 in. long, tapered at each end to allow a rope knife 
to be run over them when necessary. The wrapping or 
material of which they are constructed is usually rope- 
yarn, but tarred niarlin is better: electric tape can also 
be used. The number put on a cable, and the distance 
between them, depends upon the conditions existing at 
each well. The possums should be kept oiled or 'doped' 
with some lubricant. This idea came into use in Cali- 
fornia about 10 years ago. and it is gradually spreading 
to other oilfields. As possums will run over the crown- 
pulley and wind on the bull-wheel shaft, there are no 
bad features in connection with their use. 

■ 1916 

MI\IV. tnd Scienlifii 1'KI SS 


. ri cri ih$ worid*i iirvdt mininj et nt m by our mm corrm p o n dtnt$. 

Plotatiok Tests os AmnroiM Oasa. 

h Is »m<-lnlly stated tbml a consi.l. am. mil! of ox- 

•it.ii «<irk in oil iiotaiion is being done this year at the 
University o( Arizona, at Tucson. using the machine as shown 
In the accompanying Illustration. The machine used Is of 

the modified Hoover type, baring an agitation chamber and 
■pltakaatan, with a taction created by the agitator arms re- 
turning a portion of the pulp for re-treatment The machine 
is in a series of three chambers, connected by glass tubes, and 
is arranged for mechanical agitation in varying speeds, as 
well as air agitation, where the air Is forced through a 200- 
mesh screen, or a combination of both. The machine Is ar- 
ranged for continuous action, or any chamber may be oper- 
ated separately. The chambers have glass fronts and glass 
connecting tabes, In order to observe the action. So far, 
molybdenum ores have received special attention, and very 

!•:. v. Aiu.s. under the direction "i the axisoni Btate Bureau 


The Arizona State Bureau of Mines at Tin sun has so far 

published 10 bulletins dealing with the mining Indu 
Arizona; these should be of Inter, aged m rain- 

ing, and the Bureau will be plea ed t I them to anyone 

ag the same The following bulletins are now In p 
ol preparation: Tungsten,' 'Mercury.' ifagneslte,' 'Working- 
man's Compensation,' 'How to Sell Ores.' The February 
B ty Bulletin, Safety series No. 1. is to hand, 


satisfactory results with selective flotation, in the separation 
of molybdenite from copper and iron sulphides, have been 
obtained with eucalyptus and creosote oils. Good results have 
been obtained with as low mixtures as 0.05 r /r oil. 

A large part of the experimental work is being done on 
mixtures made up from pure oils, in order to determine, if 
possible, some relation between the oils used and the mineral 
character of the ore. Experimental work is also going on in 
an effort to determine whether or not there is any relation 
between the mineral faces, as determined by varying the crush- 
ing. Over SO oils are being used in the experimental work. 
The whole group of experiments is designed with a view to 
determining 'why is flotation?' The greater part of the work 
is being done by H. J. Stander, assisted by P. E. Joseph and 

Bkih Review of ran Past Yuk i\ ran Ziko-Lbao Aula.— 
Work of State Mink [hspbx roa Kin. nva, Maw I'i wis 
of South Caktlhyh.le Dibtbict. — Zim lot Lead Nona. 

Wiih an aggregate value of $2G,000,000 for zinc and lead 

ores shipped from the Missouri-Kansas-Oklahoma region In 

1915. all previous records were easily broken, the 

best year prior to 1915 being 1912, when the 

total output was $18,043,479. 

Zinc sulphide concentrate constituted the larger 
part of the tonnage, and commanded the highest 
price per ton of any of the ores shipped, the high- 
est price having been reached in the week ending 
June 12 when $135, basis of GO',; metallic zinc, 
prevailed for a greater part of the high-grade. 

Shipments of the various ores from the district 
for the year were 286.000 tons of blende, 21,000 
tons of calamine, and 45.000 tons of galena, tin' 
average price per ton for blende being $76 for 
the year, compared with $51 in 1912, the previous 
high year. Lead averaged $55 per ton. 

The new year dawns with 60% blende worth $85 
to $115 a ton, compared with $48 to $52.50, cala- 
mine at $60 to $75, basis of 40% zinc, compared 
with $22 to $25, and $70 for galena, compared 
with $47 at the beginning of 1915. During the 
early months of the year the market displayed 
remarkable fluctuations. The rises and falls of 
the ore market uniformly reflect the movements 
in spelter. 

The prosperity in the zinc-smelting industry 
throughout the United States has been reflected 
to a great extent in the mining industry of the 
local district, although the greatest margins of 
profits have been reaped by the smelters. For 
instance: the smelter procures for an average of $100 a ton, 
ores that yield metal valued at $170. Much of the meial 
made from Joplin ores realize more than the quoted price 
on prime Western grades; hence the margin of profit to the 
smelter is even greater than would appear at first glance. 

Following in the wake of the higher and steadier ore 
prices, the local mining field has enjoyed an epoch of activity 
never before equaled. Not only have new mills 'sprung up' 
in all parts, but new towns have sprung up from nothing; 
and where, a year ago, there was was no sign of human 
habitation nor activity save, perhaps, a caravan of prospect- 
ing drills, prosperous, thriving and busy communities now 
exist. Picher and Cardin, Okla.. are striking examples, the 
former being the 'baby' camp of the north-eastern Oklahoma 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 15, 1916 

zinc ;ind lead fields. Commerce. Okla.. now boasts of one 
ni the beet weekly newspapers in Oklahoma, large roun 

modern brick buildings, macadamized BtreetB and a 
population of 2500. All these little places dot the prairies in 
the extreme north-eastern part of the state and cons 
what is known as the Miami district, due to the fact that 
Miami is the largest town tin re. and was the only town 
when the first mining was. done about eight years ago. 

Other portions of the district, reaching as far as Aurora. 
Lawrence county, on tin- cast, down to Granby. in Newton 
county, on the south-east. Alba and Neck City on the north, 
Galena, Kan., on the wist and Miami on the south-west show 
evidences of the wave of prosperity that is sweeping through 
the district Foundries and machine-shops of all cities in 
the district are unable to meet the demand for equipment, 
upply houses are doing the biggest business they ever 
did. Mine labor is at a premium, and workmen by the 
thousands are gelling wages of $3.50 to $4 a day, while 
Borne are making more than this. 

Efforts of the mine inspectors for this district of .Missouri 
have bi '1 not only to improving the working condi- 

tions in the mines and making work generally less hazardous. 
Inn also to making the surroundings of the workmen more 
elevating and to improving the sanitary features. In their 
report to the chief state mine inspector, Geo. Hill, the three 
inspectors of this district will set forth the work they have 
accomplished during the year just closed. The local Inspectors 
are I. L. Burch of Joplln, C. M. Harlan of Carterville, and W. 
W. Holmes of Webb City. They played a prominent part in 
the organization of the Southwest Missouri Mine Safety and 
Sanitation Association, consisting of mine operators who 
every Thursday at a noon dinner at Webb City. Much good 
has been done by the Association during the few months tbat 
ii lias been in existence. Mine owners, almost without 
tion, have shown a desire to co-operate with the inspectors in 
the enforcement of State laws. One result is that in nearly all 
Hie bard sheet-ground mines water-pipes have been fitted up to 
all headings, and holes are sprayed to prevent the circulation 
of rock dust through the drifts, thus greatly eliminating one of 
the principal causes of miners' consumption. The building of 
dog-houses' has been started by many of the larger com- 
panies, while others are to follow suit. At the American Zinc. 
Lead & Smelting Co.'s property at Carterville a new dog-hoiisc 
has just been finished. It is 112 ft. long by 30 ft. wide, heated 
with steam, and has 24S ventilated lockers. The building is 
floored with concrete, while at one end is a bath department 
equipped with numerous showers. At the Scott mine, Duen- 
weg, Mo., the company has provided for the comfort of its men 
to an exceptional extent, a large swimming-pool in which the 
water is changed every 24 hours having been constructed in the 
dog-house. The mine inspectors have put the ban on boulder 
'popping 1 during working hours, and stress has been laid on 
the importance of having all roofs properly trimmed and ex- 
amined regularly each day to eliminate the probability of 
ni from falling slabs. 

Two new mills in the South Carterville district will be work- 
ii fore the end of January. Both are being constructed by 
Mattes Bins., who have (wo separate leases of 20 acres 
on property of the Zinc Corporation of Missouri, of which T. J. 
lent. One mill will be on what is known as the 
lease, a tract of land that was only recently drilled 
and opened with shafts and drifts. Disseminated ore was en- 
countered at a depth of 110 ft., and continued dbwn to 165 ft., 
while beneath this two shoots of sheet-ground, each 10 It. thick. 
have been blocked out. The ore will yield about 3' :', blende and 
galena. The mill on this property will be of 300-ton capacity 
per shift, and will be ready before the other plant which is on 
what is known as the McGregor tract, where only a sheet- 
formation is to be worked. The Kirkwood, a 300-ton mill, is 
a recent one to begiu work on the same land, while on the 
Connor land to the west the new plant of the Googie Mining 

Co.. which was recently sold to the National Lead £ Zinc Co.. of 
Boston, for $100,000 cash, is now producing steadily. A number 
of other new mills have recently begun operations in the 
South Carterville district, and as most of them are of large 
Capacity the development in this field is considered of much 

The Reedfr Mo., centre in the eastern part of the district is 
being heard from again through the activities of the United 
States Snnli inn company, which recently took over the old 
Ravenswood lease of the Cornell land, and constructed thereon 
a concentrating-plant that ranks well up with the largest of 
the district, having a reported capacity of 500 tons per shift. 
The ore in that field occurs in disseminated bodies, both in 
hard and soft ground. No blanket formations have been 
blocked out. Another mine at Reeds to be started in the near 
future is the .lack Rabbit, which was a small producer some 
years ago. Improvements include the construction of a large 
concentrating-plant if prospects are satisfactory. 

The Anna Lee mill of 200-ton capacity is being moved from 
the Spring City, Mo., to the Lincolnville district, where it will 
be re-built on a lease of the Old Abe Mining Co., the fee to 
which was purchased recently by S. W. Van Dyne, who was 
operator of the Anna Lee mine. New development on the Old 
Abe tract is reported to have revealed a sheet formation at a 
depth of 70 to 00 ft., the ore being milled easily, due to the fact 
that it does not have a tendency to be 'chatty.' 

Prospect work on city lots on North Jackson avenue. Joplin. 
within a stone's throw of some of the finest dwellings in the 
city, is revealing pay-dirt' at a depth of 70 to 90 ft. in Boft 
ground. One shatt is already into ore, a hand-jig plant is at 
work, and steady turn-ins of concentrate are being made. A 
drill-rig is now working even closer to the residences than 
any of the previous work, and new strikes are reported. The' 
work is on property of G. S. Clemens, a Joplin dentist, who was 
holding the land for residences. Its value was materially 
decreased recently when several acres of mining land caved 
in, the brink of the pit coming to within a few feet of his 
st lots. Thereupon he decided to mine the property In 
preference to holding it for sale. His royalties already have 
more than compensated him for his decision. 

The price of zinc-blende at the beginning of the new year is 
$80 to $110, basis of 60' I metal, compared with $48 to $52.50 
at the beginning of 1915. Every indication points to con- 
tinued strength of the market. 


Condition ni the Zinc Industry in Decembeb. — Zinc, Leao, 

ami Pybite Production in 1915. — New Plant. 

In spite of bad weather during the latter part of December, 
unspeakable wagon-roads, intermittent electric-power supply 
in the southern districts, production and deliveries were large. 
There was no lull during the Christmas season, something un- 
known here. Building continued, while drill-rigs and labor to 
operate them were almost impossible to obtain. Zinc ore 
maintained a high price. Top grades of refinery products were 
the subject of keen competition among the more prominent 
buying concerns, the base range fluctuating between $110 to 
$115 per ton, 6095 metal, an increase of $30 to $35 during the 
month. All grades were in constant demand. When good 
roads are constructed, and motor-trucks used for haulage, the 
outlying districts will be able to reach the market promptly. 
Producers of lead ore had advanced offerings, sales being made 
near the close of the year at $72 per ton. Sales were light, as 
zinc is now the ranking ore of the field, and miners every- 
where are devoting their energy to the recovery of zinc ore 
exclusively. Shippers of iron pyrite continued deliveries of 
fines from separating-plants. but the turn-in was light, some 
product being carried over. While the crude-ore producers 
had been curtailing production, the loss in deliveries was 

.Imiuitry 16, 1916 

MINING ind Sdeniifit !'K! SS 

i|i from Mi« from icnnerl,.,. and i 1 il the 

clow of Um >mr will BOmptN'U With the output !• 

I r..r r.'it Carbonate of etna ore prodnei 
rnthrr wietfullj thai quotations daring the month ha. i mounted 
toe huh pi "'I little demand, at prevlouslj men- 

tioned, the N loalrj conti 

mi which thin cluiut of ore OOCUrO, and It Is DO) 'lis 

■,i pej abnormal prloi to make a eke* 

in,,, oxldi mpetlng eomponnda in the metal 

branch of the smelting Industry are Chary of Invading these 

dietricta for fear ol the reprteale that may be made at other 
point* Tin- Lanyon Elnc Co. ami the Plcher Lead Co. have 
tj in picking up some choice ore bul 
the yield tor the season is being carried over, in the 

. reported at 385 per um and as low as $!!"> leal dealrable production; theee figures generally ^ 
quotatlona for the Wisconsin field, where th'' miner practic- 
ally Marred out would in- willing to accept a much lower 
standard for a steady nut ht for his laiwir and Investment 
Ore deliveries during December were as follows: 

Zinc Lead Pj rite 

Districts. pounds. pounds. pounds. 

Benton 15,124,000 458,900 mi. 

Mifflin 7.S60.000 222,000 

Galena 4.316,000 

Cuba 3.363.000 3,3 

Hazel Green 3.162,000 

Plattevtlle 2.900.000 696,000 

Linden 8,816, 

Bhullsburg 1.29S.000 162,200 

Highland 826,000 50.000 

Montfort 248,000 

Potosl 150,000 

Mineral Point 110,000 

Total I2.2n3.nnn 

893,100 4,152,000 

The cross yield of crude concentrates from all mines for the 
month totaled 35,615,600 lb.; net refined ores from separating- 
plants and from mine to smelter direct for the month, 22,- 

JI2, i lh. As usual, the Mineral Point Zinc Co. led in the 

amount of zinc concentrate handled and shipped to smelter 
at DePue. Illinois. 4,153.000 lb. of 60% 'jack.' 

Summing up operations for 1915 in this region there was 
produced a total of 331,741,540 lb. of crude concentrate, against 
261.594,330 lb. in 1914. Shipments of ore out of the field, the 
true barometer by which the value must be ascertained for the 
past year, aggregated 212.355.75ii lb., compared with 166,136,300 
lb. in 1914, or 23,110 tons more than in 1914. This gain is all 
the more to be appreciated since more high-grade ore reached 
smelters from Wisconsin mines than ever before, due lo the ex- 
tensive additions of electrolytic zinc ore-separating plants 
built during the second half of the year. Twelve are now at 
work, against four at the beginning of 1915. 

Lead production in 1915 was 8,320,000 lb., against 4,970,270 
lb. in 1914. 

Shipments of iron pyrlte were under the figures published for 
1914, which reached a total of 31.520,110 lb. A gain was made 
in value, however, since nearly all of the product sold last year 
came from separating -plants as fines recovered in electro- 
static separation, which command a higher figure than crude 
pyrlte. The Wilkinson mine, the largest single producer of 
pyrite in the Benton district suspended production when its 
big surface equipment was destroyed by fire early in the year. 
The profit in handling the crude ore was so small that the 
owners of the mine concluded to give up the lease. 

The building program during the year brought into active 
co-operation with old establishments 15 new power, mining, 
and milling plants. Seven others are in various stages of 
construction, four of them coming into active service soon 
after the first of 1916. 


Pan in h oi Mixim Law C mo 

While the oodlBcatlon or the Federal minis 

In a favor. i! a nial Led . ,., )„,« || | 

ii. ami Is 11 through Con 

mi previous bills have contemplated the creation 
mission on codification Independent ol Congress and appo 
bj the President, this commission to be eon 
in mining law and other mining matt, rs, and lo ta 

In various parts of the c, ninny and make LtS i o noun, nihil Ion I 

lo CongTeaa, The bill ol Re sentatlve Taylor ol Colorado 

proposes the appointment of a c nlaslon ol Ave members 

having knowledge and i iperlence in mining law and tht In 
dustry, with 886,000 at their disposal for expenses; thai ol 
Senator Smoot of Utah, which ha irted b] 

the Senate committee on mines and mining, proposes a coin 
mission of three members, two of whom shall be lawyers ol 
considerable mining experience ami one a mining engineer, 
the commissioners to receive 3500 per month while at work, 
and having at their disposal 826,000 extra for expenses, \ bill 
has also been suggested for a commission more representative 
of the mining industry, as recently recommended by minim; 
men assembled at Washington. It appeals that none ol 
bills are satisfactory to men of influence in the House, and 
they are declaring decided opposition to them, proposing that 
the commission to he appointed shall consist of no one not 
connected in Congress; in fact be made up of members of the 
Senate and the House familiar with Federal mining law. It 
is asserted that Congress contains great mining lawyers, such 
as Senators Walsh of Montana and Thomas of Colorado, and 
Representative Taylor of Colorado. While such talent is avail- 
able in Congress, it is asserted, it would be foolish for Congress 
to go outside to form a commission, which, after all, could only 
make recommendations that Congress would have to review 
before enacting them into law. Besides it would all be more 
direct. As a matter of legal fact Congress would have to codify 
the laws. It can reject in toto the recommendations of any 
commission. It is even suggested that no commission be ap- 
pointed at all, but that a joint committee of both Houses, com- 
posed of the two mining committees, be authorized to codify 
the laws and report to Congress. All salaries would be saved 
thereby, and little incurred. There could be nothing more 
direct in the codification of the laws. It is asserted that under 
such auspices the work of revision and of having hearings 
could be started at once. The mining committees have noth- 
ing much to do anyway. All the best legal talent in mining 
in Congress could be put on the committee. It is thought that 
such an appeal would carry more weight in Congress than anj 
other that might be made. It is the method Congress ordi- 
narily employs in revising the laws of the country. For some 
years it has had a joint commission of members of both 
Houses revising and codifying the general laws of the land, and 
good work has been done. The same arrangement of com 
mittee has also revised the printing laws of Congress. The 
committee could have its hearing, if any were needed, in the 
summer, going about the country, but the necessity of such 
hearings is doubted, but if expedient, everything could be got 
out of the way by December next. It is asserted that even a 
commission of independent men could not report its work any 
earlier. It is said that the mining laws are not so very 
voluminous. It seems as if this is the course the legislation 
is likely to take. Since Congress re-assembled in January, 
hearings have been held by the House committee on mining 
at which Senator Walsh, Van H. Manning, director of the U. S. 
Bureau of Mines, and J. F. Callbreath, secretary of the 
American Mining Congress spoke at length on the need to 
codify the laws. It is the House committee that is expected 
to report favorably the new kind of bill discussed above. In 
the opinion of Washington, it is not so much the personnel of 
the committee or commission that matters, so long as some 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

-Jamiarv 1"). liMti 

committee or commission of ability is apiwinted and goes 
ahead with the work desired. And seemingly, it is declared, 
the more direct the work is the better it should prove and 
the sooner finished. 

Details op mt i(n im o< trade is Mexico. 

On January 10 a party of Ann irlcan mining men on the 
way from Chihuahua to the Cusihuiriachic Mining Co.'s prop- 
erty was attacked and murdered by Villa bandits. The only 
survivor was Thomas B. Holmes, who prepared the following 
statement for transmission to Washington: 

"Our train left Chihuahua City Monday morning, January 
10. at about 11 o'clock. Train was stopped at or about the 
ranch Baeza. a point about five miles west of Santa Ysabel, 
between 1:30 and 2 o'clock that afternoon. While the train 
was standing at the station of Santa Ysabel two armed Mi \ i 


cans rode by and scrutinized the train. The Mexican pas- 
sengers at Santa Ysabel told me afterward that the riders 
had inquired if there were any soldiers on the train. At the 
point of the massacre our train was stopped in a cut so that 
the last car was just inside of the cut. We were stopped by 
another train — the front trucks of one coal car being off 
the track. This was the first we knew of a train preceding us. 
There was nobody to be seen around the train in front. When 
our train stopped, Newman and I were sitting together, and 
Evans came up and looked out of our window. •Evans. New- 
man. MacHatton and I then got off the train. Watson was 
either getting off or about to do so. behind us, when I looked 
hack and saw hlni. Just after alighting I heard a volley of 
rifle shots from a point on the other side of the cut and just 
above the train. Looking around, I could see a bunch of about 
12 or 15 men standing in a solid line, shoulder to shoulder, 
shooting directly at us. They were 50 to 75 feet away. The 
coach cut off my view, so I could not see how many bandits 
there were. The depth of the cut on the side near the Santa 
Ysabel river at that point was about 12 ft. On the other side 
it was much greater. To the rear of the train was an embank- 
ment declining toward the river. Watson, after getting off. 

ran toward the river. MacHatton and I followed. MacHatton 
fell. I do not know whether he was killed or tripped. Watson 
kept running and they were still shooting at him when I 
turned and ran down grade, where I fell in some brush, prob- 
ably loo ft. from the rear of the train. I lay there perfectly 
quiet and looked around and could see the Mexicans shooting 
in the direction at which Watson was running. I saw that 
they were not shooting at me and, thinking they believed me 
already dead, I took a chance and crawled into some thicker 
bushes. I crawled through the bushes until I reached the bank 
of the stream. I then made my way to a point probably LOO 
yards from the train. There I lay under the bank for half an 
hour and heard shots by ones and twos and threes. I did not 
hear any sort of groans or yells or cries from the Americans. 
I then continued farther under the bank, wading the stream 
part of the time until 1 reached a point probably 200 yd. from 
the train. There I remained a half or three-quarters of an 
hour. Later, after going to several ranch houses and picking 
my way cautiously for several miles, I met up with an un- 
known Mexican, who directed me to Chihuahua City. I 
reached Chihuahua City Tuesday morning at about 7:30. The 
foregoing facts are of my personal knowledge." 

The previous story of the party being lined up naked 
before being shot is not confirmed by Holmes. 

The following are the victims: 

Pkim.i.e. C. A.. San Francisco. 

Watson. C. R.. El Paso. 

Wallace, W. J., El Paso. 

ANDEBSON, Mai kick. Chihuahua City. 

Coy, B. W., El Paso. 

Com ii. A., Chihuahua City. 

E\ \ns. T. M., Chihuahua City. 

Kmikks. Joe. Hayden, Arizona. 

Hall, Alexander O., Douglas, Arizona. 

Hassf. E. C, Miami, Arizona. 

Johnson. Thomas, address unknown. 

Mai Hatton. R. P., El Paso. 

Newman, G. W., El Paso. 

Pea hie. W. D., Los Angeles. 

Robinson. E. L., El Paso. 

Romero. M. B., El Paso. 

Simmons, R. S. 

Waih kk.ii. Charles. Bisbee, Arizona. 

Whom. J. W., El Paso. 

Romero was a Mexican, Couch a Canadian, and Robinson an 


Mineral Rights. — COPPEB Deposits. 

It is thought that under the recent construction of the 
State mining law by the Attorney-General's Department, in 
which it was held that areas purchased under the land law of 
1883 carry the mineral rights with them, and that such lands 
are not subject to being prospected under the mining law of 
1913, promises to have the effect of retarding mineral develop- 
ment of such ground in the mining district of west Texas. A 
great number of tracts were sold under this law. classified 
as agricultural and grazing, and unconditional patents were 
issued covering many of them, but recently the State Land 
Commissioner has received many requests for the leasing of 
the mineral rights on the land in question, but under the rul- 
ing of the Attorney-General's Department applications to pros- 
pect this land for minerals cannot be granted. 

The copper deposits in the red beds' of Hardeman. Knox, 
King. Haskell, Fisher, Baylor, Throckmorton, Jones. Wilbarger, 
Taylor, Wichita. Archer, and Clay counties, north-central 
Texas, are discussed by Louis M. Richard in Economic Geology 
for November-December. 1915. The area is composed of beds of 
limestone, gypsum, sandstone, shale, and clay, the surface 
being at an elevation of 1S00 ft. above sea-level. 

J 1916 

MI\|\(. and, I'KI SS 

1 «»1 


I Nt mm •»/ r'i*' wtvfc »i* told I'v oar ifN * fal i omwpon<l*nti and compOad from i ' i « * local />r»*M. 



Antlmon) production »f this district la to be aided next 

. Northern Commercial »'■•.. which hai arranged 

u agents (or shipments to the United States, from 

Fairbanks to the market. $2" per ton will !»■ advanced <>n Ore 

at ihe point of ahlpmenl to help finance producers. George 
,:i is agenl al Fairbanks. 


Si\ i. ■ i ..f $4t ore has been cm at 220 ft. In the Common- 
wealth Extension al Pearce. The shaft is being sunk two feet 
per eight-hoar shift. 

Gnu m n Coun iv 
trade of over 1000 miners took place at Clifton on 
January 6; there was no disturbance. Assessment work has 
been completed at the Detroit claims. Some correspondence 
has passed between the companies' managers at El Paso and 
the strikers' committee, but without result. 

It was reported on January 12 that the strikers had broken 
away from the Western Federation of Miners. 

Moll V\K CoU.XTY 

lii the Big Jim mine the 400-ft. level cross-cut has passed 
through BO ft. of formation. 22 ft. of which is good ore. 

A station Is being cut at 900 ft. in the Gold Road, while a 
winze is to be sunk to 1400 feet. 

Drilling at the Copperfleld Porphyry mine has passed 
through 33 ft. of good copper ore. 


A Reconnaissance in the Kofa Mountains, Arizona,' is the 
title of Bulletin 620-H of the L". S. Geological Survey. by- 
Edward L. Jones. .Ir. This isolated range is in the centre of 
the county. It covers an area of 200 square miles. The 
Kofa mining district is in the southern part of the range. 
The shipping point for two of the mines is Mohawk station. 
45 miles distant on the Southern Pacific line, but since they 
were closed. Dome, 50 miles away, is more accessible. The 
ore deposits consist of gold-bearing brecciated zones and veins 
in andeslte. copper replacements along sheer-zones in granite, 
disseminated galena in monzonite porphyry dikes, and placer 
deposits. In the Kofa district are the King of Arizona and 
North Star mines. The former, up to closing in 1910. produced 
bullion worth $3,500,000. A 225-ton mill was operated. Dp 
to 1911 the North Star yielded $1,100,000 from milling and 
cyanlding. In both cases the ore became too low-grade to be 
profitable. Only assessment is being done around Ocotillo. In 
the Alamo district, in the north part of the range, prospects 
are considered encouraging. 


Nevada County 

Owing to snow in the ditch system of the Pacific Gas & 
Electric Co.. the water supply of the Grass Valley district has 
been cut off. resulting in shut-downs. 

The old Phoenix mine on Gold flat, one mile south of Nevada 
City, is to be re-opened by J. A. McKennie of Los Angeles, 
lormerly of Cripple Creek, Colorado. 

S\ \ 111 U\ MiliIMP t'.u \M 

With a capital of 500,000 $2 shares tbe Mojave Tungsten Co 
has been Incorporated under the la aol Delaware, 

with bead office at 166 Broadway, Mew fork. Tl nglneer la 

Poatei 8. Xacthing and assistant superintendent i.. I.. Draper. 
Tin- company is to develop 12 tun ma In this county, 

19 miles from Roach, Nevada, on the railroad, a good deal 
hi work has been done, opening bl ore Between No. 

1 and 2 shafts is 1500 ft. of ore. as trenching. The 

ore will average I' . tungstic trioxide, The present equip 
men! is satisfactory. A concentratlng-plnnl "i 26-ton capacit] 
per eight-hour shift is to be erected al once. With al 
penditure of $10,000 to $12,000, 300 tons <.t V, and E tons of 

2 ran be extracted monthly; this would yield 20 tonn 

nf I"', concentrate. One hundred and twenty tons of low- 
grade unconcentrated ore has been sold, yielding enough to 
pay for the new plant, etc. The company will lease parts of 
its property. 

Near Blythe junction on the Santa Fe railroad, 30 miles 
from the Colorado river, on the branch between I,os Angeles 
and Phoenix, Arizona, is the Arlca property of the Assets 
Realizing Mines Corporation, of Los Angeles. The main shaft 
is down 50s ft. Ore developed and on dumps Is estimated to 
be worth $629,331. Probably large bodies of copper-gold ore 
will be opened. A 100-ton mill, consisting of a crusher, rolls, 
Hardinge mill, and a continuous-decantation plant is being 

Santa Clara County 

A new deposit of cinnabar is reported by E. O. Waldron and 
A. E. Eaton near San .lose. A 25 or 30-ton furnace will be 
erected in the spring. About 10 men will find employment. 

Shasta County 

Four zinc claims up Cedar creek from Ingot, have been sold 
to F. L. Harrington of Oakland and W. H. Frickilton of San 
Francisco. The property is known as the Macumber. 

With a capital of $100,000 the California Chrome Co. has 
been organized by M. F. Hurlbut, Duncan A. McLeod. S. W. 
Molkenbuhr, Thomas W. Firby, and Charles F. Ryan, of San 
Francisco and Oakland. The mine is near Castella. 

The owners of the Golden Jubilee mine, eight mines from 
Carrville on Coffee creek, are to employ over 40 men within 
the next two months, according to the superintendent. .1. C. 

Sikrra County 

On January 9 two large snowslides came off the Sierra 
Buttes mountains above Sierra City, and swept away the com- 
pressor-house, part of the stamp-mill, and other equipment of 
the Sierra Buttes Mining Company. 


'The Colorado Workmen's Compensation Act' was the subject 
of an address delivered by Wayne C. Williams, of the Colorado 
State Industrial Commission, at the Colorado School of Mines 
at Golden on November 5, 1915. The Act became law in April 
last, and Mr. Williams considers it the most salutary and im- 
portant piece of legislation ever enacted into law in the State. 
Accidents, benefits, compensation, and insurance were well 
discussed. The Golden Cycle and Portland companies at 
Cripple Creek have made admirable arrangements for com- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 15, 1916 

DEB Cm \ IV 

At the towns of Ni derland, l.:>kewood. Stevens camp. Bum- 
mer gulch, and Boulder Falls there are hundreds of men at 
work in the tungsten mines, and there is a constant stream 
of prospectors and mining men examining and negotiating for 
property. Transportation of passengers is smaller than two 
months ago. but there is a material increase in freight ship 
ments. It is rumored on good authority that the railroad 
company will build a branch down to the mills at Nederland 
a- soon as possible. The line may be extended to Lakewood 
and thus secure a part of the freight between the mines and 
the mills of the district. 

Ci i i« i'ki.i k County 

During 1915 the Imperial Consolidated company shipped 

1125 tons of smelting ore and concentrate, assaying $86 1 

$30 per ton respectively. The sampling-plant at Georgetown 
received most of it. 

Company and lessee work in the Mineral Chief mine is re- 
ported to be satisfactory. 

An important development is reported by the J. D. L. Leas- 
ing Co. at Bellevue mountain, where a drift from a winze 
below the Big Five tunnel has opened two feet of $125 gold- 
silver ore. Two shifts are working. 


The Marion Mining & Mills Co. of Denver has erected a 

flotation-plant in the Greenhorn range. 27 miles from the 
D. & R. G. line. The plant will treat 100 tons of tailing from 
concentrators. The ore contains 15' ; zinc, the tables making 
a 4S to 55'. concentrate. 

Lake County i Leadvtixe i 

The Iron-Silver Mining Co.'s Mover mine is shipping 1500 
tons of zinc, lead, and iron sulphide ores per month; its 
I'm son mine produces 1600 tons of zinc-lead sulphide. Lessees 
are mining zinc carbonate. G. O. Argall is general manager. 

The Carbonate Chronicle gives the following figures as the 
output of Leadville in 1915: 

Classes of ore. Tons. 


Iron and manganese 43.714 

Sulphide 219,763 

Zinc carbonate and sulphide 196,890 

Silicious 44,094 

Total 532,217 

Total in 1914 502.617 

Product. Quantity. Value. 

Gold, ounces 115.121 $2,379,551 

Silver, ounces 2,733,646 1.361.355 

Lead, pounds 18.534.052 

Copper, pounds 2,254,268 387,059 

Spelter, pounds 74.20S.015 10.276.725 

Manganese, tons 6,250 625,000 

Total $16,895,230 

Total in 1914 $9,087,628 

The grand total is $431,433,918. 

Oubay County 

Bids are being received for driving the Camp Bird's 9000-ft. 
adit from the mill to the mine. One of the bidders is J. P. 
Karns. who has devised a tunneling machine of large capacity, 
and which was tried recently in Utah. 

Telleb County (Cripple Creek) 
The annual number of The Prtpple Creek Times consists of 

52 pages, mostly devoted to mining, edited by Sam W. Vidler, 

from which the following data are taken: 

The December output was $1,352,000 from S3. 750 tons of ore. 

The smelters average was $60 per ton, an Increase of $.".. 

The total production in 1915 was $16,189,727 from 982,891 
tons of ore. The largest month was March, with $1,986,498 
from 76,618 tons, when the Cresson mine shipped so much 
rich ore. Its output last year was $1,983,200 from 60,000 tons 
of ore. The Cripple Creek district has produced $854,764,658 
to date. 

The approximate outputs last year were as follows: 

Mills. Tons. Value. 

Golden Cycle (own mine and custom ore) . .407.950 $9.1 7 

Portland (Cripple Creek) 211,415 642,179 

Portland (Colorado Springs) 128,000 2,600,000 

Portland (Stratton's) 66,700 155,284 

Stratton's Independence 55, 256 169,756 

Colburn-Ajax 15.235 105,577 

Gaylord 9,700 26,700 

Neville-Free Coinage 8,152 28,228 

Kavanaugh-Jo Dandy 6. sun 13,600 

Wild Horse 3.730 15,105 

Isabella 1 .500 3,000 

Caley 4.917 19.064 

Smelters 52.692 2,944,250 

Dividends paid by listed corporations were as follows: 

Golden Cycle Mining Co $3,496,000 

Portland Gold Mining Co 360, ) 

Vindicator Consolidated Gold Mining Co 226,000 

Elkton Consolidated Mining & Milling Co 50.000 

El Paso Consolidated Gold Mining Co 50,000 

Mary McKinney Mining Co 26,186 

Total < $4,206,185 

Dividends of close corporations were as follows: 

Cresson Consolidated Mining & Milling Co $1,000,000 

Stratton's Cripple Creek Ltd. (sale of property, esti- 

ted) d 

Strong Gold Mining Co. (estimated) 260,000 

Stratton's Cripple Creek Mining & Development Co.. 

the Stratton Estate, (estimated I 50,000 

Gold King Mining Co 10, 

Total $1.Mti, 

Profits of leasing companies and lessees, closely esti- 
mated $ 500.000 


Grand total of dividends and lease profits .... 

In 10 months the Roosevelt drainage-tunnel was extended 
1920 ft.; since August 1 the monthly rate has been 300 ft. The 
heading is within 250 ft. of the Elkton main shaft. Fifty-two 
men are employed in charge of C. Fuller. The total subsidence 
of water was 149 ft. The total water discharged last year was 
5,550,000,000 gal., equal to 37,000,000 gal. per vertical foot, 
according to T. R. Countryman. The water has a temperature 
of 70° F. 

There are now four producing mines on the recently-opened 
Tenderfoot hill, namely the Ella W., Queen Bess, Black 
Diamond, and the Hickman lease. Prospects are good. 

Mill employees of the Golden Cycle and Portland companies 
at Colorado Springs have been given an advance of 25c. per 
day. This applies to those receiving less than $3 per day. 

As Colorado went 'dry' on January 1. 30 saloons closed their 
doors in the district. 

On January 10 the Golden Cycle Mining & Reduction Co. 
paid dividend No. 105, amounting to 2c. per share, equal 
to $30,000. With this distribution the shareholders will have 
received a total of $7,338,000. 

Shoshone County (Coueb d'AleneI 
An extensive deposit of scheelite has been opened in the 

Jaiuiarj 15 L916 

MINING anil Scicntiht I'KI SS 

Culilrii CbSSt mini- nt Murrm>. ami ihlpmentl ol rich I 

■orbing tin. 
•ark*, vorth f' 
An Ingeraolhita ipaclty, coat- 

driven hi ■ HO-hp, Qeneral Electric motor, 
i» twin* Installed m the Ri .1 Monarch In Missoula k <■ i<-ii ■■ 
. luis niso boon porohs 


Tin Com i Ooi itrat 

Prom Jaauarj 1 m Jul] I, WIS. tha Calomel a* Hi ela and Ita 
M s premium "i 10 1 . on their 
montblj u.ik'-s. Twelve tbooaand nun will be affected, receiv- 
ing at leaal 1600,000 over the Dormal amount fur the period. 
Thin vojuntar] tin doei not boar out the accusations made 
against theae oompanlei during the Btrlke ol two rears a«o. 

Is valued ai |1, v. 

''■ i Hanaon In manager, 

I.I W 1- AM. Cl » 

iin i ■•'■■ u..i > i the Boratch Qravel • :••!<! Mining I 
110,000, the Brat monlhlj Son 
ore Ih ready for the mill all the u 


<;i!(\ i fjot ii n 

The property ol the Savanna Copper Co., In thi Burro 
Mountain district, lias bean s»iii for $700,000 rash, to, U In 
d, the Burro Mountain Copper Co., a Hhelps Dod 


Other law mining ti In thin Stal 'ecenl data 

arc the sale of the Carlisle mine Bleepleroch district, for 


The Copper Range company, controlling the Baltic, Cham- 
pion, and Triniountain. will also pay a bonus to employees. 
amounting lo 16% for January and February. About 3000 
men will benefit. 



An Indication of the great amount of work done in the zinc- 
lead region is shown by a comparison of electricity sold by the 
Empire District Electric and Ozark Power & Water companies 
during the four weeks ended December 4, 1915, and that period 
of 1914: 

1915 1914 

Company. kilowatt-hours, kilowatt-hours. 

Empire 6.621,830 4,301,710 

Ozark 2,946,600 353,100 

During this period of 1915 the net increase in load actually 
connected to the lines, after allowing for disconnections, was 
1496} hp. The power department secured 1815 hp. in new 
contracts and additions to existing contracts during this 
period, most of the business being of the latter character. 


Beaverhead County 

The new owners of the Bannack gold mine, J. H. McClement 
and F. G. Corning of New York, have paid the first installment 
of $40,000, out of the sale price of $240,000. About $125,000 
has been spent by them in development and a new mill. Ore 

$300,000; the Mogollon Gold & Copper mine. Cooney district, 
for $100,000; and the Bonney mine at Lordsburg for $25,0(0. 


Esmeralda County 

The estimated production of the Goldfield Consolidated com- 
pany in December is as follows: 

Ore mined, tons 35,000 

Gross extraction $212,000 

Operating expenses 1 01, 000 

Net realization $51 ,000 

An area of 900 acres of copper claims in the Cuprite dis- 
trict, 13 miles south of Goldfield, has been purchased by 
ex-Senator W. A. Clark of Montana, from Ellsworth Oldt. a 
pioneer of that district. A good deal of ore has been developed. 

Work has been started in charge of H. Evans. The Rea 

mine, several miles west, was recently sold to large copper 
interests. Its prospects are also good. 

Humboldt County 

Since work was started by the Rochester Mines Co. early 
in 1913, the output by the company and lessees totaled $1,015,- 
345 from 52.282 tons of ore to the end of 1915. Mine openings 
amount to 18,000 feet. 

Supposed barren ground of the Nevada Packard is now show- 
ing $52.70 ore; this is in the south drift off the D. adit. 

Good results are reported from the Packard North Exten- 
sion; more men have been started. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 15, 1916 

During 1915 the Seven Troughs Coalition company produced 
$416,081 gold and silver from 4509 tons of ore. and paid five 
dividends amounting to $180,378. Total distributions are $216,- 
498. The me treated, which came from all parts of the mine, 
averaged about $9:! per ton. 

Nye County 

Five companies and lessees at Tonopah last week produced 
9943 tons of ore worth $204,934. The Tonopah Extension v. 
West End Consolidated quarrel has gone a step farther, in that 
the plaintiff wishes the defendant restrained from cross-cutting 
away from the area prescribed in the modified order of Judge 
Averill on December 7. 1915. The Court was to hear the case 
on January 7, and in the meantime the defendant was re- 
stricted in its work in the disputed ground. 

Storey County 

The Mexican Gold & Silver Mining Co. has levied an assess- 
ment. No. 108, of 10c. per share. The directors state that the 
last assessment levied on Mexican stock was on December 6. 
1910. Since that time the ore discovered on the 2500-ft. level. 
In what was supposed to be barren ground, has enabled them 
to pay $171,360 in dividends: to build a modern mill at a cost 
of over $1(10.000: and to contribute heavily toward the pump- 
ing of the Comstock lode, and toward the present equipment 
of the North End mines in general. At no time during the 
past 20 years have the mines at the north end been so admir- 
ably equipped and harmoniously managed, and the discovery 
of the ore in Tnion and Sierra Nevada, is but additional proof 
of the possibilities in depth. The discovery of the ore in the 
I'nion and Sierra Nevada mines on what is known as the main 
Comstock or foot-wall fracture has doubly affected the Mexican. 
In the first place its mill, which has been comparatively idle. 
now becomes an asset of the first importance, since it is the 
only efficient and modern plant on the ground: in the second 
place it opens possibilities in that same fracture to the Mex- 
ican, as a large section of the vein in its property on the 
2500-ft. level and below has never been explored. This ex- 
ploration has now begun, and there is. in addition to the great 
possibilities existing at 2700 ft. and below, in the east vein, 
equal or even greater possibilities in the main Comstock. The 
mill is now treating all the ore produced by the Union and 
Sierra Nevada mines at a good profit but it was necessary to 
secure large supplies of cyanide and zinc-dust in order to 
insure continuous operation. On account of the War, these 
articles had risen greatly in price, and in fact it was with the 
greatest difficulty that they were obtained at all in sufficient 
quantities. To defray the expenses of exploration and mill 
equipment, therefore, the present management levies its first 
assessment, and can only assure the stockholders that every 
effort is being made to uncover ore. and that of the ultimate 
success of these efforts the management has no reason to doubt. 



Work has been resumed at the Iron Dyke copper mine at 
Homestead, after years of idleness. The lessees are shipping 
two cars of ore a day to Huntington, then to Colorado. They 
are erecting a bunk and boarding-house for 150 men. 

The Cornucopia company has a number of men developing 
its Wilson claims. 

The revival along the Snake river is of interest. 


Lawrence County 

The Wasp No. 2 mill is treating up to 175 tons of gold ore 
per day. or 30', of capacity, but better ore has been opened 
lately. The new tungsten concentrator is at work. The last 
shipment of this ore was 26 tons worth $54,000. instead of 
$48,000. as previously published. 

Juab Cot s m 

Shipments from the Tlntlc district last year totaled 6458 
cars, the principal contributors being as follows: 

Chief Consolidated. lluW; Iron Blossom. 1067: Centennial- 
Eureka. 100*; Sioux mill dump, 659; Eagle & Blue Bell. 563; 
Mammoth, .",23: Gemini, 279: Grand Central, 209; Dragon 
Consolidated. 181; May Day. 130: Gold Chain, 105; and Lower 
Mammoth, 97. There were 27 other producers ranging from 
79 to 1 car. 

The new plant of the Tlntlc Milling Co. will be completed 
in a few weeks. 

The low-grade dump at the May Day, 50,000 tons, is to be 
treated by the Utah Minerals Concentrating Co., whose plant 
is kept busy on ore from various mines of the district. Part 
of this dump was cyanided. 

Salt Lake COUNTS 

The new copper shoot in the Bingham-New Haven section 
of the Utah Metal property is 400 ft. lower than any ore 
found previously. On the 850-ft. level two feet assays k ', 
copper and 10.5 oz. silver per ton. The mill is treating 140 tons 
a day. Earnings in December were $50,000. 

During the year ended August 31, 1915, the Utah Apex com- 
pany's revenue was $848.S21, of which $271,497 was profit. 
Owing to peculiar conditions large ore reserves cannot be 
opened, so continuous development is necessary. A process 
is being tried to separate the lead and zinc. 

The Sells mine in the Little Cottonwood district sent out 
its first car of ore from the recent development. It settled 
for $41.76 per ton. The moisture was 21 per cent. 

Si. mm it County 

Owing to the cold weather and shortage of water, the Big 
Four mill, treating tailing below Park City, is closed. The 
Daly West mill may also be stopped for a time. 

The Snake Creek tunnel was advanced 341 ft. in December. 
and 3273 ft. in 10 months. The last 50 ft. was in diorite. The 
flow of water was 19 second-feet on January 2, nearly double 
that of a year ago. The heading is in 13,721 feet. 


Stevens County 

A 100-ton electro-chemical plant is to be erected by the 
Bimetallic Milling Co. at Turk, 25 miles west of Springdale. 
E. O. Weston of Spokane is president of the concern. Contracts 
have already been made for treatment of ore from several 
mines. The Fields' process is to be used. The plant will be 
either driven by steam or gas engines. 

Two zinc furnaces are to be erected at the Northport 
smelter, in addition to the copper and lead furnaces. Zinc 
ore from the Coeur d'Alene of Idaho will probably supply the 
new plant. 

By the installation of an Oliver filter the United Copper Co. 
at Chewelah expects to reduce expenses by $2000 per month. 


The mining industry of this Province in 1915 is briefly dis- 
cussed by Thos. W. Gibson in the January Bulletin of the 
Canadian Mining Institute. He estimates the production as 

Metal. 1915. 1914. 

Copper $2,700,000 $2,081,332 

Gold 8,000,000 5.529,767 

Nickel 7,200,000 5.109,088 

Silver 10.750.000 12.795,214 

Copper and nickel were in great demand, hence the increase: 
the Porcupine district is responsible for the larger gold out- 
put; low prices affected silver production at Cobalt. 

.lMiiunr> 16 1916 

MIXING and Scientific l'KI SS 

Uberl i. Bonn*) ' B I ••■* ul .11 Ban Lull 

Potoal. (or ill.- Aral Umt In months ihcie up; 

hum of a Kradiini and i«n resumption ol mlolnf and on 

ir*aui Baa Lull Potoal district. The opt 

i man] diverae facton thai 

it u Impossible in %•■! ant da nnptlon, bul conditions 

kvorahlo ami the probleme of operation are 

iluUoo, The mines oannol work until 

the melton can take care oi their product, and the uneltero 

require regular transportation and the dm of 60 to BO can 

. contlnuall] tor their operations, it is further neces 

to uaamble foreign employees from various pans of 

tin' i > - and tn bare ■ itoch on band and d con- 

tJnaoui iniinw of luppllee, anot aa dynamite, cyanide, coke, 

oil. ehemloala, ami repair pans thai have become entirely 

exhausted For the operation of the lead smelter it is necee- 

eary to pun-ham' lead, copper, limestone, and other ores 

for making the necessary combinations, and some of these 

Ingredients moat be brought from distant pans. 

For the financing of all these operations it is necessary that 
the product be exported and sold promptly, and In order to 
avoid an expensive shut down all the processes must be 
continuous. San Luis Potosl depends upon the Tampico rail- 
way for nearly all of its heavy freight, and that line must 
he kept open If the lead smelter Is to operate. The minimum 
steamer load of coke arriving at Tampico for the smelter is 
3000 tons, or about 150 carloads. 

The experience of the smelters has been unfortunate for 
the last two years, and attempts to operate in other districts 
have served to discourage the San Luis Potosi companies. The 
Monterrey smelter No. S, which has the advantage of proximity 
to the frontier and to the Coahuila coalfields, attempted to 
resume In .Inly. After about three weeks, during whirl) 
stocks on hand were used up. It was found impossible to 
continue by reason of failure of transportation. The smelting 
company bought and paid for 25 cars of oil in Tampico, but 
was able to secure delivery of only 5 cars. In San Luis Potosi 
the cost of coke and other heavy material by rail from the 
frontier is prohibitive: they must come by water to Tampico. 

In addition to the necessities already named, the smelter 
must have a constant supply of water in its dams. The 1915 
season has been dry. and there is not at present sufficient 
water for use of the smelter. Considerable local difficulty is 
experienced on account of new and increased wage demands, 
and careful negotiation in this respect will be necessary. 
Difficulties are also experienced by reason of the fluctuation 
of the paper money in which labor is paid. 

In these circumstances individuals operating small mines 
will find it practicable to begin taking out ore while the large 
organized companies are discussing the solution of their 
various problems. The conditions herein described apply to 
the mining and smelting of silver, lead, copper, antimony, 
and sulphur. 

According to Thomas H. Bevan, U. S. Consul at Tarnpicu, 
the attention of the oil interests during the week of December 
10 centred on the well of the Pan American Oil Co.. at Panuco, 
which was brought in on the first of the month and has been 
conservatively estimated to have a production of 2000 bhl. per 
day. Oil was first struck at a depth of 1760 ft., and drilling was 
immediately suspended. 

There has been considerable leasing of oil lands in the south- 
ern fields during the past two months. A number of com- 
panies that now have production in the Panuco field have 
taken up leases in the Tuxpam fields where a lighter gravity 
of oil is found. The Compania Mexicana de Petroleo "El 
Aguila" S. A., is now making preparations to commence drill- 
ing again in the State of San Luis Potosi near Valles. The 
company drilled three wells in this territory over two years 
ago, which are the deepest oil wells in Mexico. 


i-' i w'a'.um ii has gone i" Haven 

R B Lamb, <>< New fork, le al Oatman 

s. i. Bpi lb has returned '" i Ion tr.un s..mii \ 

William y. Wbstbbvili has nti id t" Nes fort from 


Ralph Stokes has i u promoted i" captain in the . 


T. P. McNamaba is superintendent .•! the Dome mine near 


i-\ Dobbioh is manager for the C Ui i Coppei 

mines, Peru. 

Harhi James passed through San Francisco on his waj fr 

Denver to Honolulu. 

K. P. Swensen, of the f. W. Horns Co. of Tokyo, returned 

to Japan on January 8. 

A. A. Cole of Cobalt has been nominated for president of the 
Canadian Mining Institute. 

B. M. McAtke is now foreman In charge of flotation at the 
Inspiration mine, near Miami, Arizona. 

L. \Y. Okynski is superintendent of the Skidoo Mines Co., 
California. L. S. Preston resigning on December 31. 

C. E. Gbunsky, Jh.. has been elected secretary-treasurer for 
the San Francisco section of the American Institute of Mining 

O. G. Engeldek. formerly in the geological department of the 
Calumet & Arizona company at Bisbee is in Rosas, Sardinia, 

L. E. Young, professor of mining in the University of Illinois, 
has been giving a series of lectures on the 'Economics of Min- 
ing' at the University of California. 

Howland Bam soft has just returned to Denver from several 
months' absence in South America and leaves within a few 
days to make his headquarters in Chile during the next two 

Roswei.i. H. JOHNSON, Professor of Geology in the University 
of Pittsburg, attended the second Pan-American Scientific 
Congress at Washington, D. C, and read a paper upon 'The 
Conservation of Oil and Gas.' 

Associated with William J. Cox. general manager of the 
Camp Bird at Ouray, Colorado, are J. B. Glasses, assistant 
manager; Jos. H. Scott, mine superintendent; and Thomas H. 
Woods, mills superintendent, according to the recently-issued 
annual report. 

Edwin Higgins, mining engineer of the Bureau of Mines, 
has been appointed Chief Mine Inspector for the Industrial 
Accident Commission in California, in succession to H. M. 
WolfliiN, who has been promoted to the post of Mine Safety 
Engineer in the Bureau of Mines, with headquarters at 

According to the recently-issued annual report of the Con- 
solidated Mining & Smelting Co. of Canada, operating in 
British Columbia, the present staff is as follows: R. H. Stew- 
art, general manager; S. G. Blayloc k. assistant general man- 
ager; T. W. Binc.ay, comptroller; James Buchanan, superin- 
tendent of smelter; M. H. Sullivan, assistant superintendent 
of smelter; J. F. Miller, superintendent of refinery; F. W. 
Guernsey, in charge of zinc experimental work; C. H. Mc- 
Douoall, engineer in charge of construction at smelter; M. E. 
Pubcell, superintendent Centre Star group of mines; E. G. 
Montgomery, assistant superintendent; F. S. Peters, superin- 
tendent Le Roi mine; J. K. Cram, St. Eugene and Sullivan 
mines; W. M. Archibald, mining engineer in charge of Ains- 
worth and Slocan properties. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1">. 1916 



San Francisco, January 13. 

Cents per pound. 

Antimony 43 

Electrolytic copper 25 

Pip lead 6.15 — 7.20 

Quicksilver (per flask) $165 

Spelter 20 

Tin 45 

Zinc-dust, 100-kg. zinc-lined cases 30 


San Francisco, January 13. 

Antimony: stronger; 60% product, per unit 

Chronic: !•)' , and over, f.o.b. cars California, per ton 15 — is 

Magneslte: crude, according to quality and quantity, per 

ton, f.o.b 7.50 — 10 

ICagneslte: plastic, no iron and lime, calcined, per ton.... 50 

MagrnesltO: refractory, up to 7% iron, calcined, per ton... 30 — 10 
Manganese: 50'/ r metal, &% silica, per ton, f.o.b. cars, S. P. 12 

Tungsten: minimum 659S WO* per unit for spot 40 — 50 

The following prices were paid for one lot of tungsten con- 
centrate at Boulder, Colorado, lust week: 60.9%, 147.60; 
144.60; 13.1%, $42.40; 28.6%, (86; and 17.8%. $2y per unit. 

New York, January ". 

Antimony: per unit $2.00 — 2.10 

Mangan«-s.-: Mi*, metal, f.o.b. New York, per ton.... 70.00 

Molybdenite: 96%, per lb 1.60 

ten; a rdtng to position 40.00 — 60.00 


(By wire from New York.) 
NEW STORK, January 13, — Copper producers are Urm, re- 
sellers are cutting; lead Is es sine is quiel 
but lirni. 

Ml,\ lit 

Below are given the average New York quotations, in cents 
per ounce, of fine silver. 


Jan. 6 56.62 

7 56.62 

S 56.25 

9 Sunday 

" 10 56.50 

" 11 

" 12 57 00 

Average week ending 

. 1 56.27 


1 5 66.66 

82 64.23 


. s 56.67 

12 56.62 

Monthly averages. 



4 9.03 






Feb. . 





. . . .58.52 









A strong undertone and steady rise about sums up the silver 
market . 

Three companies at Tonopah shipped about 350.000 oz. bullion 
last week: this is worth 70c. per oz. The Jim Butler pays 10c, 
per share, or $171,862. 

Bullion shipments from Cobalt last year v. i,177 oz.. 

not Including ore and concentrates. 


Prices of electrolytic in New York, in cents per pound. 

.Ian. 6 23.50 

7 23.62 


9 Sunday 

■■ 10 23.87 

■• 11 23.87 

■■ 12 38 50 

Average week ending 

I 1 19.77 

8 19.60 

" 16 19.^1 

■• 22 20.06 

' 29 81.56 

jftV 5 22.86 

•' 12 23. 6S 

Monthly averages. 

1914. 1915. 

Jan 14.21 13.60 

11.16 14.3S 

14.11 14.80 

Apr 11.19 16.64 

May 13.97 18.71 

June 1.1.60 19.75 


July 13.26 

Aug 12.34 

Sept 12.02 

Oct 11.10 

Nov 11.75 

Dec 12.76 



Exports during tile week ended I : T..l:ile.l, 1 , 1 I :: 

lb., valued at (1,907,680, England took 5,477,158 lb.; France. 
3,005,538 lb.; and Italy. 1,206,882 lb. Imports amounted to 
10,481,249 lb., worth 81,824,212. Chile sent 5,896,627 II... and 
Peru, 3,478,204 pounds. 

The A. S. & R. Co. in 1915 had a balance of 13', for the com- 
mon stock. Calumet & Arizona made $10 pel' share net last 
year; and Ray $3.10. 

The Tennessee Copper Co.'s acid plant is el,,sed indefinitely. 
This will affect earnings considerably. 


Lead is quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery. 

Jan. 6. 

9 Sunday 








Average wee* ending 





Monthly averages. 







Jan 4.11 

i 4.02 

Men 3.94 

Apr 3.86 

May 3.90 

June 3.90 















. 3.80 

. 3.86 

. 3.82 

. 3.60 

. 3.68 

. 3.80 



The MmI.i company, Idaho, is paying 10c. per share, or 


The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco, Cali- 
being the largest producer. The price is fixed in the 
open market, according to quantity. Prices, in dollars per 
flask of 75 pounds: 

Week ending 

Date. I Dec. 29 185.00 

16 130.00 Jan. 6 150.00 

" 22 130.0U I " 12 165.00 

Monthly averages. 

1914. 1915. 

Jan 39.25 51.90 

Feb 39.00 60.00 

Mch 39.00 78.00 

Apr 38.90 77.50 

May 39.00 75.00 

June 38.60 90.00 


July 37.50 

Aug 80.00 

Sept 76.25 

Oct 53.00 

Nov 55.00 

Dec 53.10 


Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands. New York 
delivery, in cents per pound. 


Jan. 6 17.211 

7 17.5" 

S 17.50 

9 Sunday 

" 10 17.50 

" II 17.50 

" 12 17.60 

Average week ending 

Dec. 1 18.52 

8 15.83 

" 15 16.04 

" 22 17.50 

" 29 17.44 

Jan. 5 17.42 

' 12 17.47 


































Monthly averages. 







June 4.84 

Prices of zinc are are nearly double those of a year ago In 
the Missouri-Kansas-Oklahoma region. The first week's out- 
put was 6746 tons blende. 122 tons calamine, and 1061 tons lead, 
averaging $94, $63. and $71 per ton. respectively. The total was 

Prices in New York, in cents per pound. 
Monthly averages. 

1911. 1915. 

Jan 37. 8 5 84.40 

Feb 39.76 37.23 

Mch 38.10 48.76 

Apr 36.10 48.25 

May 33.29 39.28 

June 30.72 40.26 

Tin is quiet at 41 cents. 

1914. 1915. 

July 31.60 37.38 

Aug 50.20 34.37 

Sept 33.10 33.12 

Oct 30.40 33.00 

Nov 33.51 39.50 

Dec 33.60 38.71 

Juraao ' ' WW 

MINING and Scicnl.lic PHI SS 


Eastern Metal Market 

\. « y.. 7. 

'iniit Ih> .\ -i the raoent heav) pan 

tic 1 ii<i in r> tor copper i« quieter, bal the export Inquiry 
continue* very heavy, end probebl) will Bupport the market 
tore Hum ni us preeenl level i>f 89 to Me, Zinc beg not moved 
in aympathy with copper, bnl its quotations are fairly well 
maintained. Lead la extreme!) Btrong, three advances having 

innounced within the week, all o! which is prim 
Foreign activity. Tin lias had its ana and dov< 

of unconfirmed rumors. Antimony is scarcer than ever 
for spot delivery, and is quoted up to 18c. Aluminum Is 

The prospects before the Iron ami steel trade arc uii|iri-c<-- 
dented. Heavy specifications continued u> come on! to the 

end "i 1916, and began promptly again with the Bra! 
working day of the new year. Steel capacity in 1916 will be 
Increased 4,865,000 tons by new furnaces now under construc- 
tion or planned. The pig-iron output In December made a 
further gain, although the season is usually one of slower 
operations: the month's production was 3,203,322 tons, or 
103.333 tons per day. Pig-iron is now being made at the rate 
ol 88,000,000 tons per year. The 'fly in the ointment' is labor 
trouble, which has broken out virulently at Youngstown, Ohio, 
■while farther East there are minor strikes at steel plants. The 
Steel Corporation, and most of the independents, have volun- 
tarily agreed to Increase the wages of common labor 10%, and 
of other labor proportionately. 


Both here and in London copper shows great strength, and 
In regard to prices both markets seem to have got beyond 
control. The New York quotation for prompt electrolytic. 
January 6. was 23.50c, cash, while the quotation in London on 
that day was £114. Lake was nominal on the same day at the 
same price. The features of the present situation are these: 
electrolytic producers are well sold up to April, while makers 
of Lake are booked until June: spot electrolytic is scarce and 
current trading is principally in positions one or two months 
off: consumers are well covered as a result of their recent 
activity, but there is a great foreign demand which has not 
yet been satisfied. As a matter of fact, it is the foreign de- 
mand that is supporting the market. A representative of one 
of the large copper companies said early this week that export 
inquiry was pouring in on his company, but that it had not, 
up to that time, resulted in a proportionate amount of actual 
business. In view of their sold-up condition, many of the pro- 
ducers would be pleased if there came a general lull in buying, 
for they have taken on heavy commitments to supply, not 
what they have, but what they must make, and some are be- 
coming a little uneasy. The entire atmosphere is most bul- 
lish, and predictions of copper at 25c. or higher, are freely 
made. As the quotations go up consumers become more 
frightened and more inclined to buy ahead. Exports in De- 
cember reached the comparatively large total of 32,936 tons, 
making the month the record one of the year, the largest pre- 
vious monthly total having been 30.14S tons in March. The 
hase price of sheet copper was advanced this week to 30c. 
The summary of December exports shows that the United 
Kingdom received 8590 tons; France. 14,501 tons; Holland, 39S 
tons; Italy, 5154 tons; Denmark, 300 tons; Sweden, 2867 
tons; Russia. 400 tons; and others, 726 tons. Electrolytic at 
London is quoted at £114. 


In strange contrast with copper, zinc has been quiet, almost 
dull, and continuously so for several days. Quotations have 
changed but little, but that little has been downward, the 

n.w York quotation during the greater pan ol thl 
standing el 17.80c., for prompt deliver] metal Todaj the New 

\"i k quotation I Practical!] tl ul) Inl 

has been iii spoi or nearby, and the Indifference ol the eon 

sinners has brought out bi pn ii The report ol 

the O. s. Geological Burvej on January 8 stated tbi 
producers' bands on December 16, 1916, amounted to 
tons, against 5884 tons on June 30. (I bad the effect of making 
Borne Bellers a little more read] to pan with their holdings, 
and business ««s done the following da] al oi neai 1 7.1 6c, 
St. Louis, for spot, iTc for January, 16.16c. for February, and 
for .March. Exports In December totaled 6103 tons. 


The A. S. & R. Co. advan I Us New York quotation on la- 

comber ::i i. : increase of $2 per ton; on Januarj I, 

It announced another advance of $5 per ton, or to 6.76c, New 
York, and on the 7th its quotation went to 5.90c, New fork. 
All of these were expected. A great quantity of lead has been 
purchased in the past week or ten days, and export require- 
ments promise a continuance of demand. Russia has been a 
very heavy buyer, both directly and through agents, while 
others, both at home and abroad, have been eager buyers also. 
To a considerable extent the sil nation is much the same as 
exists in copper, though not so acute. The December exports 
totaled 6775 tons. The London market is strong at £31 15s., 
an advance of £2 15s. in about 10 days. 

This metal has been most unsettled. On various days there 
has been a fair amount of business in tin afloat, or for ship- 
ment from the Far East, but prompt and nearby has been 
scarce and to a large extent inactive. Considerable excitement 
was created on January 3 by a report that a Japanese steamer, 
the Eenkon Marti, en route from the Straits to London, had 
been sunk in the Mediterranean with a large quantity of tin. 
but up to the present time it has not been entirely cleared up 
as to whether the vessel lost really had tin among its cargo. 
It appears that there are several ships bearing the name 
Kenkon Maru. In the excitement occasioned by the report, 
which had it that probably 1000 tons of tin had been lost, the 
spot quotation advanced 2c, or from 40.50 to 42.50c On the 
4th the furor had not subsided, and spot tin went to 45c; on 
the 5th the quotation dropped to 44.75c, and the Cth to 42.50c. 
Deliveries into consumption in December reached the excel- 
lent total of 5200 tons. Total deliveries in 1915 were 47,835 
tons, against 41,700 tons in 1914. In stock and landing at the 
end of the month was 1371 tons, and afloat there was 8125 tons. 
The total visible supply on December 31, 1915, was 16,216 tons, 
against 13,39.6 tons on the same date of 1914. 

No. 1 virgin aluminum. 98 to 99'/J pure, is quoted at 54 to 
56c, in a dull and uninteresting market. 

The supply of spot antimony is so limited that the quotation 
is nominal. The price quoted is 43c, duty paid, for Chinese or 
Japanese grades. There are some arrivals in prospect, but 
they are stated to have been sold and will not relieve the 

The U. S. Geological Survey and the Mint report that the 
gold output of the country in 1915, including Alaska, the 
Philippines, and Porto Rico, was $98,891,100, an increase of 
$4,359,300. Save one, all States showed advances. 

The silver output was 67,485,600 oz. averaging 51c. per oz. 
Montana was probably first, having overtaken Nevada. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 1">. 1916 

Metal Production in 1915 


The lead industry in 1915 made good gains in output, both in 
mining and smelting. The lead-content of ore mined in the 
United States was apparently over 600,000 short tons, compared 
*ith 522.S64 tons in 1914, an increase of 16%. With the higher 
prices prevailing the percentage of increase in value of the 
1915 output was even greater when compared with other years. 
The following estimates have been compiled by C. E. Siebenthal 
from reports to the Survey by all the lead refineries and soft- 
lead smelters in operation during the year, except two smelters 
in the Joplin district, for which estimates have been made. 

The production of refined lead, desilverized and soft, from 
domestic and foreign ores in 1915 was approximately 565,000 
tons, worth at the average New York price $53,110,000, com- 
pared with 542.122 tons, worth $42,285,500. in 1914. and with 
462,460 tons in 1913. The figures for 1915 do not include an 
estimated output of 20.550 tons of antimonial-lead. worth 
$1,886,000, against 16.667 tons In 1914 and 16.665 tons in 1913. 
Of the total production, desilverized lead of domestic origin, 
exclusive of desilverized soft lead, is estimated at 306.682 tons. 
against 311.069 tons in 1914 and 260,578 tons in 1913; and de- 
silverized lead of foreign origin at 4S.318 tons, compared with 
39,328 tons in 1914 and 50.5S2 tons in 1913. The production of 
soft lead, mainly from Mississippi Valley ores, is estimated at 
210,0011 tons, compared with 201,725 tons in 1914 and 161.300 
tons in 1913. The total production of lead, desilverized and 
soft, from domestic ores, was thus about 510. 6S2 tons, com- 
pared with 512.794 tons In 1914. 

Imports of lead are estimated at 9625 tons of lead In ore, 
valued at $653,000; 50,825 tons of lead in base bullion, valued 
at $3,496,000; and 400 tons of refined and old lead, valued at 
$28,000 — a total of 60.850 tons, valued at $4,177,000, compared 
with 28,338 tons in 1914. Of the imports in 1915 about 58.000 
tons came from Mexico, against 23.141 tons in 1914. These 
imports from Mexico are to be compared with an average of 
over 100.000 tons before the civil strife in that country. The 
remaining imports of lead came mostly from Chile. 

Exports of lead of foreign origin smelted or refined in the 
I'nited States again show an increase, being estimated at 13,- 
000 tons, against 31.051 tons in 1914 and 54.301 tons in 1913. 
For the last two years, on the other hand, notable Quantities 
of domestic lead have been exported to Europe, and the total 
for 1915 is estimated at 76,000 tons, valued at $6,650,000, com- 
pared to 58,722 tons, valued at $4,501,074 in 1914. 

The average New York price for the year was 1.7 cents a 
pound, compared with 3.9 cents in 1914 and 4.4 cents in 1913. 


Both the zinc smelting and the zinc mining industries of 
the United States enjoyed a year of unparalleled prosperity in 
1915. According to the best information obtainable at this 
time the recoverable zinc-content of zinc ores mined was over 
560,000 short tons, compared with 407,000 tons in 1914 and 
418,000 tons in 1913. With a continuance of high price for 
spelter during 1916 the output will be greatly augmented, for 
the very high prices did not begin until April and May and it 
\v:is naturally some time before much additional zinc mining 
could get under way. Production during the last quarter of 
the year was at a much higher rate than during the first 

There was a large increase in smelting capacity during the 
last half of the year, the total number of retorts at the end of 
the year being 154. S9S, compared with 130.642 at the midyear, 
and with 113.914 at the beginning. In addition. 20,768 retorts 
were under construction or planned. 

It seems certain that the zinc-reduction capacity of the 
United State! will soon be equal to every conceivable call upon 

The following figures have been compiled without change by 
C. E. Siebenthal, from reports furnished by all operating 
smelters of zinc ores except one, showing their output for the 
first 11 months of the year and their estimated production for 

The production of primary spelter from domestic ore in 
1915 is estimated at 460.000 short tons, and from foreign ore 
at 30.000 tons, a total of 490,000 tons, worth at the average 
St. Louis price. $139,160,000, compared to a total of 353.049 tons 
in 1914. worth $36,010,998, and made up 343.41S tons of domestic 
origin, and 9631 tons of foreign origin. This was a gain of 
137.000 tons and of more than $103,000,000 in value. As noted 
above, however, the gain in value was considerably more than 
this amount. The production of spelter from both domestic 
and foreign ores, apportioned according to the States in which 
it was smelted, by six-months periods, was as follows, in tons: 

1914 1915 

State. First Second First Second 

half. half. half. half. 

Illinois 62,062 65,884 74,982 85,348 

Kansas 23,737 20.773 35,247 65,398 

Oklahoma 45.443 45,924 51,172 57,632 

Other States 43,816 45.410 55.131 65,190 

Total 175,058 177,991 216.532 273.468 

Yearly total 353,049 490,000 

The zinc-smelting capacity was as follows: 

Total re- Retorts to 

State. torts end be added 

of 1915. in 1916. 

Illinois 3S. 424 4,840 

Kansas 40,366 .... 

Oklahoma 39.212 7,710 

Other States 36.896 8,208 

Total 154,898 20.75S 

Imports of zinc ore in 1915 were approximately 135.000 short 
tons, containing about 48,000 tons of zinc, and worth about 
$4,000,000. compared with 31.962 tons of ore. containing 12.132 
tons of zinc, in 1914. The zinc imports for the first 10 months 
of 1915 were as follows, in tons: 

Country. Ore. Zinc- Value. 


Australia 45.972 16.700 $1,273,431 

Canada 8.907 3,494 148,636 

China and Japan 7,572 3.21:: 193.604 

Italy 5,312 2.125 153,388 

Mexico 49.694 14.521 1,610,270 

Exports of spelter and sheets made from domestic ore are 
estimated at 115.000 tons, worth $25,530,000, compared with 
64,807 tons in 1914. Exports of spelter made from foreign ore 
are estimated at 13.000 tons, valued at $2,250,000. compared 
with 5580 tons in 1914. Exports of brass are estimated at 
33,500 tons, valued at $12,200,000. compared with 3558 tons in 
1914. Manufactures of brass were exported to the value of 
about $30,000,000, compared with $3,756,88S in 1914. 

Exports of domestic zinc ore were about 900 short tons, 
valued at $45,000, compared with 11.110 tons in 1914. Foreign 
zinc ore containing 609 tons of zinc and valued at $24,270 was 
re-exported. Imports of spelter (probably mostly scrap) are 

Januarj 16, 1916 

MINING ud Sdentim I'Kl SS 


Mtlmati short tons, rained it about s 

pared with UO tool In 1914 
Tin- apparent do nsumptlon ol spelter In 191 

i.. Dompotw) .1- rollon at "i iiii- itoeh on hand ■< 

melton »i the beginning ol tba fear, 90,098 tons, plui tin- 
imports. St;:: tona, ami (In- production. 490.000 tons, gives t In- 
total available supplj 511.000 tons, I'mni ibis an- in be sub 

iltar, 1 15,000 inns, tba axpoi is 

Ign s i ■ . 1 1 • r . i :. tona, ii sports under drawback, 965 

tona. and the Btock mi hand at molten al tin- end "i the year 
(to be exact, on December 15), 90,768 tona, or a total ol 149,000 

tona. leaving a balance of 868, • ions as the apparent domestic 

Bonaumptlon. This calculation takes no account ol the utocka 
of spelter held bj dealere or conaumera On comparing the 
conaumptlon In 1916 wiih the 899480 ions consumed in 1914, 

8T0 urns In 1918, and the 840,841 inns in 1918, ii e 
thai the Indicated consumption Is not large when the larger 
exports of brass ami manufactures of brass are considered. 
The average price for the year of prime western spelter at 
■ ills was 14.9 lints per pound. 



This company's report covers the year ended August 31, 1915, 
and is mostly taken up by the report of the consulting engi- 
neer, Pope Ycatnian, who recommended that the capacity of 
in be increased to 10.000 tons of ore per day, at a cost 
of $7,500,000. The mill can treat 4500 tons at present. 

The property has an area of 2362 acres. The labor situation 
has greatly improved from several causes. 

A great deal of work has been done in developing the ore- 
bodies, and in preparing them for mining. The crater, about 
two miles in circumference, around Which the ore occurs, has 
been completely circled, and in this circle have been proved 
five distinct orebodies. namely, the Fortuna, Regimiento No. 
2, Ti niente, Centinela, and Bornite. Stoping operations are 
now being carried on in Fortuna. Centinela. and Bornite, min- 
ing on the Fortuna largely predominating. No work has yet 
been done on the Regimiento No. 2 to prepare it for stoping, 
but on the Teniente. the largest and richest deposit. No. 1 and 
3 levels are being put in shape to supply the large tonnages 
of ore to be extracted, and level C is being prepared for active 
stoping. Strictly speaking, the five orebodies are the richer 
or commercially profitable portions of the deposit completely 
surrounding the crater. In July, 1911, reserves amounted to 
10,074.616 tons, averaging 2.7% copper; on January 1. 1915. the 
quantity of developed, probable and possible ore was 113,694,- 
8S0 tons of 2.5 r ; ore. Further work assures a greatly in- 
creased tonnage. On Teniente No. 1 level, the Teniente shoot 
is 4S0O ft: long, with an average width of 300 ft., and a depth 
of S4" ft. The method of mining is like that at the Ray in 
Arizona, namely, caving and shrinkage stoping. Ore is taken 
out of the mine by adits, no shafts being necessary for this. 
Up to October 31, 1915, the ore mined totaled 3,204,484 tons, 
averaging 2.25%. Openings to April 1, 1915, amounted to 19S,- 
970 it., nearly 38 miles. 

The electric railway between mine and mill is working 
well. Extraction in the mill is improving, being 777r, with 
Nil' ; expected. The sulphuric-acid plant supplying acid for 
flotation is making 20 tons a day. 

Smelting has been the cause of much difficulty and experi- 
menting. The blast-furnaces and converters gave good results 
under the conditions. 

The hydro-electric plant has now a capacity of four 2000-kw. 
Pelton wheels and generators. 

During the year under review 1,106,420 tons of ore was 
treated, assaying 2.09% copper, yielding 16,367 tons of metal. 

at •"> .,,,. 

[Future ih 

and ■ 

Tin- profll anil lOM aCCOUUl iii I 111;.,,., In I, 

11,368,170 profit, 1806,670 tot Interest, and ■> balai 

'i, Chile 


company's report dials with the yeat ended Juni .;" 
1916, Tin' directors' statement shows that ol tin' available 
profit in 8198,891, £100,476 was paid in dividend* The balance 

i forward is 86590 Prom a, .ill 80, 1908, '.• June 10 
ih. output was 795,199 inns ni ore yielding 84,616,889, with a 

profit m 88,886,418. Tin' revet was $; and expenditure 

810.44 per ton during ihis period. Tin' companj hold 

siilnalile Interest in the Imogene Basin Cold Minis Co., Santa 
Ci'itruiiis. Messina (Transvaal) Development Co.. and tin- 
Central American Goldflelds Syndicate. 

The general manager at Ouray. Colorado, William J. Cox. 
reported as follows: Ore was derived from seven levels of th» 
mine. Development was confined mostly to the ground reached 
through No. 3 shaft. Reserves are estimated at 14.800 tons of 
broken, and 1100 tons of unbroken ore, containing a profit of 

The mills treated 32,313 tons of ore, yielding $952.2sx. an 
average of $29.47 per ton. This is an increase of $151,209 com- 
pared with the previous period. The combined gold and 
silver recovery was 94.31',;. Of the total value, amalgamation 
gave 58.48%. concentration, 36.59%, and cyanidatlon, 4.93%. 
The cyanide-plant treated 20,655 tons of tailing. The profit 
at the mine was $5S3,700. 


This company operates in the State of Hidalgo, Mexico, and 
the report covers the year ended June 30, 1915. The general 
manager, Hugh Rose, and advisory engineer, William J. Cox, 
both made reports. 

Development amounted to 15,838 ft., the last half of the 
term being at double the rate of the first half. An important 
orebody was opened on No. 1 and 3 levels. Its probable dimen- 
sions are 380 ft. long and 10 ft. wide, assaying $7.92 per ton. 
Not much was done on No. 20 level. Development of the hang- 
ing-wall bodies was satisfactory. Reserves are estimated as 
1,287,000 tons, containing 81,086 oz. gold, and 16.217,296 oz. 

The rate of production varied from 85 to 40% of normal 
capacity, with an average of 52.7%. The local revolution and 
European war were responsible for this. The mill treated 
221,596 tons of ore, worth $6.28 per ton, with 90.31% extrac- 
tion. The bullion contained 10,727 oz. gold and 2,000,856 oz. 
silver. The profit was $139,500. From the previous year 
there was a balance of $625,000. This made $764,500 available, 
of which $360,000 was paid in dividends. 


This company operates one of the world's great mines, situ- 
ated in the Kolar district, State of Mysore, India. The year 
ended September 30, 1915 with a yield of 140,895 oz. gold from 
211,368 tons of ore, and $720,000 in dividends. The total to date 
is 3,607,487 tons, 3,006,454 oz., and $20,650,000 respectively. 
The superintendent, H. J. Gifford, reported a number of in- 
teresting results in the mine and plants. Reserves amount 
to 495,015 tons, an increase of 17,631 tons. Between Glen and 
Garland shafts, drifts have been driven 2000 ft. on the shoot 
from No. 43 to 46 level. Development totaled 15,111 ft. 
(From 91 to 103 machine-drills were operated.) Some inter- 
esting work was done in the cyanide-plants on current and old 
tailing. A total of 6620 people were employed, 131 being 
Europeans, and 102 Eurasians. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 15. l!<16' 


Tin MuiiiMiu ENOIHKEBB' Pocket-book. By William 
Kent. Ninth edition, thoroughly revised with the assistance of 
R. T. Kent. P. 1526. 111., index. John Wiley & Sens. Inc., 
1916. For sale by the Miking vnu Scientific Press. Price. $.", 

'Kent' needs no introduction to engineers and students; the 
work is always consulted; the appearance of a new edition 
( ihe last was in 1910) will be welcomed. There have been 
many changes and advances in engineering standards and prac- 
tice during five years; this necessitated changing over (00 
pages of the last edition, and an addition of over 150 pages of 
new matter. Many subjects previously discussed at length 
have been condensed. Materials, mechanics, blowers, beating 
and ventilation, fuel, steam-boilers and engines, and steam- 
turbines have been extensively revised. Machine-shop practice 
d considerable attention. Electrical engineering will be 
found up to date. A number of new tables are given. Internal- 
combustion engines are well treated. The variety of subjects 
included is too great to detail; they range from air to zinc. 

[noboanii Chemibtby. Edited by J. Newton Friend. Vol. 
VIII. The Hologens and Their Allies,' by Geoffrey Martin and 
E. A. Dancaster. P. 337. 111., index. Charles Griffin & Co.. 
London. .1. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, 1915. For sale by 
the Minino ami Scientific Pbess. Price, $3. 

The editor of this work states that the science of chemistry 
may be divided roughly into organic, physical, inorganic, and 
analytical branches. No single text-book can contain a thor- 
ough treatment of any one of these branches, therefore a series 
of works covering certain sections of chemistry are better. 
The work under review has been prepared from a scheme of 
periodic classifications with slight alterations. The elements 
of the seventh group of the periodic table ( Mendelceff 's law), 
comprising the halogens and manganese together with those of 
their compounds, are discussed from a chemical and physical 
point of view. The elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and 
iodine form a natural group of closely allied bodies known as 
'the halogens.' Manganese is quite dissimilar in its properties. 
The halogens are of great interest to the chemist, and 
enormous industries have been developed in their manufacture; 

Mi hi 1 1 Key of Gold. By Sir Thomas K. Rose. Sixth Edi- 
tion. P. 601. 111., plans, index. Charles Griffln & Co.. London ; 
J. B. Lippincott Co.. Philadelphia. 1915. For sale by the 
Mining ami Scientific Pbess. Price $6.50. 

This is the revised and enlarged edition of a standard work. 
Rose on gold' needs no introduction to our readers. It will 
be noted that since the date of the previous edition, in 1905. 
the author has been knighted, in recognition of his scientific 
work as chemist of the Mint. He is now the president of the 
Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. Both of these marks 
of distinction indicate that he is a prophet not without honor 
in his own country. It is also manifest, from the world-wide 
distribution of his treatise on the metallurgy of gold, that his 
exposition of a great subject is appreciated far outside the 
confines of the British Isles. Indeed, he has won much more 
than a prefix to his name. 

The edition of 1905 was issued at a time when notable 
changes were taking place in the treatment of gold and silver 
ores; these changes were mechanical, rather than chemical, 
and they have continued during the decade since. Hence a 
new addition was amply warranted*. The work has undergone 
no sham revision; it has been increased by 68 pages; most of 
the chapters have been re-written, and the contents as a whole 
have been so re-arranged as to constitute a new book. In the 
chapter on the physical properties of gold, the information 
concerning the spark spectra and the position of the metal in 

the periodic classification are new; so is that on vapor pres- 
sure. Crystallization in ingots likewise is discussed on the 
basis of recent investigations. The gold alloys are now de- 
scribed in a separate chapter of 35 pages, all of them highly 
interesting. The chemistry and occurrence of gold in nature 
constitute two chapters of particular interest to mining en- 
gineers, and the value of them is heightened by a scholarly 
bibliography. The two chapters on placer operations are a 
summary of current knowledge and are remarkable not so 
much for originality of observation as for concentration of in- 
formation from a great variety of sources. The same may he 
said of the author's treatment of amalgamation and the 
crushing machinery associated with that ancient method of 
gold extraction. Tube-mills and their linings come under the 
heading of Fine Grinding,' which is discussed admirably. 
The chapter on 'Concentration' is noteworthy for containing 
only 10 lines on flotation, undoubtedly the most remarkable 
process of concentration as yet devised. In the next edition 
of this book we shall expect a large and deeply interesting 
chapter on this branch of the subject. But we find that this 
seriatim treatment of the various chapters will lengthen this 
review beyond reasonable limits; so we skip some parts. In 
Chlorination,' Sir Thomas returns to an old love, for he was 
metallurgist in a chlorination plant near Denver in 1887. The 
'chemistry of the cyanide process' is worthy of the Chemist of 
the Mint. Next the cyanide process itself is given adequate 
treatment, and immediately afterward the author stands on his 
hearth-rug, as it were, while he writes on the refining and 
parting of gold bullion. Then come chapters on the assay of 
gold ores and of bullion, followed by a short chapter of statis- 
tics, closing with a bibliography. This book represents the 
conscientious labor of a keen scholar and a practical metal- 
lurgist. It does credit to its well known publisher and confirms 
Mie i-eptiation of its distinguished author. — T. A. R. 

Test-Boob ok Geology. Parts I and II. By Louis V. Pirsson. 
and Charles Schuchert respectively. Complete in one volume. 
I'. 1051. 111., plates, map, index. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1915. 
For sale by the Minim; and Scientific Pbess. Price. $4. 

This text-book has been compiled for use in technical schools 
and colleges by men of wide practical experience in their re- 
e branches of the science and intimate knowledge of the 
requirements of the student to prepare him for more advanced 
study. It presents in connected, though elaborated form, the 
lectures given by the authors on physical and historical 
geology at the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University. It 
is a welcome, instructive, and valuable addition to technical 
literature, and will supplant the more voluminous text-books 
of other writers, in that it gives in well balanced form, all the 
essentials of a comprehensive elementary knowledge of geology. 
The interest of the reader or student is maintained by the 
lucid description and logical sequence of contributory factors 
to the 'make' of the earth as known today. A discussion of 
the natural forces which find topographic expression in the 
earth's crust is augmented by the chemical and physical 
analysis of the structure developed. Economic geology re- 
ceives only passing comment in comparison with the number 
of pages devoted to physiography and palaeontology ; hut the 
study of ore deposits is a more advanced course. 

The text is profusely illustrated with excellent photographs 
from the field, and descriptive drawings. This is commendable, 
as it enlivens interest and clarifies what might otherwise be 
more or less ambiguous statement, although in casual criticism 
the reviewer would question the advisability of inserting 
photographs of the great masters of geological and biological 
science, with pictures of fossils of past geologic ages. Adam 
Sedgwick, at the age of forty-seven, does not look well with the 
Ordovician graptolites, nor will the student appreciate the fine 
features of Huxley, when standing on the shoals of the evolu- 
tionary theory before plunging into the depths of palaaontolog- 
ical record. Generally the work is excellent. — F. H. P. 


Edited by 


Volume 112 
Number 4 


'EXICO is engaging the thoughts of most of our read- 
ers, particularly those whose feelings have been out- 
raged by the recent crime in Chihuahua. Apart from 
this particular episode, the trend of events is holding the 
close attention of those having mining interests in that un- 
happy country. We discuss the Mexican crisis in this issue. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 22, 191G 


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Tin Mim. iv Crisis 112 

Discussion of the atrocity at Santa Ysabel on January 
10, with references to the criticisms of President 
Wilson's policy and the suggestion of forcible inter- 


An appreciation of the career of Philip Argall. apropos 
of the interview published on another page. 


WHY U Fioiaiiox? 

By -lumes .1. Block 115 

An exponent of the electro-static theory of flotation 
discusses Mr. Huston's remarks. 
Precipitation With Zinc 

By Donah! F. Irvin 115 

Zinc-dust, against which Mr. Carpenter argued as a 
precipitant in cyanidation. is not spoiled beyond use 
when it becomes wetted and caked in transit. 
I'm mi a Tanks. 

By F. C. Broun 116 

Although Pachuca tanks, like all modern specialized 
machinery, may make a poor showing at times when 
improperly operated, they are often satisfactory. 
The Air-Lift is Leaching. 

By Clarke Sullivan 117 

Keeping the solutions in motion in sand-vats by air- 
lift, to reduce the time of treatment one third. 
Prohibition in the West. 

By P. B. McDonald 118 

The recent wave of prohibition is stated to be but a 
temporary fad not consistent with American ideals 
of individual liberty; the sovereign right to drink. 

Aluminum Dlst. 

By G. H. Clevenger 118 

The use of aluminum dust as a substitute for zinc in- 
the cyanide process is increasing; it is also employed 
in the making of explosives. 
Philip Aboall, and Metallurgical Progress. 

An Interview. By T. A. Rickard 119 

Philip Argall, born in Ireland, left that country when 

26 sears old. At the age of 33, alter a varied experi- 
ence in mining ami smelting, he came to Leadvllle, 

Colorado. Cyanidation and flotation. 

Mi i u. Mining in Japan i:;i 

The production of copper and zinc has been favored 
i". the demand created by the War. 

Mining in Utah. 

/.•// /,. 0. Howard 132 

Potash from Great Salt Lake; a poor-man's opportun- 
ity in the Promontory zinc district; advances in zinc 
metallurgy by electrolytic methods and by flotation: 
operations in the Cottonwoods. 

The Nation's Life i ;:; 

The present turning-point in American lite, as pointed 
out by the Secretary of the Interior. 

The Chuquioamata Mine. 

By Pope Yeatman , 1 8 1 

The consulting engineer of the Guggenheim combina- 
tion makes some brief remarks. 

Preparation of Tunostio Metals 13-1 

Ferro-tungsten is made directly from the concentrate 
by electric furnace, and contains 50 to S0 r /i tungsten. 

Flotation in Cuba 135 

The Cuba Copper Co. has been employing flotation in 
a 600-ton plant at the Cobre mine near Santiago. 


Concentrates 136 

Review of Mining 137 

Special correspondence from Cripple Creek, Colorado; 
Atolia, California; Lewiston. Montana: Sonora. Cali- 
fornia; Toronto, Ontario; Washington. D. C; Magalia, 
California; Deadwood, South Dakota: Austin, Texas. 

The Mining SUMMARY HI 

Personai 146 

Schools and Societies 146 

The Metal Market 147 

Eastern metal Market 1 4 s 

Mining Decisions 149 

Company Reports H9 

Tongkah Harbour Tin Dredging Co.: Ashanti Gold- 
fields Corporation; Consolidated Mining & Smelting 
Co. of Canada. 

Recent Publications 150 

COMMERCIAL Paragraphs .' 150 

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changed October 20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific 

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Branch Offices — Chicago, 300 Fisher Bdg.; New York, 1308-10 
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Price. 10 cents per copy Annual subscription: United States 
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MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Januaiv 22, 1916 

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January 28, 1916 

MINING and Surnm, PRI SS 




T. A. RILKARD. Editor 

i l' '' 

^-' graphs of 

len must him aasnme that we bad no photo 
tin' late Mis ESverson, We have then 


/ ■"nl'TKi; has been Bold ahead at New York to the ex 
^ ten) of the tirst half of the currenl year's pro- 

IN a recent issue we mentioned the oew explosive 
■*■ ammonal, made from aluminum dust and ammoninm 
nitrate. We publish this week a timely article on this 
new us<- for aluminum, written by Mr. Q. II. Clevenger, 
Professor of Metallurgy in Stanford University. 

"PASSAGE of the mineral-land teasing bill through 
■*• the House of Representatives presages the correc- 
t ion nf an injury done to oil-operators in California by 
the withdrawal of public lands under the Taft admin- 
istration. Approval by the Senate is assured. 

TV7K publish a letter from Mr. V. C. Brown, the i 1 1 - 
" ventor of the Pachuca tank, which is more correctly 
called the Brown agitator. We divulge no secret when 
we mention the fact that Mr. Brown, instead of trying 
to collect an irritating royalty from users of his inven- 
tion, has had the good sense to ask only for a reasonable 
lump payment based on tank capacity. We are glad to 
add that his tactful treatment of the problem of getting 
some recompense for his valuable invention has been 
frankly recognized by mine operators in this country. 

r* REAT MINES die slowly. The Camp Bird, in Colo- 
^-f rado, has been described as 'exhausted' for three 
years successively. Last year the company's report said 
that the reserve remaining would still yield a profit of 
$307,600 ; now it is stated that during the past year a 
profit of $566,500 was won, or $258,900 more than the 
estimate made the year before ; and yet the ore left or, 
June 30 last is expected to yield about $275,000 more. 
Since then we have heard news of further promising 
developments, so we shall refuse to consider the mine 
even moribund. 

"DOSTON appears to be in danger of losing prestige 
*-* as a mining centre. Several companies managed 
from Boston have been listed recently on the New York 
Stock Exchange. Among them we may mention the 
Butte & Superior and American Zinc, which are to be 
followed by the Old Dominion and United States Smelt- 
ing companies. It is suggested that the reason for the 
decrease of share activity at Boston is the meagreness 
of the information vouchsafed to shareholders. In that 
regard the New York companies are not pre-eminent. 

Annual or semi-annual report* are of no consequence 
from the speculator's standpoint. They are too infre- 
quent. To the insiders belongs the game, so long as 
shareholders are like "dumb driven cattle." 

DEMARKABLTY good metallurgical work is being 
*■*■ done by tin- technical men on the staff of the Sul- 
phide Corporation, which owns the Central min 

Broken Hill, in Australia. At the recent annual meet 
fng of the company it was stated that the recover) of 

silver was 90.6%, of lead 93.7%, and of zine 92.8$ 

The operations include wel concentration, flotation, and 
smelting. Our compliments to Mr. Charles P. Courtney, 
the general manager, and to Messrs. James Hebbard and 
II. A. Evans, the superintendents of works. 

A DVICES from Yokohama indicate that the mining 
-**• industry of Japan has been favored by the War. 
The exploitation of precious-metal deposits has Keen in- 
creased considerably. Exports of copper are being made 
to England and Russia. The mining of zine has been 
stimulated, and zinc ore from China is being imported 
for treatment at Japanese smelters. When the War 
ends, it is likely that Japan will produce a supply of 
zinc sufficient for the domestic consumption. Lead ore 
is being imported from Australia. We publish an ex- 
cerpt from a Japanese official report. 

WAR is not often akin to humor, so that the following 
story will be forgiven. When hostilities began 
some of the people at Johannesburg wanted to help the 
cause that they favored. Mayor Dalrymple of the 
Anglo-French group presented the Chamber of Mines 
with a plan to equip a contingent to be sent to the front 
at the expense of the mines. This scheme was popular 
locally and would have been put through if some of the 
German directors and shareholders in London, Johan- 
nesburg, and elsewhere had not kicked against it. A 
counter-suggestion was made that a hospital ship be sub- 
stituted for fighting men, "as this would be fairer to 
the enemy shareholders"! So a hospital ship it was; 
but Sir Joseph Robinson, an old curmudgeon not par- 
ticularly popular in the financial set, because of his pre- 
dilection for playing a lone hand, sent his contribution 
of t-'iOOO direct to General Botha to be used for fighting 

ON June 26, 1915, we published an article on the Altai 
mining region in Siberia by Mr. H. W. Turner. 
It seemed worth while to draw attention to the introduc- 
tion of fresh capital and modern methods to a part of the 
world that offers an inviting field to Anglo-American 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 22, 1916 

enterprise. So far the most important work has been 
done by the Russo-Asiatic Corporation, although the 
Russian Mining Corporation lias played a good si 
As regards the former, we oote from the information 
given at the company's recent annual meeting in London 
that the ore already proved amounts to 3,174,000 tons, 
averaging 7.85? lead, 14', zinc, 0.64 oz. gold, and 4.1 
oz. silver, with 0.8$ copper, from which a profit of $50,- 
000,00(1 is expected. Mr. II. IT. Knox, of New York, 
made the underlying estimate. Exploratory diamond- 
drilling is still in progress. A railway has been built 
from the Irtish river to the Ekibastus coalfield, belong- 
ing to the Corporation, and another railway is just being 
completed from the same river to the mines. A zinc-lead 
concentration plant is being erected at the Ridder mine 
and a zinc smelter at Ekibastus. so that the enterprise 
will reach a highly productive stage at an early dale 
The technical work is in the hands of one Russian and 
three American engineers, namely. Messrs. A. P. 
Ivanoff, R. Oilman Brown. Thomas J. Jones, and Deane 
P. Mitchell. The Russian government is proving mosl 
sympathetic and the Corporation has made systematic 
provision for the comfort of its work-people, including 
the building of churches, schools, and clubs. Altogether 
this promises to be the nucleus of a highly organized and 
most profitable undertaking. 

TN another paragraph we refer to the longevity of the 
•*- Camp Bird mine. We learn now. from London, that 
it is the intention of the company, acting on the advice 
of Mr. John A. Agnew, to proceed with systematic ex- 
ploration in depth by means of a low-level adit. This 
adit, which is to be 10,700 feet long, is to strike the lode 
450 feet deeper than any existing workings and 800 feet 
below the main ore-bearing ground. The choice lay be- 
tween the driving of this adit and the sinking of No. 3 
shaft, after it had been supplied with a heavier equip- 
ment, and the pumping of a heavy inflow of water. The 
method chosen for testing the epiestion of deeper per- 
sistence is undoubtedly the wiser of the two alternatives. 
What the chances are of discovering valuable orebodies 
is another matter. Mr. Agnew is an engineer of ripe 
experience, and he will have had the friendly assistance 
of Mr. W. J. Cox. long familiar with local conditions, in 
arriving at a conclusion. The opinion used to prevail in 
the San Juan region that the gold-silver veins became 
impoverished as they passed out of the andesite breccia 
into the underlying sedimentary rocks. In that pari of 
Colorado a great thickness — 10.000 feet at its maximum 
— of lava flows and breccias lies upon the sedimentary 
series, the highest member of which is a Tertiary con- 
glomerate, next to which come the limestone and sand- 
stone beds of the Jurassic and Triassic. "While some pro- 
ductive mines have been developed along lodes enclosed 
within the sedimentary rocks, it has been proved by ex- 
perience that the much richer veins in the great covering 
of breccia do not continue into the sedimentary terrain 
and become impoverished before they reach tbat horizon. 
Our recollection is that the lower adit of the Camp Bird 

is fully 2000 feet above the conglomerate! so that there is 
an ample margin of safety, say, 1000 feet, between this 
low-level adit and the limit of possible productivity. A 
number of veins should be intersected and a large ter- 
ritory prospected without great cost, having regard to 
the value ofMhe orebodies already exploited in the ex- 
isting upper workings. It is a reasonable venture and 
well worth while. 

STATISTICS can be made to prove anything, simply 
because any sort of vague date can be given statis- 
tical form. For example, the mineral statistics pub- 
lished at the beginning of each year are notoriously in- 
accurate. Even those of the Geological Survey have 
to undergo radical revision before they can be accepted as 
part of the historical record. While it is comparatively 
easy to collect the figures of domestic mineral produc- 
tion, it is much more difficult to get at those of foreign 
countries, for the simple reason that in most cases no 
figures are issued by the various governments and min- 
ing bureaus until late in the ensuing year, if then. 
Yet this does not deter the Engineering and Mining 
Journal from giving a detailed tabulated statement of 
l he world's gold production. Such a statement is farcical. 
Only the output of gold in the United States and the 
British dominions is obtainable, even estimable, with any 
accuracy, in the first week of the year. In making such 
an estimate, it should be indicated that 10 out of the 17 
items are mere guesses, some of them bad. The idea 
that the gold production of China, Europe, or South 
America during 1915 can be estimated within $5000 on 
January 1, 2, or 3 of 1916 by an arithmetician in New 
York is preposterous. As Disraeli said long ago: 
"There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and 

The Mexican Crisis 

In our last issue we recorded the killing, by Villa 
bandits, of 18 Americans on their way to the Cusihuir- 
iaehic mines in Chihuahua. The party included several 
mining engineers well known in the West, notably C. R. 
Watson, Charles A. Pringle, William J. Wallace, and 
Thomas W. Evans. The news of the murder has excited 
keen indignation, which, after a lull, has been re- 
awakened by the arrival of the bodies of the victims at 
their home communities. At El Paso a riot broke out 
soon after the news was received there, and talk arose of 
mobilizing a force of a thousand men to exact reprisals. 
A number of prominent Mexicans had to be deported to 
California in order to prevent a lynching. But the first 
feeling of resentment has been calmed, so that thoughtful 
nmn can pint the question: "What is to be done?" A 
crime such as that perpetrated at Santa Ysabel on Jan- 
uary 10 excites the emotions first, and then arouses the 
intellect to logical effort. Something has been done al- 
ready. Jose Rodriguez has been captured and shot. 
Sundry legislators in Congress have availed themselves 
of the chance to attack the President's policy, which is 


MINING .,nd Scientific PKI SS 

M ; 

vulnerable ; Mr. Theodore Roosevell has delivered himaelf 
of a forceful denonoiatioii, which in eaej : Mr. William 
Randolph Hears! has mobilized liis many-headed reptile 
r the country into istemperate action, which is 
Ni>t nrprisiiig; and all the while thoughtful men have 
nixed that in tliis affair, aa in thai of the Italians 
at New Orleans, it is neceaearj i" give the Qovernmenl 
of tin country a chance t<> punish its own criminals 

we can take action in behalf of the victims of the 
atrocity Let us examine the facta, as tar as they are 
known The statemenl that the murdered men were "too 
previous" in going to the mines is negatived by the 

■n thai General Alvaro Obregon, for the Carranza 
government, invited Americans to return to their mining 
properties and accompanied the invitation with assur- 
ances of their safety. They were duly authorized by the 
authorities at Juarez ami at Chihuahua to proceed to 
their destination at Cusi. as it is generally known among 
mining men. So no blame attaches to the unfortunate 
victims mi the ground of foolhardiness. At the same 
time it should be recorded that the State Department at 
Washington had not withdrawn its urgent warning to 
its own nationals against endangering themselves by 
going into parts of Mexico where guerilla warfare was in 
progress. Next, it appears that the deed was done by 
Villa's men. suggesting that, apart from his predatory 
tactics, he would he glad to embroil the United States 
with the Mexican people, for thereby he would get a 
chance to appeal to national prejudice and patriotic im- 
pulse. If this country were to intervene forcibly, Villa 
would be a military asset to the Mexicans, for, thrice 
damned brute as he is, he is a natural soldier and could 
not be shelved by a Mexican president in time of national 
need. Thus the crime was partly political, we think. 
For that, reason alone the de facto Government has cause 
to regret the incident and, we believe, will be particularly 
anxious to placate American sentiment by punishing the 
murderers. The killing of this party in Chihuahua is a 
denial of Carranza 's claim to having secured control in 
that part of Mexico. His government is disgraced by the 
act and must be anxious to prove itself ahle to enforce 
punishment. The recognition of Carranza pre-supposed 
his ability to maintain order; it was a long shot perhaps, 
and unless he moves quickly in this affair his claim will 
he stultified. We must give him a chance to make good. 
Meanwhile military intervention is no more warranted 
now than a month ago or a year ago ; we do not see that 
this horrible crime should cause a change in the deliber- 
ate policy of the administration at Washington, any 
more than any one of a dozen other crimes perpetrated 
against American life and property during the last three 
years. The moment for forcible intervention was when 
General Funston and his troops were at Vera Cruz, and 
in a position to stand astride the railway to Mexico City. 
The President's policy has been termed consistent, which 
it is; it has also been called 'heroic' which is a satire, 
even in days when heroic is a word much over- worked; 
but it may be sagacious. Anxious as we are to see Mexico 
pacified and mining operations resumed in that great 

mineral region, we bcliave thai the Mlutiaa of the 
problem mod now i>e left to the Mexican >untry 

is committed to that policy If it iu e.i*. the hittorian 

will eilll it; if |l lulls, ,,|„| aillled I lit ervellt ) . r ■ IS 

linalK necessitated, the historian »ill condemn it in 

strong language, aa man; i pie are doing already. It re 

mains for all good citizens to support the national policy 
until Congress refuses any longer to sanction it. Hence 
we regret the violent language of an ex-President like. Mr. 
K'ooseveit. it smacks too much of politics, En an] 

tdorsement by him of an editorial in the New York 

American is greatly to be deplored. No good cbj me 

from applauding the efforts of a prostituted journalism 
or supporting the diatribes of a publisher ool remarkable 
tor high principle. Remember McKinley. The man 
whose string of yellow papers reaches across this eontin 
ent is trying to drive Mr. Wilson, as he drove William 
McKinley. into war. Has Mr. Roosevell forgotten what 
he himself said soon after the assassination of McKinleyl 
While never anything but a dangerous leader of opinion, 
in this case Mr. Hearst, is particularly suspect on account 
of his large holding of lands and ranches in northern 
Mexico. No, the friends of the murdered dead do not 
wish, we venture to say, that their loss should he use. I by 
reckless politicians or a pestilent press to hurry this 
people into a war in a fit of resentment against the 
crime perpetrated by a beaten revolutionary desperado. 
Wherever Mr. Hearst leads, it is well to hang 8 red 

Learning to be a Metallurgist 

In this issue we publish another of our series of inter- 
views. The subject this time is Mr. Philip Argall, an 
engineer particularly associated in recent years with 
metallurgical work in Colorado. Our readers will find 
the interview deeply interesting ; it is the record of a keen 
student, a hard-working man, and a resourceful man- 
ager. The term 'self-made' has been used too much, like 
the adjective 'practical,' as an excuse for the uneducated 
and the uncouth, so that it has lost its real significance, 
but if ever there was a man that hewed his way to suc- 
cess, that found the carriere ouverte aux talents, that 
owed little to good fortune and much to earnest en- 
deavor, then Philip Argall is the man. Consider the 
beginning: the small boy that rummaged among the 
sluice-boxes and found a little nugget of gold, and in the 
act became infected by the longing to seek and to find, 
by that call of the mineral explorer that takes the ad- 
venturous to the ends of the earth and to the waters 
under the earth. The boy had an education that was not 
conventional; indeed, the shallow-minded might he in- 
clined to say that if he had gone through the regular 
preparation of school and university he would have done 
better. We doubt it. Of education it may be said, as of 
many other things, that we get out of it what we put 
into it. To be among mines and smelters, to work in a 
concentrating mill, and to be in close touch with those 
actually engaged in winning the metals from ores is not 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 22, 1916 

necessarily a mining education, it' the recipient is lazy 
or unobservant, but to an alert mind eager to learn and 
anxious to become efficient, it is a veritable seliool of 
minis. Apparently the boy l'liilip had the happy gift 
of arousing the personal interest of Ids older acquaint- 
some of whom took pains to help him by the loan 
of books or apparatus. That blow-pipe of which he tells 
us was the key to a whole world of rudimentary metal- 
lurgy, for a blow-pipe and a piece of charcoal constitute 
a blast-furnace in miniature. And then came the "com 
plete laboratory" found in an abandoned mine. That 
was the luck of the miner, of course: of the energetic 
sicker and intelligent exploiter. Thus the awakened 
faculties were trained and developed. "What could be a 
wider eye-opener to the mind of a keenly observant boy 
than the phenomena of kernel-roasting and the leaching 
• if copper ore! The formation of a nucleus of copper 

sulphide in a lump of mixed sulphide ore is one of Hi. 
most subtle of metallurgical operations, while the leach- 
ing of copper ore affords a typical example of the impact 
between chemical and economic factors. 

With adolescence came hard work in a mine, the learn- 
ing of practical details underground, and die compara- 
tively rapid winning of a post of responsibility. At 19 
the boy Philip became the man Argall, for at that age he 
was appointed a shift-boss in the Cronebane mine. Rut 
routine work was not allowed to interfere with further 
slud.v. Witness the detection of hydrogen as the cause of 
underground explosions due to gas arising from the pre- 
cipitation of copper in the mine-water. Then rami' tin 
designing of a brake on a whim : his first application of 
mechanical ingenuity, to be evinced during later years 
in the invention of a classifier and a roasting-furnace. 
And then, after 25 years in Ireland. Mr. Argall went to 
Swansea, which at that time was the Anaconda of Eu- 
rope, as a -nitre of ''upper-smelting industrv. Hut 
Swansea was reactionary and unprogressive. and in that 
respect wholly unlike the "Washoe works: for that fault 
it has paid the penalty of becoming a melancholy 'has 
been.' However, in 188(1 Swansea was yet in its glory 
as the recipient of all kinds of ores from every quarter of 
the world. And what was more important to the sub- 
ject of our story, it was the locality chosen by Parnell 
for several ingenious methods of his own devising, in- 
cluding a complex copper pi ess of the Hunt & Douglas 

type, now only of academic interest. One of Parnell 'a 
ventures was the treatment of tin-scrap, in which oper- 
ation the young Irish-Cornishman from Wicklow had a 
chance to discover that sulphur rendered tin unfit for 
plating, and so tn remedy a defect in the process. Other 
experiences followed, including zinc mining and anti- 
mony smelting, after which a wider horizon was ope 1 

by a journey to New Zealand and Australia, with visits 
to France and to Mexico. Shortly afterward his appoint- 
ment as manager of an important smelting enterprise at 
Leadville. when Mr. Argall was 33 years of age. brought 
him to the West, with which he has been identified ever 
since. The La Plata episode was no picnic, for the nit- 
throat competition between the Leadville. or 'mountain.' 

smelters and those of the 'valley.' at Pueblo and Denver, 
called forth all the resourcefulness ol - character. 

His story of the decision to shut-down is full of human 
interest. Five years later came his first contact with 
• ■yanidation. in the technology of which process Mr. 
Argall has Written his name enduringly. In the contro- 
versies between dry and wet crushing, between roasting 
and non-roasting, between sliming and non-sliming, he 
played a prominent and useful part. The treatment of 
the telluride gold ores of (.'ripple Creek gave him a con- 
genial problem, which he attacked with all the intensity 
of the Celtic temperament, incidentally waging a tech- 
nical war of considerable vigor with the advocates of both 
hromination and chlorination in Colorado. The logic of 
events has proved his judgment to have been right. Fin- 
ally, as first consulting engineer and then manager of 
the celebrated Independence mine, at Cripple ('reek, he 
was able to put all of his ideas into effect in the const ruc- 
tion of a large cyanide mill that made a remarkable 
I. A cost of $1.51 per ton and an average extrac- 
tion of 74. ~>~< , on dump ore speaks for itself, at least to 
those conversant with similar problems. And then, as 
if to prove his up-to-dateness. Mr. Argall became in- 
volved in the use of flotation, achieving a noteworthy 
technical success so quietly that the mention of tin- fart 
in this interview is the first publication of it. For three 
years at Magdalena. New Mexico, he has been winning 
95% on a mixed zinc ore. by the use of a film-suspension 
process of the Wood type. And so m- bring this sum- 
mary to the present time, when Mr. Argall is engaged 
in consulting practice with two of his sons at Denver. 
Having fought single-handed for instruction in science, 
he has given his sons the best education available, in- 
cluding a university training, thus affording them oppor- 
tunities foreign to his own youth. Surely the United 
States has a good citizen in the man that has done so 
much 1" develop its mining industry and then contrib- 
utes five sturdy intelligent sons to the community, not 
omitting the capable daughters, who being voters in 
Colorado, are also citizens in good standing. 

We like the choice of a "best achievement." Mr. 
Argall says it was the introduction of the 8-hour work- 
ing day in the cyanide mills of Colorado. There speaks 
Sympathy with his fellow-men; such a manager can get 
more effective work in 8 hours than the small-minded 
autocrat who thinks the manual laborer is ijnly a slave 
to be driven to his toil for 12 hours. But the dominant 
note in this fine career is expressed in the early part of 
our interview, where Mr. Argall acknowledges that he 
has been a student throughout his life. "Modern min- 
ing and metallurgy keeps one a continuous student, how- 
ever humble his part." Yes, indeed; and not only in 
order to keep at t lie head of the procession but to enjoy 
that sense of useful power that comes to him who is train- 
ing persistently in his understanding of the diverse oper- 
ations of Nature. When John Richard Green, the his- 
torian, was dying, he asked that his epitaph should be : 
"He died learning." To be able to learn until tin- last 
summons is the wish of all thoughtful men. 

Jnnnorv 22, 1"'1 •■ 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



our rv.i<l<Tj an invited to um ilirs dtpartmmt for Ik* difcuxion of McWoal and othtr malum prr- 
tainituj to mlninj and RMtallurgy The Editor wticomet 0m •xpnuion ../ iiim* contrary to hit own, iv. 
luroiruj that cartful critfcitm !■ mora vaiuabU than carnal complntuntt, 

Why Is Flotation ? 

The Editor; 

Sir — I luivi' read, in your issue of January 1. Mr. 
Huston '8 interesting discussion of this subject. Mr. 
Huston's article Bhows close observation of flotation 
phenomena, but I am by no means ready to admit the 

correctness of the preferential affinity 1 1 1 y of flotation. 

and since he has opened the discussion. 1 shall take this 
opportunity to present some further evidence in support 
of the electro-static theory. 

It is undoubtedly true that oils, in general, have a 
greater adhesiveness for dry sulphides than for dry 
gangue-minerals, bul 1 cannot see how this in any way 
proves that water will displace oil films from the gangues 
and not from the sulphides, or even that these films will 
lie present to lie displaced. Some of the transcript of 
the ease of .Minerals Separation v. Miami Copper Co. is 
now available, and it was certainly shown that unoiled 
particles could attach themselves to air bubbles. En- 
tirely apart from this. Mr. Huston pre-supposes the 
presence of oil in the pulp. I have myself carried out 
flotation tests with a fair degree of recovery in a satu- 
rated brine without the use of any oil whatever. While 
the use of small amounts of oil improved the results, it 
was certainly true that there was a marked selective 
action in the brine alone. 

Such work as I have done along this line would show 
that the main function of the oil is to lower the surface 
tension, and to form a surface film that is flexible, and at 
the same time coherent enough to get in contact with 
more of the sulphide surface than the tightly stretched 
film of a bubble in'plain water. There have been several 
articles in the Press lately, in which theoretical and 
experimental proof has been presented showing that 
gangue-minerals possess negative electro-static charges, 
and that sulphide minerals possess positive charges. 
This explains why the flotable minerals will adhere to 
the flexible bubble-film, while the gangue-minerals will 
not. In other words, it explains the selcetiveness of the 
process. The other details, it would seem to me, are 
largely mechanical. The oil may cause the sulphide 
particles, after they are in contact with the bubble, to 
adhere together in a coherent armor. Other mechanical 
effects, with various oils aiid various processes may be 
noticed, but the question "Why is Flotation?" must be 
answered by telling why one portion of the ore floats 
while the other does not. To determine this we must, 
of course, study differences in physical properties which 

parallel the flotation properties. It may i„- perfectly 
true that galena and the common sulphide-minerals 

differ from the gangue-minerals in their air water eon- 
tact angles and in their adhesiveness for oil, bul bo tar 
as my information goes, the electro-static parallelism is 
the only one that explains the flotation properties of bad 
gangues and artificial sulphides. 
Salt Lake city. January 8. 

James A. Block. 

Precipitation With Zinc 

The Editor: 

Sir — In your issue of December 11 there appeared an 
article on zinc precipitation, by J. A. Carpenter, which 
is of timely interest, for, as Mr. Carpenter states, the 
present high price of zinc has driven metallurgists to a 
closer consideration of precipitation methods. In the 
course of his careful comparison of figures. Mr. Carpen- 
ter advocates the use of zinc-thread by inference, al- 
though admitting the effective results obtained by the 
use of zinc-dust. 

The interesting and essential feature to workers in the 
field of c3'anidation, developed in this article, is that the 
saving in the cost of treatment was effected by a change 
in the regulation of solution contents, in lime and cya- 
nide, rather than by the character of the precipitant, or 
the method of using it. 

Had zinc-dust been employed, 1 believe that the re- 
sults would have been substantially the same as those 
noted in the article in question. Not every ore will yield 
an equally satisfactory extraction within as wide limits 
of cyanide and lime contents in solution : hence it is clear 
that the reduced zinc consumption noted by Mr. Carpen- 
ter cannot be attained similarly in other plants by the 
use of the same tactics as those found practicable with 
the West End ore, unless the whole set of conditions were 
found to be parallel. 

Mr. Carpenter's point is well taken, that the precipita- 
tion-presses are costly, and the less expense of operation 
with zinc-dust must hold for a considerable period, to 
offset the high initial outlay as compared with zinc- 
boxes, which are relatively cheap. On the other hand, he, 
makes reference to "an occasional bad cask of zinc-dust" 
and the trouble it will entail. 

Moist and caked zinc-dust is generally thought to have 
become entirely unfit for a precipitant, but this is not 
necessarily the ease. In cases known to me. caked zinc- 
dust, which had been wetted in transit, was cast aside as 
worthless, or unsafe to use, and later, when force of cir- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 22. 1916 

cumstances required using it, it was dried and broken up 
to as near a powdered state as could be, and then fed into 
the solution in quantities of some hundreds of pounds. 
No bad results ensued, either in precipitation or extra® 
tion; although it was feared that the former would be se- 
riously affected, in accord with the generally accepted 
belief about wet zinc-dust. 

Although no 'short zinc' troubles the operator who 
uses zinc-dust, a zinky precipitate may be handled as fol- 
lows: assume two precipitation circuits, in which the 
richer solution is incompletely precipitated, giving a 
high-grade precipitate and a nominally 'barren' effluent 
solution. The poorer solution is precipitated in most 
cases to 0.02-0.04 oz. silver; the question of precipitating 
to a 'trace' being purely a commercial one. 

The second precipitate will contain more zinc than the 
one from the richer circuit. 

With adequate solution-storage capacity, the zinky 
precipitate from the poorer solution may he raised in 
fineness prior to clean-up by pumping the richer solution 
through the press, and returning the effluent solution 
from the press to the stock-solution circuit. This paral- 
lels the return of short zinc to the head of the boxes. bu1 
has the advantage that no handling or preparation of 
material is required. 

Naturally, it is preferable to avoid an excessive feed of 
zinc-dust, rather than to remove it afterward. With 
this point in view, a satisfactory method of avoiding ex- 
cess of zinc and one affording a closer regulation than 
daily assays in a silver cyanide plant, is that of eolori- 
metric titration of solutions at suitable intervals 

A titration BCheme may be devised so that it can be 
run quickly through with a minimum manipulation and 
sufficient accuracy. 

As Mr. Carpenter pointedly states, the best reason for 
choice of zinc-thread precipitation is found in the ques- 
tion of capital outlay in equipping plants when the 
duration of mining operations is a matter of more than 
the customary uncertainty. Donald F. Irvix. 

Pasadena, December 13, 1915. 

Pachuca Tanks 

The Editor: 

Sir — i n your issue of December 11 there is an article 
on 'Precipitation with Zinc Thread' by Jay A. Carpen- 
ter, in which he gives very interesting and valuable 
data regarding the use of this precipitant ; but in the 
preamble of the article Mr. Carpenter, in using a 
simile to give force to an argument, makes what 1 
consider an unfair criticism of the Pachuca agitator. 
The passage I refer to is as follows: "At the time of 
the growing popularity of the Pacini. -a agitator, it would 
have been heresy to publish the fact that they filled 
gradually with solidified pulp, and it was not until 
their popularity was on the wane that this was asserted 
in print." 

If. instead of using the sweeping expression "they 
filled gradually with solidified pulp." the writer had 

said that "some filled gradually" I would have no 
complaint to make, as I am well aware that when a 
Pachuca is not correctly installed and properly operated 
there may be trouble; but this applies equally to all our 
modern miU machinery, and there are "some" tube- 
mills that do not grind properly, "some" vacuum-filters 
that do not filter successfully, and "some" zinc- 
precipitation arrangements that do not seem to take 
the precious metal out of the solution, and even "some" 
cyanide plants that won 't work. 

It seems to me that the use of such a broad and 
inclusive statement is, first, not fair to the agitator 
itself, which is now in service all over the world, and 
secondly, a severe reflection on the intelligence and 
business ability of those in charge of the large plants 
where Pachucas are in operation. If Pachuca agitators 
"fill gradually with solidified pulp" they would soon 
be on the snap-heap, as untreated pulp is of more 
concern than the apparatus used for treating it. 

Some incidents in connection with the early history 
of the Pachuca may be of interest to your readers. I 
was in San Francisco in 1904, and, having letters of 
introduction to one of the leading mining men there, 
I showed him drawings of the apparatus, since called 
the Pachuca tank. He looked at it in a curious way, 
and asked if I really meant that in such a device a 
charge of 50 tons of settled pulp could be started up 
and kept in agitation, and when I answered in the 
affirmative, he brushed the drawings aside as though 
the interview were concluded, and remarked: "Why 
dynamite wouldn't shift it in such a vessel." After 
informing him that the apparatus was no longer an 
experiment, but that over 1000 tons of sand had been 
treated in it, he again looked at the drawings and 
asked me to explain the operation, and suddenly said 
' ' Why of course it will work ; I think you have a valuable 

In 1905 I was at a mine where they shipped their 
concentrate across the ocean to smelters, and although 
fairly high-grade, there was little, if any, profit. The 
managing director approached me regarding local treat- 
ment, and it was decided to install a Pachuca, and one 
of 7 ft. 6 in. diameter by 37 ft. high was purchased 
from a neighboring mine and installed without delay. 
A 50-ton charge was immediately pumped into it, but 
owing to a break-down of some machinery, it had to 
stand for 10 days. When things were running again 
I was told to start up the Pachuca, and the men in 
the mill had a grin on their faces as I climbed to the 
top of the tank to operate the valves. In three-quarters 
of an hour it was all loosened up and a heavy lead 
weight, lowered into the tank by means of a cord. 
struck metal whenever it was bumped on the cone 
bottom, showing that there was no lodged concentrate. 

I think the late Albert Grothe. of Mexico City, named 
the agitator the Pachuca. In 1904 I sent him drawings 
of the tank, and in 1905 he built a small one for testing 
purposes, and when he had his first charge in agitation, 
he threw a handful of buck-shot into the tank and was 

Januan 22, 1916 

MINING «nd Sciential PRI SS 


astonished to And them lifted up and discharged from 

tli utrai pip. it, nid that an agitator thai would 

bandit book thol would suit bis ore nil right 

For simplicity anil In" ''"st of erection there is 
DOthing to equal i ti«- Pachuea; do belts, no shafting, 
ami nothing moving excepl the oompreaaor; and when 

a tank is put in right, tin- quantity of air necessary to 

perform the mechanical work is just about whal i* 
wanted for the chemical requirementa. Sneh a tank 

ia aq ially suitable foi M climates, as it occupies 

so little space and oan easily be kepi warm. 

An objection I have heard raised here to Paohncas 
is that it is difficult to raise the pulp to them owing 
t<> their height, as belt-elevators and centrifugal pumps 
are costly to operate. 1 always use a plunger-pump 
of the same design as is s,i sunTssfully used in the i-lay- 
working industry to pump gritty clay into filter-presses 
against pressures of 80 lb. or more. At one mine I 
used sueli a pump for 12 years until the mine closed- 
down, ami tin' pump was still perfectly good. 

Boise, Idaho, December 29, 1915. 

The Air-Lift in Leaching 

The Editor: 

sir — While leaehing seems an old-fashioned subject, 
there are a great many plants in which the leaching of 



Tank . 

Filter Bottom. 

Valfe open when 
discharging to Zinc Box. 

•- /tir Inlet 


the sand is carried on with the agitation of the slime, 
so even at this late date, it seems to me, suggestions on 
the improvement of this phase of cyaniding are not out 
of place. 

The Zopilote mill in Tepic, Mexico, was of this type. 
In order to increase the capacity of this mill, without 
additional equipment, it was necessary to increase the 

proportion of sand to dime in the cruahing depart nl 

ami. tu handle tins increased tonnage ol time 

of leaching had t" i a) down, l a mpliahed thin 

by the introduction of air lifta in the eolation discharge 

nt' the tanks, u is shown in the iketoh. In this way the 

solutions were kepi in conatanl motion in the tanks and 

a freshly aerated rotation waa oontti ualy supplied 

to the ore with a surprisingly small consumption of air, 

the lift being leas than a tool and the total length of the 

column being leas than seven feet. 

This simple arrangement cut down the time of treal 

mi-ni :::;*,' with an increased extraction and, a1 the same 

time, cul down materially the zinc consumption, as the 

solutions were nol precipitated until they were much 

richer than under the old system. 

,,. , XT , T „ Clarke Sullivan. 

Wonder, Nevada, January t. 

[This idea was adopted at Kalgoorlie as far back as 
1900; however, everybody may not know it. -EDITOR,] 

Prohibition in the West 

The Editor: 

Sir — When a section of the country that particularly 

prides itself on its virile manhood and untra leled 

liberty for the individual passes prohibition laws, such 
as the states of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, and 
Washington have done, it is time to discuss the matter. 
Not the least interesting part of Mr. Probert's article 

on Oatman in the first number of the year was his i - 

ment on the dry condition of that lively district. It is 
axiomatic and scarcely worth mentioning that copious 
experiences of North American communities with the 
prohibition experiment, from the Black Bell of the 
southern states to Canadian mining districts, have shown 
results so vicious as not to stand comparison with the 
public drinking in Western saloons. Little details like 
'squirrel-whiskey,' tons of broken bottles behind the 
bushes, and enormous growth of the drug habit are 
scarcely in the same class as the direct masculine atmos- 
phere of a saloon. Undoubtedly some temporary ad- 
vantage to industry is anticipated, or such laws as pro- 
hibition could not find serious support. It is rather 
humorous to think that anyone who knows anything 
should believe that a law prohibiting drinking in saloons 
will persist after the novelty of the experiment has 
grown flat; a reaction against these Sunday-school re- 
forms will undoubtedly come. The American people, 
particularly in the West, need prohibition about as much 
as they need a law forbidding the eating of pancakes or 
red pepper, both of which are surely bad habits. At- 
tempts by cranks and faddists to limit the individual 
liberty of a people having the traditions of the United 
States can never achieve any lasting success. It begins 
to look as though there was a tendency to an unthinking 
exaggeration of such matters as temperance, sanitation, 
safety-first, efficiency, purity, etc., all of which arc prob- 
ably good in moderation. 

P. B. McDonald. 

Berkeley, January 4. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 22, 1916 

Aluminum Dust 

By O. H. Cle vcnger 

ALUMINUM 'lust is chiefly of interest to the min- 
ing man on account of its us.- as a precipitant of 
t lie precious metals in the cyanide process. It is 
also used as a reducing agent wherever a powerful 
metallic reducing agent is required, as, for example, in 
the production of carbon-free metals, particularly those 
difficult to reduce, or in the Goldschmidl process of weld- 
ing (thermit I for producing in sitli super-heated molten 
iron or steel. Another use is as a 'bronze powder' in the 
preparation of aluminum paint Perhaps the most im- 
portant use at the present time is iii the manufacture of 
various explosives. This was first proposed by Escales of 
Munich in 1899, and. iii 1900, \'on Dahmen patented the 

use of aluminum, magnesium, or other light metal mixed 
with an oxidizing agent. Ammonium nitrate was among 
the first used of such oxidizing agents. This explosive. 
called 'ammonal,' has given good results in mining and 
as a high explosive in shells. It has the advantage of 
being insensitive and very stable, as indicated by the 
fad that, in Austria-Hungary, shells filled with it were 
Found good after ten years. The reaction taking place 
when ammonal explodes is probably represented by the 

3NH.NO, + 2A1 = A1A + "H.O + :;.Y 

Recently aluminum dust has been added to many 
other explosives. Other metallic powders, as. for ex- 
ample, magnesium, copper, zinc. iron, silicon. Eerro- 

silicon. certain of the rare metals, ami various alloys 
.ire aow used for a similar purpose. An example of tie 

composition of a modern explosive using aluminum dust 

is as follows : 

Ammonium nitrate 46 parts 

Di or trinitrotoluene 1905 

Aluminum dust '±- 

Below arc given two representative analyses of good 
grades of aluminum dust : 

A. B. 

Al 91.20 92.50 

A1 : 5.80 5.72 

SiO 1.30 \ 

Si 0.40 

C 0.23 f 11V 

Hfi 1-07 | 

X May also be present 

Aluminum dust is frequently adulterated with pow- 
ders of Other metals, particularly zinc and tin and. at 
times, also with mica. The difficulty of manufacture 
accounts for the relatively high cost of the dust, which. 
in normal times, is almost double that of the metal in 
other forms. 

One method of manufacture involves the production 
of foil by a special system of rolling or combined rolling 
and hammering. The perfect foil is marketed in that 
form, while the imperfect foil, usually constituting 65 
to 67% of the total is comminuted in two series of spe- 

cial stamp-mills, the finished produd being separated by 
bolting and winnowing. The final operation is the polish- 
ing of the dust in a special device. Another method is to 
force gas or air into molten metal while it is Betting, 
accompanied, by vigorous mechanical stirring. The 

granules thus formed are powdered in special stamp- 
mills or in ball-mills. The finely-ground dust is separ- 
ated and polished by methods similar to those previously 
described. In all the methods of making aluminum dust, 
it is necessary to add stearine or some other wax. to pre- 
vent the welding together of the fine particles during 

A source of much annoyance, if not actual danger, is 
the not infrequent explosions that take place during the 
various operations after the aluminum has become finely 
divided. It has been pointed out that this is probably 
due to the presence of an inflammable gas, since alumi- 
num dust alone is not explosive. Carbon is always 
present in aluminum, presumably as the carbide, its 
source being the carbon electrodes used during the re- 
duction of the metal. This, under the conditions obtain- 
ing in the grinding mills, probably produces methane. 
Thus 0.10% of aluminum carbide, which is not unusual, 
would be capable of producing 132.8 cubic inches of 
methane per pound of aluminum dust. In addition. 
there are the possibilities of the decomposition of water- 
vapor or the wax by the finely divided aluminum to 
form inflammable gases. These, mixed with air, are, of 
course, explosive. 

Although a great deal of heat is generated during 
grinding, with ordinary precautions it seems improb- 
able that the temperature would rise to the point of 
ignition of the gaseous mixture. Sparks might be formed 
through the impact of the steel grinding surfaces, but a 
more probable cause of ignition is the electrical dis- 
charges which arc known to take place. This view is 
supported by the fact that aluminum dust at times 
ignites after it has left the mill, when allowed to stand 
in a solid pile. The .lost becomes rapidly coated by a 
li I iii of oxide which, although exceedingly thin, acts as 
an insulator. During grinding and polishing, a consid- 
erable amount of frictional electricity is generated. 
This is not readily conducted away on account of the 
insulating film of aluminum oxide. Potential differences 
up to 3000 volts are possible. Therefore, when the in- 
sulating film breaks down, electric sparks occur which 
ignite the gaseous mixture. Since it is impossible to 
entirely avoid explosions, the units for producing alu- 
minum dust are made comparatively small and are pro- 
vided with loosely fitted iron covers so that, in event of 
an explosion, little damage will result. In one case an 
explosion occurred in a new plant H minutes after be- 
ginning operations. 

Drill-steel is a matter worth considering. It is not 
unusual for a large mine to buy 100 tons of drill-steel in 
one order, representing $15,000 or $20,000. Hollow steel, 
of course, costs much more than solid - steel, in fact is 
usually quoted at prices 50 to 75% higher. 

■ 1916 

MINING tod N.rnt.iu 1'KI SS 


PMHp A d IVJ-mXkrj.! 

An Xnt.rvl.w. By T. A. ftlckard 

1/ i . your mum suggetli thai you an of Cornish 


Mj Father was Cornish, my mother Scotch-Irish. I 
na born in Newtownarda, county Down, [reland, in 
1854, and waa -■*> yean old before leaving the country. 
I used u> call myself an Irishman until 1 became an 
American by naturalization, in 1889. 
n./- your father engaged in mining? 

My father, Philip Argall, descended Erom a Cornish 
mining family, spent his lifetime in tin- mining business, 
commencing with tin. lead, and copper mining in Corn- 
wall, leading to lead and coal mining in Wales, and, I 
believe, lead mining in the [ale-of-Man. At the time of 
my birth father was at the Conlig mine, near Bangor, 
this mine being at that time the greatest lead-producer 
in Ireland and possibly in the British Isles; the Family 
moved to the Wicklow copper mining district in 1858, 
and a year later my earliest recollection of mining be- 
•_'iiiv Father left Ovoca in 1872 to engage in coal min- 
ing in county Tyrone; he died in Dungannon in 1887, in 
his 72nd year. 
Havi you uuy personal knowledge of the Conlig mine? 

I visited the locality in 1911 and saw the ruined tower 
of the Famous wind-mill that operated the crashing 
machinery in the early 'fifties. The large dumps of jig- 
tailing adjoining bore ample testimony to the power de- 
veloped by this huge wind-mill, of which I heard father 
speak so often. In average weather it ran the whole 
dressing-works, but as a local wit remarked to father, 
"she had her off days, and in that respect was more 
human than the steam pumping-engine that was never 
affected by the weather." 
The architei tun indicates tht work of Cornishmen? 

Yes. the engine-house is typically Cornish ; indeed, 
everything except the wind-mill would pass as an old- 
time Cornish mining scene. The general manager was 
Silas Evans, one of the foremost lead miners of bis day ; 
he too worked his way up from Cornwall through Wales 
to the Isle-of-Man lead mines and thence to Conlig. 
/ suppose the mine was abandoned after exhausting the 

Yes, father often said he considered the mine bot- 
tomed except at the bog shaft, and there the ore occurred 
in barite gangue, and they failed in raising the lead to 
marketable grade. I saw much barite in the dumps in 
1911 ; also some evidence that recent attempts had been 
made at re-working them, evidently with unsatisfactory 
What is your earliest recollection of mining? 

Strange to say, it is closely connected with this great 

state of California. It was an attempt at gold mining 
on the Aughrim river, a tributary of the Ovoca 
county Wicklow. I remember a Californian miner in a 
red flannel shirt ; he was buss of the New Diggings, it 
waa the Oral red shirl I ever saw. In the land of the 
'sleeved waistcoat' he wore no rest; his hat had the 
widest brim it had been mi privilege t" gaze u] For 

a year he was the hero of my childhood, and to this day 

nothing in my early life stands out so clear cul and so 
vivid as that Californian gold miner in 1859, with his 

red shirt, sleeves rolled up, hat tilted back. I see him 
yet, prominently posed on the bank shouting orders to 
the workmen below. 

So you run n collect yulil mining in In land; what In- 
come of this vinture? 

1 remember the sluicing operation distinctly and also 
that in rummaging in the sluice after work was over I 
found something yellow one day, about the size of a 
wheat grain. They told me it was a gold nugget, the 
first found at that place. I date my mining career from 
that event. The placer mining did not prove profitable, 
and not finding veins, they collected the float-quartz Erom 
the hillsides and treated it in a stamp-mill erected to 
crush it. The stems were of oak and the hard quartz 
got the best of the cast-iron heads. 

The next move consisted in roasting the quartz in a 
sort of lime-kiln, and quenching it with water, before 
stamping. The roasted quartz went through the battery 
without incident, that I can recall; then came the clean- 
up, and, as I learned afterward, no amalgam, so the 
mercury was finally volatilized in an iron ladle over the 
forge-fire and "like the baseless fabric of a vision left not 
a wrack behind." That process I saw, and realized some 
of the disappointment. The Irish quartz-rock proved 
too much for my red-shirt hero, who went out of my life, 
as it were, in mercurial vapor. 
Can you recall any further gold mining in Wicklow? 

Nothing of importance. In 1875 I assisted G. Henry 
Kinahan of H. M. Geological Survey, in looking over 
the placer workings; some three or four men were at 
that time eking out a scant existence with pick and 
pan. I re-visited the place in 1901 and heard that one 
old gold-miner was still active in the district. 
What was the source of the gold? 

Mr. Kinahan believed the gold came from the oxida- 
tion and disintegration of the pyritic lodes, and my sub- 
sequent experience in other countries inclines me to sup- 
port that view. 
Do the Wicklow copper lodes contain gold? 

Yes, in minute quantity ; it was only in the gossan that 
visible gold occurred, or immediately below it, in what is 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 22. 1916 

now called the zone of secondary enrichment; assays of 
Beveral ounces of gold per ton have been obtained in 
that zone. 
Did you ham any regular mining education} 

Not of the college type; before reaching my 16th year 
I finished the grammar-school work, and obtained a 
grounding in Latin, and such familiarity with Macaulay, 
Shakespeare, and the English Bible, as has Stood by me 
ever since. Shakespeare I disliked until I reached the 
years of maturity, but lie has long since been my favorite 
/ spokt of minimi education, 

I am coming to that : when 16 I was laboring 10 hours 
per day in the dressing-works of the Tigroney mine and 
receiving a penny per hour as compensation. I soon 
learned about all that was then known regarding jigs, 
buddies, and copper-ore dressing, as well as the method 
then used in precipitating copper from mine-waters. I 
also studied three evenings per week with a tutor. At 
17 1 worked 8 hours per day in the mine and took two 
hours instruction daily from Capt. Chamley, an ex- 
officer of the Ordnance Department of the British army, 
on mathematics and surveying. We had at that time a 
sort of mining college on Stephens Green, in Dublin. 1 
believe it was called the Royal College of Science for 
Ireland. The Wicklow mines were but 40 miles from 
Dublin and we saw much of the professors; they were 
very kind to me. giving me books to study and directing 
my reading in chemistry. I particularly recall Prof. 
J. P. O'Reilly, Prof. Robert Galloway, also, whose 'Qual- 
itative Analysis' was my chemical 'horn book.' I owe 
much to these men and perhaps most to a scientist whose 
name I cannot now recall. 1 had shown this gentleman 
through the mines, and we were lunching together, when 
he asked me about the blow-pipe. I knew nothing about 
it. His conversation greatly interested me; he went out 
and scraped some of the mud off the road, explaining 
that the minute pieces of hoof and hair in the mud 
should react for ammonia in the closed tube. To my 
astonishment it did. He fixed me up with a blow-pipe 
and a list of books. These I procured, and set to work. 
He insisted on checking over my notes and within six 
months I was quite handy with the blow-pipe. To this 
scientist I am also indebted for notes, how to record the 
essential information in brief form, arranged for ready 
reference. I only regret be did not impress on me the 
importance of dates. In 25 years past I have on every 
available occasion told my assistants and younger friends 
that the date is often as valuable as the other data, some- 
times more so, and should always form the first notation 
on every sheet. 
How diil n"u iiiiiiinii: experimental chemistry? 

I purchased some few pieces of apparatus and some 
reagents to putter along without at 20 I was fortunate 
in being able to pick up a complete laboratory appar- 
atus, reageuts and all, at a defunct mine. The equip- 
ment came from Germany at the time elaborate experi- 
ments were made by German metallurgists on the ( 'on- 
nary ores. 

In connection with thi leaching of copjfor, I supposi ' 

Yes. kernel-roasting and copper-leaching. I visited 
the plant almost every day on my way home from 
school; the laboratory always commanded my admira- 
tion, ainl years afterward when J obtained possession of 
it I was a Ynmd boy indeed, though I had borrowed 
more than half the money I paid for it. Sum,- 30 years 
later 1 met the late George YV. Maynard in New Mexico, 
and on comparing notes found be was in charge of the 
Connary mine when kernel-roasting was tried in 1S66-8. 
We then exchanged much information of mutual interest 
and remained fast friends thereafter. I made good use 
of this laboratory and soon got out of debt by making 
sulphur and copper determinations; previously the for- 
mer had been scut to Dublin and the latter to Swansea 
or Cornwall for assay. In the year 1879 I took a course 
in metallurgy at Swansea. Wales, then the metallurgical 
centre of the world as regards copper. Such was my 
mining education, or rather the basis of it. I grew up 
among mines and metallurgical works, absorbing prac- 
tical details as I grew, and learning the scientific details 
You remained a student always? 

Yes, throughout my active life. Modern mining and 
metallurgy keeps one — if he expects to remain in the 
procession — a continuous student, however humble his 

You weri subsequently connected with tin Wicklow 
copper mines, were you nut.' 

Yes. I worked at all kinds of mining, driving, raising, 
sinking, stoping in both hard and timber ground. In 
1873 I was promoted to shift-boss iu the Cronebane mine, 
and two years later was assistant-manager with title of 
Captain, as Cornish customs prevailed there. 
Ymi linn written about copper precipitation under- 
ground at that property.' 

The Cronebane mine did not command the mouth of 
the main adit. I knew from repeated analysis of the 
waters that our mine was furnishing its principal cop- 
per content. When the manager was fully convinced that 
the copper came from our property and that it could be 
precipitated from the mine-waters underground, a de- 
mand was made on the Tigroney company for a share 
of the profit and was turned down hard. My people 
still had an obsession that precipitation in the mine 
might lead to some complication, so I w T as first instructed 
to place 100 ft. only of launders; these were filled with 
tin-plate scrap, the precipitation was simply wonderful, 
the precipitate assaying nearly 90% copper. The result 
I soon learned was due to the clear warm water that was 
collected near its source in the mine, as compared with 
the cold muddy water, often laden with ochre, that fed 
the surface precipitation plant. Well, the full plant was 
then ordered in and in a few months was operating satis- 

So copper precipitation in tin mini was am unqualified 

Xot completely so. we had two setbacks that I recall. 

•I mnmr \ 


MINING and N.rnlili, l'KI SS 


U i! it, r. tli. 

\v. had i" ii--' all tlir available ipaoe in the mine for 
precipitation. One onventilated oross-cul •■»►<' ft. long 
: the first trouble; following a triple holiday, an 
explosion took place, horning two nun rather painfully. 
An explosion in a metal mine so alarmed the chief Afin 
nil,' [napeetor thai he wired us in leave everything as it 
was, pending Ins inspection. We did. 1. however, 
started an investigation mi my own account I had often 

noli I gas bubbles rise through tin- 'liar water, in tlic 

launders, so I collected ami tested this gas, which proved 
[.. be hydrogen. Thai night I crawled without a light 
into the oroes-cut to where a hole went up in the foot' and 
there collected a wash-bottle full of the air. On reach- 
ing my laboratory 1 began ami ended my investigation 


by holding a light to the mouth of the flask, I had a real 
first-class explosive mixture in it. 

When the Chief Inspector arrived he was placed in 
my charge ; I told him it was hydrogen gas that caused 
the explosion, showed him the gas bubbles, collected 
some, and tested them for him. We then entered the 
cross-cut with C'laimy lamps provided by the inspector, 
Mr. Dickenson of Pendelton, Manchester, who gave me 
my first instructions in the use of safety-lamps, and 
formulated rules for the daily inspection of the 600 ft, 
of eross-cut before the men were allowed to enter. Mr. 
Dickenson was greatly impressed with my work on the 
cause of this explosion and the remedy applied. He gave 
me prominent mention in his dispatches and anuual re- 
port, and later when I left for Cornwall he wrote the 
Inspector for that district, R. J. Frecheville, to look me 
What was the other incident you referred to? 

At one point on the upper adit a Cornish horse-whim, 
with two buckets, was utilized to lower the cast-iron used 
in precipitating. I saw that if a brake was applied the 
horses might be eliminated. I got out a design for a 
brake on the top of the vertical whim 22 ft. from the 

ground, with rods ami levers to the shaft collar 
manager finally approved the design, but discarded the 
bin-. I bad provided to keep ti„. brake-band from i 
The brake worked nicely on tin- evening il ».. 
Tin next morning we bad snow ami ice, ami in lowering 
tin- Ural bucket or iron, a Lump of i laused the brake- 
band to lift ami slip otr tin- friction blocks, with the re- 
sult tliat tin- buokel ami 1200 ft or steel wire rope, the 
second l ever saw, went down the shaft, I believe il took 
a week to clean up tin' wreak. Afterward ibis apparatus 
gave great satisfaction. 
You wroti sotni papers on tin Ovoca mi) 
Yes. iwo. our describing the geology ami or.' desposits, 

tin- second in Collaboration with (i. A. Kinalian. p 

per precipitation. Both were published by the B 

Dublin Society. Tin- plan 

ami section in the former pa- 
per wire awarded the first 

prize lor the best plan ami 

serti I' any mining 'lis 

triet at the Cornish Poly- 
technic Society's exhibition 
in 1878. 

/ remember an artich of 
yours describing the pre- 
cipitation of copper from 
i In water of the Ovoca 
mines and the introduc- 
tion of the mono-rail un- 

1 wrote one paper describ- 
ing the mono-rail, in connec- 
tion with the precipitation of 
copper, in a drift where two 
lines of launders were estab- 
lished: car-tracks could not be used, so the mono-rail 
was devised for transporting the heavy cast-iron and the 
copper precipitate, and proved a great success. It is 
described in the Mining and Scientific Press of July 
28, 1906. 

A revival of the copper industry in Wicklow was at- 
tempted in later years? 
Yes, but nothing came of it. Some friends induced 
capitalists to re-open the zone under the gossan explored 
in 1875-8. I had the records of hundreds of assays I 
made during that period, as well as my original surveys. 
Several pits were sunk at places I selected under promise 
of 3% copper; the ore found, however, averaged nearly 
4% copper, about one quarter of which was soluble. In- 
stead of mining the ore in mass (it was about 40 ft. wide) 
and treating it by some modern process, the new oper- 
ators followed the practice of the previous centuries, in 
attempting to dig out the fine seams and stringers of 
high-grade in the shale and sending the ore to Swansea 
for reduction. On that basis the enterprise proved un- 
profitable. A steam-shovel proposition was tackled with: 
pick and timber, and the result was inevitable. 
Mow long were you at these copper mines? 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 22, 1916 

I came there as a child and left in my 25tb year to 
take charge of the Stannic works al Swansea, South 

What hind df h a si hiss was tht 

principal business was removing the tin from tin- 
plate scrap ; tin and copper matte-smelting was also car- 
ried on to some extent; puddling-furnaces and a steam- 
hai uner formed another part of the plant. The Parnell 
process used then contemplated the removal of the tin 
from the scrap in a hot solution of sodium sulphide, 
evaporating the spent liquor, roasting to produce tin 
oxide and sodium sulphate, smelting the tin oxide, in 
Cornish furnaces. The iron scrap was heated in the 
puddling-furnaces and beaten out into blooms under the 
steam-hammer. In a word. Mr. Parnell intended to sell 
block tin and tin-plate blooms to the tin-plate works 
across the valley, so that both the tin and the iron might 
enter the channel of trade a second time in the form of 
Did he succeed in th 

No, both the tin and the iron proved to be 'cold short' : 
the former could only be sold for some £15 per ton below 
standard tin, and the iron was unsaleable except for de- 
sulphurizing in lead-smelting. At the time I took charge 
of the works no one had ascertained what was the exact 
trouble with the tin, though considerable money had 
been spent in complete analysis of the refined tin; the 
iron had up to that time been forced into a mold under 
the steam-hammer and the compact balls sold to the lead- 
smelters. On entering the refinery one day our Cornish 
refiner was struggling with what looked like a very tough 
slag; I said. "What is that you are trying to pull out of 
the furnace?" He said, "I don't know: I have been 30 
years smelting tin and never saw no such stuff before"; 

ontinued, "if I was them there chemists I'd assay 
this devilish stuff and not fool with the block tin." I 
took the hint, secured good samples, chilled them, and set 
to work, and soon found that the metallic substance was 
mostly tin sulphide reduced from the sulphate left in our 
tin oxide. I then determined the sulphate present in the 
batch of oxide we had ready for smelting, added lime to 
correct it, and smelted, I believe, a dozen samples, testing 
each button and finding every one best-grade tin. But 
I wanted John Uren's opinion; I had worked through 
the night and our refiner was late in arriving. I placed 
all the buttons in a ladle and poured several test-bars on 
the marble slab; when John arrived he nicked and tested 
each bar and said "It's best Banka, where did you get 
him." I replied, "It is our tin scientifically smelted." 

I had obtained this, my first independent job, on four 
months trial; the time was about up, so I repaired, after 
breakfast, to the head office and emerged from a direc- 
tors' meeting an hour later with a year's contract in my 
hand and 50% advance in wages, provided I kept the 
tin up to the grade of Banka in the future. With the 
assistance of John I'ren, the Cornish refiner, this happy 
result was maintained, and John. too. who gave me the 
'stuff' to work on, was duly rewarded. 
What quantity of Sulphur trill r< mh r tin 'rnlil short't 

About ii.irj' ; sulphur will render tin unlit for tin- 
plating, 0.03 to 0.04% will render the tin quite brittle; in 
■ a bar containing, say. n.ii-t', sulphur by nicking 
and bending, the 'cry' will be dull, the fibre does not 
develop, and the bar breaks after slight bending. How- 
ever, after so"many years. I am not positive as to the 
exact percentage of sulphur. 

Did nun experiment with this iron-scrapt 

Yes. 1 started the furnaces and made about three tons 
of blooms one day. The iron worked beaut if idly under 
tin- hammer, and being at that time short of rabble-heads 
we forged a score or so. The next morning, on entering 
the forge, I saw several broken rabble-heads; they were 
so brittle that they broke iu several pieces in being 
dropped on the east-iron floor-plates. 

Was that dm tn tin in thi: iron: 

Yes. in rolling the tin-plates after dipping, to remove 
the superfluous tin, a double or perhaps treble thickness 
forms on one edge of the plate. That thickened edge was 
our undoing; if we left the tin-plate scrap in the solvent 
long enough to dissolve the extra thickness of tin on the 
edge, sulphide of tin was precipitated on the larger por- 
tion of the plate, greatly reducing our tin recovery ; 
furthermore, there appeared to be a sort of tin-iron 
alloy in the pores of the plates that could not be removed. 
This tin rendered the iron 'cold short,' 
Did ii, hi try nihil- means to remove the tin from tin- 
scrap f 

Yes. and succeeded by using a weak solution of lime 
chloride as a dip, before feeding the de-tinned scrap to 
the puddling furnace. This gave us a higher recovery of 
iron in blooms and quite free from tin, which latter was 
volatilized as chloride. We ran a batch of five tons of 
blooms, sold them to the tin-plate works, where they were 
lolled into plates and covered with our refined tin, thus 
realizing Mr. Parnell's ideal, but the blooming process 
would not pay. 
117/(i/ dill you di' with the iron after that? 

Tie- rabble-heads we made proved much superior to 
common iron in skimming furnace-changes, and we sup- 
plied the copper-smelters with rabble-heads at good 
profit Later, we sold them ladles of the same iron-tin 
alloy, beaten out under the steam-hammers and pressed 
into form in molds by the same hammer. 
You spoke of blast-furnace smelting t 

We smelted several thousand tons of tin-slag in our 
blast-furnace and did very well, using puddling-furnace 
cinders to break up the tin silicate and incidentally ac- 
cumulated quite a bit of 'hard head,' a tin-alloy, the 
subsequent treatment of which caused more trouble than 
anything else about the plant. I left considerable of it 
for my successor to work up. 
What about copper-matte smelting t 

The business was controlled by a large firm of ship- 
owners who picked up cargo in various places and sent 
it to the Stannic works for reduction. I recall a large 
cargo from Algeria, containing gold, silver, zinc, and 

Januan 22, 1916 

MINING »nd Scientific l'Kl SS 

It was ni>' lirsi experience with duo, and 
1 hail ■ \. r\ bad time ol it with l-\ in the oharge [n 
the mi. 1st nf my troubles ymir onole, Richard White 
Kn'knril. dropp ed in; l believe the ore ram.- from his 
mine; ws baejune good friends and be proved a 
help tn ma later; permit ma to say he was a splendid 
engineer, one ol the beet informed men I had mel and an 

all anniiiil good follow. 

Did <i"" ruiuiin long nt Bunnteof 

After a year and a half my health Buffered bom the 
ever-present sulphur fame, *• I left with the good wishes 
nf the board, and a handsome testimonial From Mr. Par 
nell for "improving and completing his pr< ss." I 

nth qui tti o that th< 

i « dingly hot, and of bi ing awalu m ■/ <■■ 
• iation of tin heat gi ni rated i"i chemical a 
Hon, If I >< mi mbi r i orri i (iy, >/"» wi nt won a 
ward to New Zealand, on thi recomm 
1 did, inn Qrsl I spent .i year in London a> manager 

of the Barking Metal Winks. Antu ly ■ Itina 


Him- did you lil" thai position! 

Very much, it was extremely interesting and instruct- 
ive work. The «nn-lt in^r was >l in crucibles, using 

salt cake, ami rich Blag, with tin-plate scrap for desul 


returned to ruining, accepting the management of the 
Glenariff Iron Ore & Harbor Co., in county Antrim, 
Ireland. The supervision of extensive mines of alumin- 
ous iron ore, pisolitic, below the basaltic plateau, ten 
miles of railway, and the fascinating geology of the Glen 
kept me busy for a year, during which I published a 
paper on 'The Tertiary Iron Ores of Antrim.' Mr. 
Rickard next offered me the management of the Duchy 
Peru mine in Cornwall, of which he was then consulting 
engineer; so in 1881 I found myself mining zinc-blende 
with siderite gangue, hand-sorting the coarse ore and 
wondering what I would do with the fine, of which my 
predecessor left a large tonnage for good measure. 
In what part of Cornwall was that? 

The great Perran iron lode in the parish of Perranza- 
bulOj about six miles from Newquay. Perhaps, Mr. 
Editor, you will recall that I first met you at that mine. 
Indeed I do, and how kind you were in answering all my 

phurizing; the product from the first smelting, called 
'singles,' was re-smelted with alkaline flux and excess 
of antimony sulphides, two buttons 'single' formed a 
crucible charge, the product was called 'doubles' or 

'star bowls.' The 'doubles' were melted, and refi 1. 

with a special so-called secret flux, which was allowed 
to cover the plates in the mold to develop the 'star.' 
Our product was sold as French star antimony, and so 
far as I could see, it mattered little what the composition 
of the metal was, so long as it had a good crystallization 
on the surface — the much-desired 'star.' The refiner 
was a secretive, independent, and in his cups, insolent 
man. As he was inimical to proper discipline, I dis- 
missed him, but before leaving he tampered with the 
refining flux. I promoted the man on the 'doubling' 
furnace to refiner, but he could not produce the 'star;' 
together we tried all sorts of mixtures of pearl-ash, add- 
ing various salts, including tin, which was believed to 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 22, 1916 

help the starring process, hence the use of tin-plate 
scrap in the first smelting. The third day we threw 
away the old flux and began experimenting with fresh 
salts, and with the knowledge and assistance of the new 
refiner soon produced the much desired star.' 

Did you introduci any improvements in the plantt 

No. We were designing furnaces to smelt the ore in 
quantity and preparing to put in a lead stack for silver 
ores when the sudden failure of Richards Power & Co.. 
in 1883, closed up the works. Lord Penzance had the 
largest holding, but having been mislead by R. 1'. <£ Co., 
refused to continue operations. I realized on the storks. 
the company was wound up, and I went back to Cornwall 
to pump out the Old Duchy Peru mine, just purchased 
by Brown Bros., of St. Austell. 

What was your next movt ' 

Your father, Mr. Thomas Richard, kindly recommend- 
ed me to the Kapanga Gold Mining Co., and 1 obtained 
the management of their mines at Coromandel, across 
the Hauraki Gulf from Auckland, in New Zealand. The 
Kapanga was 8 specimen-gold mine and the most dis- 
appointing J have ever operated : I got the tail end of one 
small pocket and insufficient funds to find another. The 
only incident worth recalling is the discovery of aurifer- 
ous native arsenic, the collection of, 1 believe, 350 lb., 

of this metal from the dumps, and extracting about ."ill 
oz. of gold from it. The pin I am wearing is native 
arsenic from Kapanga. 
Vim wen not long in New Zealand f 

Aliniit a year. I traveled a good deal, called at all the 
principal ports, saw some of the best mines, visited the 
hoi springs and volcanic district, and greatly increased 

my knowledge of geology and mining. I spent a few- 
weeks in Australia, on my way back to England. 

What was your next movet 

Some mine examinations in France ; then I met one 
of the Brown Bros., who offered me the superintendence* 
of a group of mines in Sonora, Mexico. The Los Bronces 
and Animas mines in the Barranca district. 
In what year was that? 

In 1886. 

How long in ri ;/"" '" '•'' ■' '•'■•-' 

Almost one year. The company operated under the 
name of The Silver Queen United. I found a concen- 
trating mill under erection, and no water with which to 
operate it, and indeed very little ore either. I procured 
boilers, steam-pumps, and about three miles of pipe, on- 
watering three or four mines without filling the reservoir. 
but we finally got started and made very irregular runs. 

I .nise of the many shortages of ore and water. The 

last Rittinger percussion tables I saw* in use were in this 
mill; we had. I believe, four of .them. At Bronces the 
company had a dry-stamp mill and hyposulphite leach- 
ing plant. Realizing that the company had not obtained 
title to the property, and that its finances were in poor 
condition, I left at the first convenient opportunity and 
returned to London before the crash came. 

What was your next position? 

Consulting engineer to the Mounteashel Iron Ore Co., 
in Antrim. Ireland. I built a concentrating mill of 200 
tons daily capacity to recover the hematite pisolites from 
the aluminous gangue. The plant was quite a success. 
In the same Jfear (1886) I was appointed consulting en- 
gineer to the Soeiete Anonyme de Plomb D' Asperieres, 
operating on the river Lot, near Capdenac, Aveyron, 
France. A large concentrator had been erected against 
my previous advice to the company, and it did not treat 
the ore satisfactorily. The silver-lead, carrying an ounce 
of silver per unit of lead, was as soft as graphite and was 
enclosed in quartz of the very hardest type; slime trouble 
was ever present and was never conquered, although the 
largest fixed Linkeubach tables I had ever seen had been 
put into commission to save the silver-lead in the slime. 
It was not much of a success. To crush the quartz fine 
enough to liberate the galena so that a 60% lead product 
could be made meant enormous losses, hence hand-sort- 
ing was pushed to the limit and a jig and table product 
sold running high in silica. 

So Hint did nut last longt 

It did. The English people struggled along for about 
three years with it, when a clever Welshman, one Henry 
E. Pry, managed to sell it to the French, who operated 
it for several more years; but I doubt if anyone made it 
pay. I was in the midst of my work improving the 
plant when I was offered the position of manager of the 
La Plata smelter at Leadville, succeeding William 

He was n mini nf high character, I knur him well. He 
died in Sun Francisco in February Just, having 
bun for many years the manager of the California 
W'ini Association. When did you succeed him, Mr. 
In March, 1887. 

What was tin condition of the smelting business in Colo- 

rai In at that time? 
Very bad indeed; keen competition between the valley 
smelters and those at Leadville, and not ore enough to 
go around. Sulphide ores were coming in strong and the 
La Plata had no roasters, the blast-furnaces were small 
and obsolete, ore and charges were all handled by shovel 
and wheelbarrow. A large custom business was being 
handled at a loss. I piloted the old smelter along for a 
couple of months and, having worked out the smelting 
conditions carefully, I cabled my company to either 
furnish $250,000 to re-build the furnaces, put in roast- 
ers, and generally modernize the plant or go out of busi- 
ness. The conditions were such that I could only promise 
10% net earnings on the new investment, not on the 
entire capital. I confess to a feeling of relief when the 
directors decided to close-down the smelter and cut their 
Loss; nevertheless the night we blew down the furnaces 
was a trying one for me. It seemed like a metallurgical 
funeral. I patroled the dump the whole night long, 
wondering if I had terminated a great industry that in 
other hands might have been profitable, or if I had 

Januan 22, 1916 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

rightly advised mv eompairy. A ton days later tin* 
■ l awaj with the full oonviotion that 1 

iken tli«' proper oourae, and 1 have never n re 

gretted my action. In the oourae of ■ tow yean other 
ami Utter equipped Leadville smelters went oul of 
busineea and for years past there 1ms been but one smelter 
al Leadville. 

77., turvival of tkt fitti 

Undoubtedly, the largest, most modern, and beal plant 
anrvived, the Arkansas Valley plant now operated by 
the American Smelting & Refining Co. 

Whai becanu of tin La Plata smelter f 

I sold n to D. II. Moffat and associates. Pyritic 
smelting was introduced under the direction of W. L. 
Austin and was successfully continued under the man- 
agement of the late Franklin Ballon, for several years. I 
had an opportunity of follow- 
ing the results during the 
trial-runs. The dust-loss at 
first was enormous; 1 was 
called in consultation, and 
designed dust-flues and con- 
densjng-towers in which the 

fume was washed with water. 

and thereafter the plant op- 
erated at considerable profit. 
Later, in association with Mr. 
Austin. 1 endeavored, with- 
out success, to introduce py- 
ritic smelting elsewhere in 
Colorado. The La Plata 
smelter, partly re-built and 
enlarged, was afterward pur- 
chased by the American 
Smelting &. Refining Co.. and 

refer wen thost obtained on a pyritu gold on from 
Hi, Hilleidt min, neat then being worked 

by ,i flamboyant person called II II Warner, ••( 
■'. I'm-'' fame, Hut. Ifr, Argall, '/•>» beoatiM 
connected with tin MacArthur-Forresi people, did 

!/>,» mil.' 

Yea, when the late Thomas \v Goad obtained the 
management of the American UacArthur Correal 

he virtually forced to act in the capacity of suit 

bag metallurgist to that company. My tirst task was i., 
rectify the failure of the Brsl plant erected in the Black 

Hills; 1 can't recall the name of the mill hut it was built 

ai Deadwood by men from the Hill City tin mines, I 

believe it was in the winter of 1903. The ore COUld not 

be leached, because dust and sand wen- treated together 
in the tanks and there was too much dust. Those in 
charge had imported a patent pulverizer from Grenoble, 

It was iii 1887, if I remember 
correctly, that you ex- 

amined the Rathjen mine in Calaveras county, Cali- 
fornia, and were good enough to give me my first 
job as manager? 
You refer to the Union Gold. Yes, I remember quite 
distinctly examining that property and later placing 
you in charge there, but the rest has passed like a dream, 
I can scarcely recall the developments. 
When 'liil you first become acquainted with cyanida.- 
I in a .' 
After leaving Leadville I had my first dip into the 
cyanide process, I had of course heard and read much 
about, it, but for some time I considered it one of the 
humbugs. It was in the hands of people who did not 
inspire confidence, and who advertised the requirements 
of the process as a few old tubs, some mill-tailing, a 
chunk or two of cyanide, and a handful of zinc shav- 
ings. Strange to say, you yourself were the first man 
to place in my hands actual results obtained from the 
treatment of sulphide ores in Arizona. 
/ hint quite forgotten that. The results to which you 


Prance, believing slime — I should say "fine dust," for 
it was a dry-crushing machine — essential to good extrac- 
tion. I had rolls substituted for the pulverizers, and 
with a few other changes, the plant operated successfully. 
However, I reached the conclusion that slime and sand 
should be treated separately, so I designed a special 
machine for separating the dust from the sand in dry 
crushing, and used V-boxes to effect the same object in 
wet crushing. 
What was the name of the dust-separating machine? 

It had no particular name, but I patented it in 1904; 
also crushing in alkaline solutions, separating the slime 
or dust from the sand and treating each separately. 
The dust-separator has since been widely used in West- 
ern Australia and elsewhere. 

You anticipated tvhat later became standard practice, 
but how did you treat the dust? 

This was my practice in 1894: the dust was moistened 
and run through a briquetting machine, the bricks 
stacked, dried, and roasted in the same way as common 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 22, 1916 

building-brick arc made, then broken up and cyanided. 
The extraction obtained from the roasted brick was so 
very much better than that obtained from the sand, that 
it lead to an investigation which subsequently caused me 
to introduce roasting as a preliminary step to cyanida- 
t i< m. The experiment made on the dust from Deadwood 
ore gave extractions of 96 to 98', . and those on Cripple 
Creek ores yielded similar results. 

The briquetting and roasting had the effect of giving 
i'i!. I suppose? 

Fes, and setting free the gold from tellurium; the 
bricks were so porous that I have often obtained 90$ 
extraction from an unbroken brick. 
Win n il'ul you come to Cripple Creek? 

In January 1894, to investigate the failure of the first 
cyanide plant, in that (list rict, afterward called the Brodie 
mill. Here the trouble was precisely similar to thai al 

Deadw 1. The charges in the tanks could scarcely be 

wetted, there was so much talc and clay in the dry- 
crushed ore. I pointed out the cause of the trouble and 
rectified it when enlarging the plant, which operated 
successfully for a year or two and was again enlarged. 
What was tin capacity of thi Brodit mill in 1894, and 
what was the treatment chargt at that dati .' 

I left the Brodie mill with a capacity of 25 tons per 
day. The treatment charge on ounce ore was $18 per 
ton and we needed every cent of it. 
You mil luiili tin Metallic works at Florence, I pre- 

Sllllll .' 

Yes, that was my next effort. The -Moffat interests 

were building the Florence & Cripple Creek railroad 
and desired to have a large redaction plant near its 
terminal. I wassenl for and found the directors preju- 
diced against cvanidation. because "the ore would not 
leach." On the following day. I made a stack of bri- 
quettes in a cupel-mold from the slime of Cripple Creek 
ore, roasted them, and repaired to the First National 
Bank with a pocketful of the roasted cupels, a small 
plate, and a bottle of water. I poured water on the plate 
and set the cupels in it ; in a few minutes the water was 
all soaked up by the briquettes and I added more ; when 
the water rose to the rim of the briquettes and began to 
fill the bowls, the directors were satisfied, and a week 
later the Metallic Extraction Co. was incorporated, and 
by June 1895 we were treating 3000 tons of ore per 

That was the first large custom plant to treat Cripple 
Creek ore by cyamidation, ivas it not? 

Hnir much of the ore purchased at that time underwit ut 

From 15 to 20%, depending, of course, on the crush- 
ing qualities of the ore, or the amount of clay or talc 
in it. 
When did you begin roasting Cripplt Creek ores? 

During the winter of 1895, I modified one of my 
multitubular driers and roasted and leached several 

lots of 25 tons each. We next purchased a Ropp roast - 
ing-furnace, the invention of Baron Alfred de Ropp, 
formerly manager of the Selby smelter. I believe ours 
was the first 'Ropp' used outside Selby; at any rate, it 
was the first in Colorado. Afterward I used multi- 
tubular roastfcrs of my own design. We then purchased 
all the oxidized ores available and treated them direct, 
but the recovery of gold from the roasted product was 
so superior that the roasting facilities were rapidly in- 
creased, ainl by the close of 1897 we had a capacity of 
10,000 tons per month. This was a pioneer plant in the 
direct treatment of sulpho-telluride ores. Engineers and 
metallurgists came from various countries to study our 
methods, more particularly the roasting feature. We 
had several visitors from Kalgoorlie, notably from the 
Great Boulder Perseverance mine. 

But you nwdificd this method later? 

By the time the roasting process was fully developed, 
it became apparent that we were placing the cart before 
t he horse. In roasting the telluride, coarse gold, in shots 
and grains, was formed commensurate with the size of 
the telluride particles in the feed, pieces often too large 
to lie soluble in the time available for the leaching 
process; to avoid large particles we crushed riner. also 
placed riffles in the tailing-sluice. These riffles were very 
effeetive in collecting the 'metallics' and also some of 
the unroasted sulpho-tellurides, but obviously the better 
method under our conditions was to grind still finer: 
that resulted in more dust, an enlarged bag-house, and 
genera] increase in the treatment cost. I then jumped 
experimentally to the other extreme, with tie 
making all the coarse gold possible during the roasting 
process and recover this coarse gold by amalgamation. 
Cripple Creek ore at that time contained about 2 r i 
sulphur, and I was able to make good extractions ou 
1-inch roasted cubes, but found that ore crushed to pass 
4-in. round-hole screen when roasted gave almost per- 
fect extractions by amalgamation and cyanide. Several 
tests on 5-ton lots were placed before the directors and 
a complete new plant decided on, embodying these fea- 
tures: crushing to pass J-in. round hole, roasting the 
ore at that size, fine crushing, and amalgamating the 
roasted ore in Chilean mills using weak cyanide solu- 
tions in place of water. Drying of the ore was elimin- 
ated, also dry-crushing and dust-loss, hence a bag-house 
was not required. A site for the new plant was chosen 
at ('anon City and a branch of the Florence & Cripple 
Creek railroad was built to Canon City to accommodate 
the new plant. 

In what year? 

I believe work was begun on the branch in 1898 or 
early in 1899, but was suspended when the Moffat in- 
terests optioned their railway and the Metallic plant to 
those controlling the Midland Terminal railway, a rival 
line for Cripple Creek traffic. 

)\'iis tin option taken up? 

Yes, and the Metallic works passed into other hands. 
but I remained in charge until the close of 1900, in ful- 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

till iiit-n t of my itract The new people naturally did 

not care to build a new works and scrap 01 remove the 

plant they had .mst purchased (or (600,000) so l refused 
to renew my tract 

iiour purpost i" scrap th, Metallic plant t 

exactly; the directors decided to eared a am plant 
■ion City of 15,000 tons per month capacity, and 
when that was in successful operation, remove the ma- 
ahinery from the Metallic, and ultimately have a plant 
Capacity of 86,000 tons per month under the new process 
at Canon City at an estimated treatment eost 50% be- 
low OUT COal at the Metallic plant. 

What was thi cost of treating n ton of ori in tin Metallic 

pin a I .' 

About $3.50, all-roasting, at 9000 tons monthly ca 

Chihuahua, and other Mexican mines, thi which 

I tasted before outlining their proper treatment I 

urged siatently that syanide was bound to win as 

against ehlorination in the treatment of Cripple Creek 
oyaniding was so much simpler, so much cheaper, 

ami with tin- many improvements introdn l through 

out the vast regions tributary to oyanidation, th'- pr <s 

would yearly become simpler, more certain, ami cheaper 
IHil yon nuiki mill hrommaUon experim* 

(Inly on a laboratory scale. The late II. K I 
was the bromine protagonist ami a most remarkable 
man. I first met him in 1887 when In- was building tin- 
Nelly Bly mill to exploit his bromine pi ss in Boulder 

county. We next met at the Telluride mill, at Colorado 
City, afterward called the Golden Cycle mill. This was 
erected to treat Cripple Creek ores by leaching with 
bromine solution in open vats, displacing the bromine 


How did you treat the 'metallics' caught in the sluice? 
We first sold the heads to the smelters and sent the 
lower-grade back through the plant. Then I put in a 
small Chilean mill, amalgamating plates, etc., and ground 
fine, amalgamating the entire product. In this test-mill 
I also made my first experiments in amalgamating and 
cyaniding the coarse roasted Cripple Creek ore. 
What became of the Metallic mill? 

It was operated for about six months after I left ; the 
new owners helped to form the mill 'trust' or 'combine,' 
in which ehlorination was the dominant feature. The 
Metallic mill was sold to this group, closed-down, took 
fire while being dismantled in 1904, and burned to the 
ground. Financial affairs often upset the best-laid 
plans of metallurgists, so through financial backing, and 
not because of merit, the ehlorination process reigned 
supreme for about six years. 

But that did not end your connection with oyanidation, 
Mr. Argallf 

No, I maintained my interest in cyanidation by fre- 
quent contributions to the technical press, by lectures, 
and in consultation work ; such as the Dolores mine, in 

in the filtrate with chlorine and recovering the bromine 
for re-use. The evolution was from open vats to covered 
vats, covered vats to revolving barrels similar to those 
used at that time in the ehlorination mills, and, lastly, 
to straight ehlorination in the revolving barrels. J. T. 
Milliken, of St. Louis, having secured an option on a 
block of Telluride Reduction Co. stock, employed me to 
look into the process at the time of the trial run. I 
pointed out in a letter what I considered the weak points 
and advised him to not exercise his option. He followed 
my advice. A few years later, 1904, the plant went into 
the hands of a receiver and at Goldfield, Nevada, an 
urgent telegram reached me, requesting that I come at 
once to New York for a consultation. I did, and found 
that Mr. Milliken had handed my letter on the process 
to the company; that it had been discovered by the re- 
ceiver, and found a fairly accurate forecast of the short- 
comings of the Cassel bromine process, so much so that 
the directors desired my advice. I examined and re- 
ported on the plant, placed a valuation on it. and ad- 
vised that cyanidation be introduced. The large share- 
holders held some meetings and finally decided that they 
had had enough. I believe the money lost in that ven- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 22, 1916 

ture was about $800,000. Toward the close of operations 
Mr. < 'assel was working on an eleetro-chlorination scheme 
somewhat similar to the Cleriei-Pelatan. in which salt 
was electrolized in cyanide solution, but the apparatus 
had not been set up. 

Bui you rt -designed and gredfyy i nlarged this null latt rt 
Yes. in 1906-7. after Mr. Milliken had purchased the 
old Telluride mill, I had the opportunity of introducing 
the methods 1 had intended using at Canon City in 
1899 with, of course, such improvements as had de- 
veloped in the interval. The old roaster-building was 
enlarged, a new sampling and foe-crashing mill added 
also a large leaching plant and storage-bins. The scheme 
was to crash the ore without drying, to somewhat less 
than J inch, roasting, crushing fine, and amalgamating 
in Chilean mills; separating the slime from the sand 
and treating each separately. 1 never operated the 
plant, however. After a set-back through tire the plant 
gradually forged to the front and drove chlorination from 
the field, so thai for the last three years cyanidation 
reigned supreme in the treatment of Cripple ( 'reek ores. 
What is tin present capacity of tfo Golden Cych mill 
and tht cost of treatmi ntt 
The mill is reported to be treating about 40,000 Ions 
per month and is paying $30,000 per month in dividends 
on a capital of $1,500,000 or 24$ per annum. The total 
gold production is in the neighborhood of $50,000,000. 
five tim.s the total production of the Metallic Extraction 
Company. 1 have not seen any recent treatment cost. 
What whs your next important workf 

I was very busy between 1903 and 1907, apart from 
the work noted, traveling extensively in .Mexico on con- 
sultation work. One ease of importance was at a cyanide 
plant where old tailing would neither leach, filter in a 
press, or settle for a decantation. It proved to be a 
.surface-tension phenomenon, cured by the addition of 2 
pounds of sulphuric acid per ton of dry slime. An 
agitated charge, after 12 hours standing, gave less than 
1 inch of clear solution; after acid was added, over six 
feet of clear solution could be drawn off under like con- 
ditions of time and charge. That was one of my best 
day's work: on leaving. I told the superintendent to cut 
down the acid after everything was running nicely; a 
year later I wrote to know how much acid he was using. 
he replied "Two pounds per ton of slime. I tried to 
reduce the acid on various occasions, but the settling 
rate decreased, as did also the extraction." So in this 
case of arrastra tailing, acid increased the extraction and 
made decantation possible. 

In the fall of 1905 I had charge of the field-work of 
the Zinc Commission appointed by the Government of 
Canada to investigate the zinc resources of British Co- 
lombia and test the ores to determine the best commer- 
cial process for beneficiating fliem. It took the greater 
pari of 1906 to complete these ore-tests and prepare the 
report and maps. That work has been well received, and 
may be said to have stood the test of time, though the 
field-work was greatly rushed in an endeavor to get it 
finished before snow-fall. 

When mill how did you btponu connected with Strut- 
ton's Indepi ml' in i ■' 

In November 1906, while in the Arizona desert, I re- 
ceived a cablegram from London offering me the position 
of consulting engineer, with special request to make 
prompt investigation of the best means for treating the 
big dumps at Stratum's Independence mine, at Cripple 
Had una previous work been done on Ihc dump? 

Yes. Cassel had built a small testing-plant, introduced 
his electro-cyanide process and the Cassel filter process, 
in which latter the old Stratton's Independence company 
had an interest. Godfrey Doveton and others investi- 
gated this, the last of the Cassel processes, and turned 
it down. Over $60,000 had been spent and nothing par- 
ticular accomplished, except sampling the dump, hence 
the directors were very anxious for me to get busy and 
report. 1 started concentration tests in January 1907, 
and determined the recovery available by that method. 
Next, the recovery by cyanide from the tailing. I then 
fell back on long years of experience in arriving at the 
cost of the various operations, such as mining the ore 
from the dump, delivery of it to the mill, crushing, con- 
centrating, cyaniding. treating the concentrate, and 
marketing the bullion. I cabled my results in March 
L907, claiming a working cost of $1.52 on a basis of mill- 
ing 10,000 tons per month. This, mind you, at a time 
when custom mills were charging $5.50 to treat a ton of 
low-grade ore. Of course, I laid myself open to criticism 
by stating that such ore could be treated on the mine for 
about one-fourth that cost, and I certainly received my 
full share of attention from the people that fail to ad- 
vance with the times. It was a new problem, anyhow; 
it cost us $3.50 to treat a ton of ore at the Metallic works ; 
here a profit had to be made from $3 ore. 

/ /. now you worked within your estimate for some years, 
hut how did cost and extraction average over the 
milling periodt 

The milling of 671,665 tons in 6 years shows an av- 
erage treatment cost per ton of $1.5138, and an average 
extraction of 74.57%, against my estimate of $1.52 and 
laboratory extraction of 74.22%. 
The agreement between the figures is almost uncanny t 

Perhaps it's a coincidence; the cost during the six 
years varied with the tonnage, the lowest annual cost 
being $1.38 on 133,875 tons; the highest, $1.79 on 68,711 

You line, had a long and active experienci in the metal- 
lurgy of Cripple Creek oris.' 

Tt has been my privilege to see the cost of treating 
these ores by wet methods, reduced from $15 per ton in 
1893 to $3.50 in 1898 and to $1.38 in 1913. 
Ilaei you had anything to do with flotationt 

Yes, quite a little. I was familiar with Henry E. 
Wood's experiments and had read about the Elmore 
vacuum process. In 1907 I had an Elmore expert test a 
line of samples from the Independence dump. The re- 

Januan 22, 1916 

MINING md Scientific PRESS 


suits were very erratic and on the whole little better 
than water oonoentration gave, I had sufficient t.>>.ts 
made to lead me to the oonoluaion thai the Elmore pro- 
ras of no dm in treating that particular damp, 
which contained much oxidised Btuff; furthermore, oya 
aide treatment of the flotation tailing was equally un- 
it mill invariably low. At tirst I attributed poor 
extraction to the acid, and later to oil, which 1 concluded 
Interfered with the solvent action of the cyanide; bo I 
dropped tliv matter in disgust 

Just what recovery did you obtain '></ thi Elmort 
vacuum-oil flotation proi 
Taking the more regular of the tests: 

'■'» linn uti il fiotati 

Certainly, »v have l n floating these very ores tor 

almost tin years now, and l assure yon »<■ have one of 

the most complicated mixtures ever e tontered, eon- 

Bisting of sphalerite, intimately blended with magnetite, 

pyrite, pyrrhotite, *i alarite, galenite, and ohaleopyrite 

in a lime and tremolite gangue. 

What mini is it .' 

The old Graphic, uow the property of the Ozark 
Smelting & Wining Company, 

What phast of flotation do you employ t 
Surface tension or 'film flotation,' aa I prefer to call 

-^^IndU ■■■■•* **■» 


Ore reduced to 20 mesh 34% recovery 

" 40 " 50 

" 60 " 51 
In the same year, 1907, I was investigating the ores of 
the Graphic mine, at. Magdalena, in New Mexico, a very 
bad mixture of sulphides and iron oxides. Again I had 
tests made by the Elmore vacuum process, and the results 
were extremely erratic, but two tests gave a concentrate 
exceeding 40% zinc, one a 46% zinc concentrate, the 
highest-grade product secured up to that time. Several 
other tests gave only a 30 to 40% zinc concentrate with a 
very poor reeoveiy. It appeared that the specularite in 
the ore became oiled under average conditions in the 
vacuum process and floated readily ; on the other hand, 
much of the zinc failed to oil; consequently the majority 
of the tests gave unfavorable results. Still I believed that 
flotation offered the best solution, and advised the com- 
pany to erect a small testing-plant, seven years ago. 

it, in distinction from the 'scum' or 'froth' that is al- 
lowed to accumulate in a thick layer by other methods. 
I understand that you use oilt 

Yes, we use mineral oil, and that is, perhaps, one of 
the chief points of departure. We are pretty well out 
in the desert there and use Diesel engines for generating 
power, and have gotten the oil question down to the 
point where we use the same oil in the Diesel engine that 
we use in the mill for flotation purposes. 
But I understood you to say that the result of the use of 
oil with agitation is to give a film rather than a froth? 

Precisely, crude oil, or residuum, can scarcely be 
classed among the good froth-producers. 
Do you make a froth? 

No, the ore is agitated with oil and acid and presented 
in large open vats to a surface of briskly moving hot 
water, on which the oiled particles float away rapidly us 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 22. 1916 

a tliin film, and the unoiled particles sink. There is do 
froth td be Been on the vats at any time. 

What In minis of ll<< matter that sinks in tht vats? 

It passes to other mixers and is given a second, third, 
and, if necessary, fourth opportunity to oil and float. 

Winn tin mixturi of ore, acid, and oil is discharged 
upon tin surface of the hot water in the vat, the 
oiled mini ml fornix a film, I presumet 
Yea, a continuous film of considerable cohesion, but 
very thin. I might add that owing to the intimate mix- 
ture of complex minerals we crush very fine, over 50% 
of the pulp will pass 200-mesh. 

Which of the sulphides are found in the film on the hoi 
Mostly the sphalerite, with some pyritr. Pyrrhotite 
often favors sinking unless excess of oil is present. 

Does that suggest that ih< sphaleriti has a great < r se- 
lectiveness for the oil than pyrrhotite? 
I believe it does. 
As you are crushing so finely, I presunu thai 

no obstacle to the operation of this process? 
None whatever, the most marvelous recoveries are 
made despite the fineness of the pulp, both the highest- 
zinc and the highest recovery are obtained from 
minus 200-mesh pulp. 

Can you givi m< any figures of actual < ctrat 

You scarcely expect a full answer to that question. I 
can, however, answer it in part without giving aw.-r 
secrets. We make no recovery of zinc carbonates or 
oxides, but of the sulphides that are munis 200 i 
Our recovery is around 95%, making a 45% zinc concen- 
trate from 16% zinc ore in one operation. I have been 
astounded at the recoveries that it is possible to make 
from slime, by flotation methods. In slime treatment, I 
feel assured, the future of flotation lies. 
Do I understand you to say pyrite, pyrrhotite, anel other 
sulphides, except the zinc sulphide, sink with the 
gangue minerals? 

I do not wish to convey that idea; pyrite is always 
troublesome, pyrrhotite less so, yet when the minimum 
amount of oil is used we do sink some of the pyrite and 
much of the pyrrhotite. Under certain conditions there 
appears to be a selective action for the sulphides in the 
order given. The ore is delivered from the mine to a 
breaking and sorting plant, where pyrite, other sul- 
phides, and waste are sorted out as closely as possible on 
a picking-belt. The sorted ore is then conveyed to the 
mill, one mile distant over an aerial tram and the re- 
maining sulphides heated by flotation. 
Do you have to re-treat your first fihn-concent rut i .' 

No, just dewater it. The concentrate-overflow from 
all the vats is pumped direct to an Ovoca classifier, the 
overflow from which consists of dilute gaugue-slime. all 
of which will pass 200-mesh and assaying about 3% zinc. 
while the concentrate discharged from the screws will 
average ahoul 459J zinc. 

How do you remove the speculariti .' 

By striet adherence to film flotation. In the Elmore 
flotation specularite was taken up with the sphalerite in 
the mineral 'scum' or 'froth,' perhaps on account of its 
high lustre. Specultrite, though an oxide, is easily 
floated. Henry E. Wood tested the Graphic ore for me 
on his machine in 1907, using water only ; the specularite 
floated beautifully, with some of the sphalerite. Mr. 
Wood said at the time that specularite was the only 
oxide lie knew that would float in his process. Why we 
sink this mineral in our process is difficult to explain, 
but it is done. 
What do you call the process? 

The Ozark Flotation Process, worked out especially 
for these ores, and patented by W. Sydney Stevens of 
Magdalcna. My firm is responsible for the detailed de- 
sign of the plant and general supervision of its opera- 

• u ui, ur niiirl, on the occurrenci of sideriti in the 
Leadviile ore, published in tht Mining and Scien- 
tific Press of July 11 and 25, 1911; 1ms tht dis- 
a proved of economic important! .' 

There is yet no market for siderite carrying 20% 
manganese and 25% iron; siderite, however, is of great 
importance in prospecting for sulphide ores and occa- 
sionally for zinc carbonate ores, "no siderite, no sul- 
phide'" is now a recognized guide in prospecting in the 
White Limestone horizon. 

The much debated and vexed question of the origin of 
the manganese in the oxidized ore, or "black iron." of 
Leadviile is finally settled. My reference to siderite as 
the source of the manganese in the Mining Magazine of 
April, 1914, was not fully convincing, but the second 
paper 'Siderite and Sulphide' has proved incontestable; 
furthermore I have recently found what I call the 
Rosetta stone of Leadviile; a piece of siderite colorless 
and unaltered at one end, passing into 'black iron' at 
the other, through the oxidation of the siderite. 
Havi you mad* further researches on what you call 
' i/< in' siderite? 

I have, and find in every case that vein siderites carry 
high value in manganese, specimens from Mullan, Idaho, 
show as much as 25% manganese in siderite associated 
with chalcopyrite, magnetite, and quartz. The fact I 
endeavored to establish, that vein siderite is invariably 
manganiferous, may have wide economic importance. 
Mr. Art/all, you are now in consulting practice in Dcn- 
ver. I believe your sons are following in your 
footsteps? By the way, when were you married? 

Some few years ago I formed a partnership with two 
of my five sons. The two partners are Philip Henry, 
who is a graduate of the University of Colorado and has 
practised in metallurgy for several years, four years at 
the Selby plant, part of the time as assistant-superin- 
tendent ; and George, a graduate of the Columbia School 
of Mines, and now general manager for the Iron Silver 
Mining Co. at Leadviile. We are consulting engineers 
to the latter company. Stratton's Independence, and the 



MINING ind S.icnlific PKI SS 

1 I] 

ting A Mining < o l was married on August 
31, l^Tt'.. in the nreet Vale of < rrooi Mj w ife, « ho died 
in 1908, ires the daughter o( Cap) l • tea, a Cor- 

niahman wall a long ancestrj of miners, a man to whom 
I am indebted for maofa of my early training in engi- 
neering and ethics. 

I der thai our profession is still on* thai 

d opportunity /■> young nun.' 

I i aider that mining ami metallurgy offer the very 

pening to talented energetic young men, and the 
openings in the future will be far better than they have 
ever been in the past. 

/ reme m ber Hint you received the i^ihl medal of Tin 
< nsoKdated Oold Fields of South Africa, through 
tht Institution of Minimi a) Metallurgy in 1903. 
Fee, the medal and 40 guineas was unanimously 
awarded to me by the council of the Institution for my 
paper on 'Sampling and Dry (.'rushing in Colorado.' in 
other words, the mechanical treatment of ore by the dry 
What do you consider your best achievement? 

The introduction of the 8-hour working-day in Colo- 
rado mills, in the spring of 1899, at the Metallic works, 
without consulting my directors. It led to better work, 
in time, to a better class of workmen, and a greater ton- 
nage handled per man, in a word, to the elevation of 
our workmen and the lowering of the working cost. 

Tungsten discoveries are being made in the Black- 
Hills. South Dakota, as described in our issue of Novem- 
ber 27. Three areas are known, the Lead-Flatiron, Tin- 
ton, and Harney Peak pegmatite districts. At the Wasp 
No. 2 gold mine at Flatiron the ore appears to be a re-